Countries shown in this late winter satellite image of the southern Balkan Peninsula include Italy (left center edge), Greece (below center), and Turkey (right edge). At upper right is the Black Sea, at center is the Aegean Sea, at upper left is the Adriatic Sea, and at bottom left is the Mediterranean Sea. North of Turkey are Bulgaria and Romania. Moving clockwise from top left are Croatia, Serbia, North Macedonia, and Albania. North of Albania is Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Scattered fires appear as red dots. Image courtesy of NASA.
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North Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991 under the name of "Macedonia." Greek objection to the new country’s name, insisting it implied territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of Macedonia, and democratic backsliding for several years stalled the country’s movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block Macedonian efforts to gain UN membership if the name "Macedonia" was used. The country was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution continued. Over time, the US and over 130 other nations recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into a conflict in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. In January 2018, the government adopted a new law on languages, which elevated the Albanian language to an official language at the national level, with the Macedonian language remaining the sole official language in international relations. Relations between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain complicated, however.

In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece signed the Prespa Agreement whereby Macedonia agreed to change its name to North Macedonia. Following ratification by both countries, the agreement went in to force on 12 February 2019. North Macedonia then joined NATO in 2020 after amending its constitution per the deal and opened EU accession talks in 2022 after a two-year veto by Bulgaria over identity, language, and historical disputes. North Macedonia has been an EU candidate since 2005. A nearly three-year political crisis from 2014 to 2017 began after the 2014 legislative and presidential election, and escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretapped material that revealed alleged widespread government corruption and abuse. The country still faces challenges, including fully implementing reforms to overcome years of democratic backsliding, stimulating economic growth and development, and fighting organized crime and corruption. 

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Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates

41 50 N, 22 00 E


total: 25,713 sq km

land: 25,433 sq km

water: 280 sq km

country comparison to the world: 149

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Vermont; almost four times the size of Delaware

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 838 km

border countries (5): Albania 181 km; Bulgaria 162 km; Greece 234 km; Kosovo 160 km; Serbia 101 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall


mountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River


highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

mean elevation: 741 m

Natural resources

low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 44.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 39.8% (2018 est.)

other: 15.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

844 sq km (2016)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Natural hazards

high seismic risks

Geography - note

landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

People and Society


noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups

Macedonian 58.4%, Albanian 24.3%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.5%, Serb 1.3%, other 2.3%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no ethnic affiliation data was available 7.2% (2021 est.)

note: data represent total resident population; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of North Macedonia’s population


Macedonian (official) 61.4%, Albanian (official) 24.3%, Turkish 3.4%, Romani 1.7%, other (includes Aromanian (Vlach) and Bosnian) 2%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no language data was available 7.2% (2021 est.); note - data represent mother tongue; minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities where they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Krusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo

major-language sample(s):
Книга на Светски Факти, неопходен извор на основни информации. (Macedonian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Macedonian audio sample:


Macedonian Orthodox 46.1%, Muslim 32.2%, other Christian 13.8%, other and non-believers 0.5%, unspecified 0.2%, persons for whom data were taken from administrative sources and no religious affiliation data was available 7.2% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.06% (male 177,156/female 165,540)

15-64 years: 68.69% (male 742,990/female 722,359)

65 years and over: 15.25% (2023 est.) (male 143,539/female 181,826)

2023 population pyramid
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.6

youth dependency ratio: 23.2

elderly dependency ratio: 21.4

potential support ratio: 4.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 39 years

male: 38 years

female: 40 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Birth rate

10.33 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 182

Death rate

9.61 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Net migration rate

0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations


urban population: 59.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.61% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

611,000 SKOPJE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.9 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181

Infant mortality rate

total: 7.16 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.09 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.09 years

male: 74.99 years

female: 79.32 years (2023 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Gross reproduction rate

0.74 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 1% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.87 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 2% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 3.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.93 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.9 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 97

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.3%

women married by age 18: 7.5% (2019 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.4%

male: 99.1%

female: 97.6% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 34.1%

male: 31.6%

female: 38.4% (2021 est.)


