Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off after Christianity was adopted in 994. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence from Sweden.



total: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km


temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

People and Society


total: 5,509,733
male: 2,780,972
female: 2,728,761 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Norwegian 81.5% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.9%, other 9.6% (2021 est.)


Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms


Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 67.5%, Muslim 3.1%, Roman Catholic 3.1%, other Christian 3.8%, other 2.6%, unspecified 19.9% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.59% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Oslo

Executive branch

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Jonas Gahr STORE (since 14 October 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income, non-EU economy with trade links via European Economic Area (EEA); key European energy security role as leader in oil, gas, and electricity exports; major fishing, forestry, and extraction industries; oil sovereign fund supports generous welfare system; low unemployment; inflation and response hampering growth in non-energy sectors

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$368.139 billion (2022 est.)
$356.457 billion (2021 est.)
$343.082 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$67,500 (2022 est.)
$65,900 (2021 est.)
$63,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, potatoes, oats, pork, chicken, beef, eggs, rye (2022)


petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles


$321.093 billion (2022 est.)
$203.228 billion (2021 est.)
$118.314 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 27%, UK 21%, France 9%, Belgium 7%, Sweden 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, fish, refined petroleum, aluminum (2022)


$156.892 billion (2022 est.)
$140.331 billion (2021 est.)
$121.662 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Sweden 18%, Germany 11%, China 10%, Denmark 6%, Netherlands 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, ships, garments, nickel (2022)

Exchange rates

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
9.614 (2022 est.)
8.59 (2021 est.)
9.416 (2020 est.)
8.8 (2019 est.)
8.133 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, June 17, 2024