North Macedonia

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



North Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991 under the name "Macedonia." In 2018, Macedonia signed the Prespa Accord with Greece, agreeing to change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia, and the agreement went into force on 12 February 2019.



total: 25,713 sq km
land: 25,433 sq km
water: 280 sq km


warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Natural resources

low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

People and Society


total: 2,135,622
male: 1,064,727
female: 1,070,895 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Macedonian 58.4%, Albanian 24.3%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.5%, Serb 1.3%, other 2.3%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no ethnic affiliation data was available 7.2% (2021 est.)


Macedonian (official) 61.4%, Albanian (official) 24.3%, Turkish 3.4%, Romani 1.7%, other (includes Aromanian (Vlach) and Bosnian) 2%, unspecified 7.2% (2021 est.); note - data represent mother tongue; minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities where they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Krusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo


Macedonian Orthodox 46.1%, Muslim 32.2%, other Christian 13.8%, other and non-believers 0.5%, unspecified 7.4% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.1% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Skopje

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (since 12 May 2024)
head of government: President Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (since 12 May 2024)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly - Sobranie in Macedonian, Kuvend in Albanian (between 120 and 140 seats, currently 120; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; possibility of 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies by simple majority vote provided there is sufficient voter turnout; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

growing upper middle-income European economy; EU accession stalled due to Bulgarian dispute; new NATO member; private consumption-driven growth; investment declined due to COVID-19; regional economic power gains since Greek naming resolution

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$35.245 billion (2022 est.)
$34.505 billion (2021 est.)
$32.704 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$17,100 (2022 est.)
$16,700 (2021 est.)
$15,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, chilies/peppers, wheat, potatoes, apples, tomatoes, cabbages, maize, barley (2022)


food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts


$10.126 billion (2022 est.)
$9.208 billion (2021 est.)
$7.19 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 42%, Serbia 8%, Greece 7%, Bulgaria 5%, Italy 3% (2022)

Exports - commodities

reaction and catalytic products, insulated wire, electricity, garments, vehicle parts/accessories (2022)


$13.008 billion (2022 est.)
$11.362 billion (2021 est.)
$8.773 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

UK 16%, Greece 13%, Germany 9%, Serbia 8%, China 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

platinum, refined petroleum, electricity, precious metal compounds, natural gas (2022)

Exchange rates

Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
58.574 (2022 est.)
52.102 (2021 est.)
54.144 (2020 est.)
54.947 (2019 est.)
52.107 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, June 11, 2024