Environment - current issues

air pollution from metallurgical plants; Skopje has severe air pollution problems every winter as a result of industrial emissions, smoke from wood-buring stoves, and exhaust fumes from old cars

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Land use

agricultural land: 44.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 39.8% (2018 est.)

other: 15.9% (2018 est.)


urban population: 59.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.61% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 28.34 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 7.05 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.28 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 796,585 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,434 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 0.2% (2013 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 310 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 140 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

6.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of North Macedonia

conventional short form: North Macedonia

local long form: Republika Severna Makedonija

local short form: Severna Makedonija

former: Democratic Federal Macedonia, People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Macedonia

etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Skopje

geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: Skopje derives from its ancient name Scupi, the Latin designation of a classical era Greco-Roman frontier fortress town; the name may go back even further to a pre-Greek, Illyrian name

Administrative divisions

70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostuse, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci


8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 8 September (1991), also known as National Day


history: several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; final approval requires a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2019; this amendment was the result of the 2018 Prespa Agreement with Greece, in which the constitutional name of the country would be changed to the Republic of North Macedonia - previously the Republic of Macedonia -  in exchange for assurances that Greece would no longer object to North Macedonia's integration in international organizations

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of North Macedonia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Stevo PENDAROVSKI (since 12 May 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Dimitar KOVACEVSKI (since 16 January 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote

elections/appointments: president directly elected using a modified 2-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round with an absolute majority from all registered voters; in the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid; president elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 April and 5 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly; Dimitar KOVACEVSKI elected prime minister by the Assembly on 16 January 2022; Assembly vote - NA

election results: 2019: Stevo PENDAROVSKI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 44.8%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (VMRO-DPMNE) 44.2%, Blenim REKA (independent) 11.1%; percent of vote in second round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI 53.6%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA 46.4%

2014: Gjorge IVANOV reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Gjorge IVANOV (VMRO-DPMNE) 53.1%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 38.6%, Ilijaz HALIMI (DPA) 4.6%, Zoran POPOVSKI (GROM) 3.7%; percent of vote in second round - Gjorge IVANOV 57.3%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 42.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly - Sobraine in Macedonian, Kuvend in Albanian (between 120 and 140 seats, currently 120; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; possibility of 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies by simple majority vote provided there is sufficient voter turnout; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 15 July 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - We Can 35.9%, Renewal 34.6%, BDI 11.5%, AfA-Alternative 9%, The Left 4.1%, PDSh 1.5%, other 3.4%; seats by party/coalition - We Can 46, Renewal 44, BDI 15, AfA-Alternative 12, The Left 2, PDSh 1; composition - men 70, women 50, percent of women 41.7%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Albanians or AfA [Ziadin SELA]
Alternative (Alternativa) [Afrim GASHI]
Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI]
Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Hristijan MICKOSKI]
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - People's Party or VMRO-NP [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Goran MILEVSKI]
Renewal [Maja MORACHANIN]
Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Dimitar KOVACHEVSKI]
The Left (Levica) [Dimitar APASIEV]
Turkish Democratic Party of DPT [Beycan ILYAS]
We Can (coalition includes SDSM/Besa/VMRO-NP, DPT, LDP)

International organization participation


note: North Macedonia is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran POPOV (since 16 September 2022)

chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Angela AGGELER (since 8 November 2022)

embassy: Str. Samoilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje

mailing address: 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120

telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000

FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499

email address and website:

Flag description

a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia

National symbol(s)

eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow

National anthem

name: "Denes nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)

lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI

note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991, the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region; Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians


Economic overview

growing upper middle-income European economy; EU accession stalled due to Bulgarian dispute; new NATO member; private consumption-driven growth; investment declined due to COVID-19; regional economic power gains since Greek naming resolution

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$34.007 billion (2021 est.)

$32.71 billion (2020 est.)

$34.839 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data

country comparison to the world: 133

Real GDP growth rate

3.96% (2021 est.)

-6.11% (2020 est.)

3.91% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Real GDP per capita

$16,500 (2021 est.)

$15,800 (2020 est.)

$16,800 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 103

GDP (official exchange rate)

$12.696 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.23% (2021 est.)

1.2% (2020 est.)

0.77% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2013)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 26.6% (2017 est.)

services: 62.5% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 65.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 13.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 20.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 54% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -69% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, grapes, wheat, potatoes, green chillies/peppers, cabbages, tomatoes, maize, barley, watermelons


food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 16.2%

industry: 29.2%

services: 54.5% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate

16.2% (2021 est.)

17.2% (2020 est.)

17.26% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 199

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 34.1%

male: 31.6%

female: 38.4% (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Average household expenditures

on food: 30.8% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 7.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 25% (2015 est.)


revenues: $3.505 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $4.5 billion (2020 est.)

