The impact of a 2007 drought on plants in Moldova and parts of Ukraine and Romania is illustrated by a pair of images (this and the next). The photos are vegetation anomaly images that indicate how quickly plants were taking in light and growing. Areas that are green are regions where plants were larger and leafier (leading to more photosynthesis) than they were on average from 2000 through 2006. Brown areas show where plants were smaller or less leafy than average, in this case as a result of drought. Gray areas indicate where clouds blocked the ground from view throughout the observation period, and blue is water. The above satellite image is a compilation of daily data collected between 28 July 28 and 12 August 2007, when the impact of the drought was at its greatest. Summer crops, such as corn and sunflowers, were in a critical stage of development, during which water was essential. The deep brown tone that covers all of Moldova reveals that the hot, dry weather devastated plants. The following image, from 29 August through 13 September, reveals just how much conditions can change in a single month. Some of what had been brown is brushed with green where plants responded to rainfall. Helpful though the precipitation evidently was to those plants that were still growing, it arrived too late to improve crop conditions in general. Photos courtesy of NASA.
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Introduction

Background

A large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River in the breakaway region of Transnistria.

Years of Communist Party rule in Moldova from 2001-09 ultimately ended with election-related violent protests and a rerun of parliamentary elections in 2009. A series of pro-Europe ruling coalitions governed Moldova from 2010-19, but pro-Russia Igor DODON won the presidency in 2016 and his Socialist Party of the Republic of Moldova won a plurality in the legislative election in 2019. Pro-EU reformist candidate Maia SANDU defeated DODON in his reelection bid in November 2020 and the Party of Action and Solidarity, which SANDU founded in 2015, won a parliamentary majority in an early legislative election in July 2021. Prime Minister Natalia GAVRILITA and her cabinet took office in August 2021.

 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates

47 00 N, 29 00 E

Area

total: 33,851 sq km

land: 32,891 sq km

water: 960 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Maryland

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,885 km

border countries (2): Romania 683 km; Ukraine 1202 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain

rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m

mean elevation: 139 m

Natural resources

lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 74.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 55.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 9.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.9% (2018 est.)

other: 13.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

2,283 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Dniester (shared with Ukraine [s/m]) - 1,411 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti

Natural hazards

landslides

Geography - note

landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

People and Society

Population

3,287,326 (2022 est.)

Nationality

noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups

Moldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)

Languages

Moldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.); note - data represent mother tongue

major-language sample(s):
Cartea informativa a lumii, sursa indispensabila pentru informatii de baza. (Moldovan/Romanian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Moldovan/Romanian audio sample:

Religions

Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic <0.1%, atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.9% (2014 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.31% (male 317,243/female 298,673)

15-24 years: 11.27% (male 196,874/female 182,456)

25-54 years: 43.13% (male 738,103/female 712,892)

55-64 years: 13.26% (male 205,693/female 240,555)

65 years and over: 14.03% (male 186,949/female 285,058) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 39.6

youth dependency ratio: 22.2

elderly dependency ratio: 17.4

potential support ratio: 5.7 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 37.7 years

male: 36.2 years

female: 39.5 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.12% (2022 est.)

Birth rate

10.19 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Death rate

12.47 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Net migration rate

-8.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Population distribution

pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti

Urbanization

urban population: 43.2% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.09% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

491,000 CHISINAU (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

25.2 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.55 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.44 years

male: 68.6 years

female: 76.52 years (2022 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.59 children born/woman (2022 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 98.9% of population

rural: 87% of population

total: 92.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population

rural: 13% of population

total: 7.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.4% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

3.1 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

5.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99% of population

rural: 83.1% of population

total: 89.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 1% of population

rural: 16.9% of population

total: 10.1% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.53 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.57 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 29% (2020 est.)

male: 51.7% (2020 est.)

female: 6.2% (2020 est.)

Education expenditures

6.1% of GDP (2019 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.4%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.1% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2020)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 10.9%

male: 9.9%

female: 12.3% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

heavy use of agricultural chemicals has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion and declining soil fertility from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.97 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 5.12 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.29 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

moderate winters, warm summers

Land use

agricultural land: 74.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 55.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 9.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.9% (2018 est.)

other: 13.2% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 43.2% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.09% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.26% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 3,981,200 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 609,920 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 15.3% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Dniester (shared with Ukraine [s/m]) - 1,411 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 148 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 650 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 42 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

12.27 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: Moldova

former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Chisinau in Moldovan (Kishinev in Russian)

geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: origin unclear but may derive from the archaic Romanian word chisla ("spring" or "water source") and noua ("new") because the original settlement was built at the site of a small spring

note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)

Administrative divisions

32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni

municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau

autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia

territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)

Independence

27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 August (1991)

Constitution

history: previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994

amendments: proposed by voter petition (at least 200,000 eligible voters), by at least one third of Parliament members, or by the government; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament within one year of initial proposal; revisions to constitutional articles on sovereignty, independence, and neutrality require majority vote by referendum; articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Maia SANDU (since 24 December 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Natalia GAVRILITA (since 6 August 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 November 2020 (next to be held in fall 2024); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament

election results: 2020: Maia SANDU elected president; percent of vote (second round results) - Maia SANDU (PAS) 57.7%, Igor DODON (PSRM) 42.3%

2016: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote 52.1%, and Maia SANDU 47.9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 51 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 50 members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; all members serve 4-year terms

elections:

last held on 11 July 2021 (next scheduled in July 2025)



election results:

percent of vote by party - PAS 52.8%, BECS (PSRM+PCRM) 27.1%, SHOR 5.7%; seats by party - PAS 63, BECS 32, SHOR 6; composition as of July 2022 - men 60, women 41, percent of women 40.6%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief judge, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistracy, an 11-member body of judicial officials; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy for 6-year terms; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Party of Action and Solidarity or PAS [Igor GROSU]
Electoral Bloc of Communists and Socialists or BCS [Vlad BATRINCEA, PSRM and Vladimir VORONIN, PCRM]
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Vlad BATRINCEA]
SOR Party or PS [Ilan SHOR]

International organization participation

BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEU (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Carolina PEREBINOS (since 27 July 2022)

chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2624

email address and website:
washington@mfa.gov.md

https://sua.mfa.gov.md/en

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kent D. LOGSDON (since 16 February 2022)

embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009

mailing address: 7080 Chisinau Place, Washington DC  20521-7080

telephone: [373] (22) 408-300

FAX: [373] (22) 233-044

email address and website:
ChisinauACS@state.gov

https://md.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of Prussian blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of dark gold (brown) outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag displays a mirrored image of the coat of arms

note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia

National symbol(s)

aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)

lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA

note: adopted 1994

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Struve Geodetic Arc

Economy

Economic overview

Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, wheat, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.2 billion - almost 15% of GDP - from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Israel, Russia, and elsewhere.

 

With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $6 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export of natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. In 2018, Moldova awarded a tender to Romanian Transgaz to construct a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers. Moldova also seeks to connect with the European power grid by 2022.

 

The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2017, largely driven by increased consumption, increased revenue from agricultural exports, and improved tax collection. During fall 2014, Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU (AA/DCFTA), connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. The EU AA/DCFTA has contributed to significant growth in Moldova’s exports to the EU. In 2017, the EU purchased over 65% of Moldova’s exports, a major change from 20 years previously when the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) received over 69% of Moldova’s exports. A $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015; the subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu and a minor recession. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption, which limits business growth and deters foreign investment, and Russian restrictions on imports of Moldova’s agricultural products. The government’s push to restore stability and implement meaningful reform led to the approval in 2016 of a $179 million three-year IMF program focused on improving the banking and fiscal environments, along with additional assistance programs from the EU, World Bank, and Romania. Moldova received two IMF tranches in 2017, totaling over $42.5 million.

 

Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, energy import dependence, Russian political and economic pressure, heavy dependence on agricultural exports, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.26 billion (2020 est.)

$34.68 billion (2019 est.)

$33.48 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real GDP growth rate

4.5% (2017 est.)

4.3% (2016 est.)

-0.4% (2015 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,300 (2020 est.)

$13,000 (2019 est.)

$12,400 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$11.982 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.8% (2019 est.)

3% (2018 est.)

6.5% (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2010)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 17.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)

services: 62% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 85.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 42.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -70.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, sunflower seed, grapes, apples, sugar beet, milk, potatoes, barley, plums/sloes

Industries

sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles

Labor force

1.295 million (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 32.3%

industry: 12%

services: 55.7% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate

4.99% (2019 est.)

3.16% (2018 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 10.9%

male: 9.9%

female: 12.3% (2020 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 22.1% (2014 est.)

Budget

revenues: 2.886 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 2.947 billion (2017 est.)

note: National Public Budget

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

31.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

35.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

30.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$602 million (2017 est.)

-$268 million (2016 est.)

Exports

$3.24 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$3.66 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$3.45 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports - partners

Romania 27%, Russia 9%, Italy 9%, Germany 9%, Turkey 6%, Poland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

insulated wiring, sunflower seeds, wine, corn, seats (2019)

Imports

$5.93 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$6.62 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$6.39 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Imports - partners

Romania 20%, Russia 10%, Ukraine 9%, Germany 8%, China 7%, Turkey 6%, Italy 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, insulated wiring, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.803 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.206 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt - external

$7.232 billion (2019 est.)

$7.16 billion (2018 est.)

Exchange rates

Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -

18.49 (2017 est.)

19.924 (2016 est.)

19.924 (2015 est.)

19.83 (2014 est.)

14.036 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 594,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4,591,230,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 629 million kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 571 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 93.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 1.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 4.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 133,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 133,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 22,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

18,160 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas

production: 57,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 2,802,400,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 2,802,344,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

8.114 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 374,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 2.968 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.773 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita

40.398 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,027,689 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2020 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,420,383 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 85 (2020 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom market has been affected by a combination of high unemployment and economic difficulties which have led to constraints on consumer spending; this has resulted in telecom revenue having fallen steadily in recent years; this decline continued into 2020, with a 6.3% in revenue from the important mobile sector alone, year-on-year; Moldova’s aspirations to join the EU have encouraged the government and regulator to adopt a range of measures to bring the country’s telecoms sector into line with EU principles and standards; in July 2017 the Electronic Communications Act was amended to accommodate the 2009 European regulatory framework, while further amendments were adopted in December 2017 and additional changes were proposed in 2019; Moldova is also part of the Eastern Partnership group of countries, and as such has set in train a glide path to reducing roaming charges, effective between 2022 and 2026; the country’s broadband strategy through to 2025 has been supported by the ITU and industry counterparts from Korea; the internet market is developing rapidly, and though the penetration rate is well below the average for most European countries there are many opportunities for further development; the market is highly competitive, with 101 active ISPs as of early 2021; the number of cable broadband subscribers is increasing steadily, though fiber is now by far the strongest sector; by the end of 2020 fiber accounted for about 72.3% of all fixed broadband connections; the mobile market has also grown rapidly, and the sector accounts for the majority of total telecoms revenue; the near comprehensive geographical reach of their mobile networks, market brand recognition and existing customer relationships will make for steady subscriber growth in coming years (2022)

domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service which is roughly 25 per 100; mobile-cellular teledensity nearly 85 per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2019)

Internet users

total: 3,067,466 (July 2022 est.)

percent of population: 76.3% (July 2022 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 719,001 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2020 est.)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,135,999 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 640,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

total: 7 (2021)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2021)

Pipelines

2,026 km gas (2021) (2021)

Railways

total: 1,171 km (2014)

standard gauge: 14 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

broad gauge: 1,157 km (2014) 1.520-m gauge

Roadways

total: 9,352 km (2012)

paved: 8,835 km (2012)

unpaved: 517 km (2012)

Waterways

558 km (2011) (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut Rivers)

Merchant marine

total: 147

by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 5, general cargo 97, oil tanker 7, other 33 (2021)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

National Army: Land Forces (Fortele Terestre ale Republicii Moldova, FTRM); Air Forces (Forţele Aeriene ale Republicii Moldova, FARM); Ministry of Internal Affairs: Carabinieri Troops (2022)

note: the Carabinieri is a quasi-militarized gendarmerie responsible for protecting public buildings, maintaining public order, and other national security functions

Military expenditures

0.4% of GDP (2021 est.)

0.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

0.4% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $160 million)

0.4% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $130 million)

0.4% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $120 million)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 6,500 active troops (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Moldovan military's inventory is limited and almost entirely comprised of older Russian and Soviet-era equipment; since 2000, it has received small amounts of donated material from other nations, including the US (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 12-month service obligation (2022)

note: as of 2019, women made up about 20% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

Moldova is constitutionally neutral, but has maintained a relationship with NATO since 1992; bilateral cooperation started when Moldova joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace program in 1994; Moldova has contributed small numbers of troops to NATO’s Kosovo Force (KFOR) since 2014, and a civilian NATO liaison office was established in Moldova in 2017 at the request of the Moldovan Government to promote practical cooperation and facilitate support

the 1992 war between Moldovan forces and Transnistrian separatists backed by Russian troops ended with a cease-fire; as of 2022, Russia maintained approximately 1,500 troops in Transnistria, some of which served under the authority of a peacekeeping force known as a Joint Control Commission that also included Moldovan and separatist personnel; the remainder of the Russian contingent (the Operative Group of the Russian Troops or OGRT) guarded a depot of Soviet-era ammunition and trained Transnistrian separatist paramilitary troops (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Moldova-Romania: none identified

Moldova-Ukraine: Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 96,646 (Ukraine) (as of 22 November 2022)

stateless persons: 3,372 (mid-year 2021)

Illicit drugs

limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity