Mongolia

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 ended Chinese dominance, and a communist regime, the Mongolian People’s Republic, took power in 1924.

Geography

Area

total: 1,564,116 sq km

land: 1,553,556 sq km

water: 10,560 sq km

Climate

desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Natural resources

oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron

People and Society

Population

3,227,863 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Khalkh 83.8%, Kazak 3.8%, Durvud 2.6%, Bayad 2%, Buriad 1.4%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1.1%, other 4.1% (2020 est.)

Languages

Mongolian 90% (official) (Khalkha dialect is predominant), Turkic, Russian (1999)

Religions

Buddhist 51.7%, Muslim 3.2%, Shamanist 2.5%, Christian 1.3%, other 0.7%, none 40.6% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.88% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Ulaanbaatar

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH (since 25 June 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Luvsannamsrai OYUN-ERDENE (since 27 January 2021); Deputy Prime Minister Ulziisaikhan ENKHTUVSHIN (since 18 October 2017)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral State Great Hural or Ulsyn Ikh Khural (76 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; each constituency requires at least 50% voter participation for the poll to be valid; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

lower middle-income East Asian economy; large human capital improvements over last 3 decades; agricultural and natural resource rich; Chinese border closures and COVID-19 hurt; growth and poverty decline mainly in rural areas

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$37.6 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, goat milk, potatoes, mutton, sheep milk, beef, goat meat, horse meat, carrots/turnips

Industries

construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

Exports

$7.65 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 81%, Switzerland 9% (2019)

Exports - commodities

coal, copper, gold, iron, crude petroleum (2019)

Imports

$7.34 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 31%, Russia 29%, Japan 10%, South Korea 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, delivery trucks, construction vehicles, aircraft (2019)


Page last updated: Friday, May 13, 2022