Public debt

39.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds

country comparison to the world: 138

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$420.178 million (2021 est.)

-$360.444 million (2020 est.)

-$376.487 million (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114


$9.157 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$7.19 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$7.8 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 109

Exports - partners

Germany 45%, Serbia 8%, Bulgaria 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

support catalysts, centrifuges, insulated wiring, iron alloys, seats (2021)


$11.354 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$8.773 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$9.605 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 105

Imports - partners

United Kingdom 14%, Germany 14%, Greece 8%, Serbia 8% (2019)

Imports - commodities

platinum, refined petroleum, laboratory ceramics, cars, insulated wiring (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$4.129 billion (31 December 2021 est.)

$4.126 billion (31 December 2020 est.)

$3.651 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Debt - external

$9.065 billion (2019 est.)

$9.398 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Exchange rates

Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -

52.102 (2021 est.)

54.144 (2020 est.)

54.947 (2019 est.)

52.107 (2018 est.)

54.665 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 1.928 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 6,350,982,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 639 million kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 2.965 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 979 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 71.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 24.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 5.026 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 5.211 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 174,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 332 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 22,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 218.917 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 218.917 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

7.383 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 3.866 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 3.094 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 423,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 425,646 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,941,352 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: as part of the EU pre-accession process, North Macedonia has built closer economic ties with the Union which accounts for 77.5% of Macedonia’s exports and just over half of its imports; closer regulatory and administrative ties with European Commission (EC) institutions have done much to develop the telecom sector and prepare the market for the competitive environment encouraged in the EU; as part of EU integration legislation North Macedonia has implemented the principles of the EU’s regulatory framework for communications, established an independent regulator and set out several provisions to provide for a competitive telecom market, including wholesale access to the incumbent’s fixed-line network; broadband services are widely available, with effective competition between DSL and cable platforms complemented by wireless broadband and a developing fiber sector; the number of DSL subscribers has continued to fall in recent years as customers are migrated to fiber networks; the MNOs are increasingly focused on expanding their 5G networks, seeking stronger coverage across North Macedonia’s high value urban areas; mobile data services are also becoming increasingly important following investments in LTE network rollouts and in upgrades to LTE-A technology (2022)

domestic: fixed-line roughly 20 per 100 and mobile-cellular 92 per 100 subscriptions (2021)

international: country code - 389

Broadcast media

public service TV broadcaster Macedonian Radio and Television operates 3 national terrestrial TV channels and 2 satellite TV channels; additionally, there are 10 regional TV stations that broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters, 54 TV channels with concession for cable TV, 9 regional TV stations with concessions for cable TV; 4 satellite TV channels broadcasting on a national level, 21 local commercial TV channels, and a large number of cable operators that offer domestic and international programming; the public radio broadcaster operates over 3 stations; there are 4 privately owned radio stations that broadcast nationally; 17 regional radio stations, and 49 local commercial radio stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 1.743 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 83% (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 140

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 475,569 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93


Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


262 km gas, 120 km oil (2017)


total: 699 km (2020) 313 km electrified

country comparison to the world: 100


total: 14,182 km (2017) (includes 290 km of expressways)

paved: 9,633 km (2017)

unpaved: 4,549 km (2017)

country comparison to the world: 127

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Army of the Republic of North Macedonia (ARSM): includes a General Staff and subordinate Operations Command, Logistic Support Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Center for Electronic Reconnaissance, Aviation Brigade, and Honor Guard Battalion (2023)

note: the Operations Command includes air, ground, special operations, support, and reserve forces

Military expenditures

1.6% of GDP (2022 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2021)

1.3% of GDP (2020)

1.2% of GDP (2019)

0.9% of GDP (2018)

country comparison to the world: 82

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 6,000 active duty personnel (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists mostly of Soviet-era equipment, although in recent years it has received small amounts of more modern equipment from countries such as Turkey and the US (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2007 (2023)

note: as of 2023, women made up about 10.6% of the military's full-time personnel

Military - note

North Macedonia became the 30th member of NATO in 2020


Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

North Macedonia-Albania: none identified

North Macedonia-Greece: none identified

North Macedonia-Kosovo: North Macedonia and Kosovo completed demarcation of their boundary in October 2009

North Macedonia-Serbia: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,768 (Ukraine) (as of 8 May 2023)

stateless persons: 521 (2022)

note: 553,855 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2023)

Illicit drugs

major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement