Country Summary



Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity in 994. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence from Sweden.



total: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km


temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

People and Society


5,597,924 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Norwegian 81.5% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.9%, other 9.6% (2021 est.)


Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms


Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 67.5%, Muslim 3.1%, Roman Catholic 3.1%, other Christian 3.8%, other 2.6%, unspecified 19.9% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.79% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Oslo

Executive branch

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Jonas Gahr STORE (since 14 October 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income non-EU European economy; aging labor force; large state-owned energy company constrains budget and spending; largest oil sovereign wealth fund; major fishing, forestry, and extraction industries; large welfare system

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$368.151 billion (2022 est.)
$355.122 billion (2021 est.)
$341.855 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$67,500 (2022 est.)
$65,700 (2021 est.)
$63,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, potatoes, oats, pork, poultry, beef, eggs, rye


petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles


0.14% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.16% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.15% of GDP (2019 est.)


$199.074 billion (2021 est.)
$116.718 billion (2020 est.)
$146.28 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United Kingdom 21%, Germany 19%, Sweden 8%, Netherlands 7%, China 6% (2021)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, salmon, refined petroleum, aluminum (2021)


$140.444 billion (2021 est.)
$119.632 billion (2020 est.)
$140.211 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Sweden 18%, Germany 12%, China 10%, Denmark 6%, United States 5% (2021)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, computers, ships, nickel (2021)

Exchange rates

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
8.59 (2021 est.)
9.416 (2020 est.)
8.8 (2019 est.)
8.133 (2018 est.)
8.272 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, November 14, 2023