Photos of Norway

The Parliament Building (Stortinget) in Oslo, constructed between 1861 and 1866.

Introduction

Background

Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates

62 00 N, 10 00 E

Area

total: 323,802 sq km

land: 304,282 sq km

water: 19,520 sq km

country comparison to the world: 69

Area - comparative

slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico

<p>slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico</p>

Land boundaries

total: 2,566 km

border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1666 km, Russia 191 km

Coastline

25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 10 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain

glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation

highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 460 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 2.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 27.8% (2018 est.)

other: 69.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

900 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Natural hazards

rockslides, avalanches

volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

Geography - note

about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups

Norwegian 83.2% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.3%, other 8.5% (2017 est.)

Languages

Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms

major-language sample(s):
Verdens Faktabok, den essensielle kilden for grunnleggende informasjon. (Norwegian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Norwegian audio sample:

Religions

Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 68.1%, Muslim 3.4%, Roman Catholic 3.1%, other Christian 3.8%, other 9.6%, unspecified 15.4% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.96% (male 503,013/female 478,901)

15-24 years: 12.02% (male 336,597/female 320,720)

25-54 years: 40.75% (male 1,150,762/female 1,077,357)

55-64 years: 11.84% (male 328,865/female 318,398)

65 years and over: 17.43% (male 442,232/female 510,594) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Norway. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.3

youth dependency ratio: 26.5

elderly dependency ratio: 26.9

potential support ratio: 3.7 (2020 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

Median age

total: 39.5 years

male: 38.8 years

female: 40.2 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Birth rate

12.09 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158

Death rate

8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Net migration rate

3.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Population distribution

most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Urbanization

urban population: 83.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

Major urban areas - population

1.056 million OSLO (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.7 years (2019 est.)

note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births

Maternal mortality ratio

2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 183

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.34 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.68 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 220

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.35 years

male: 80.21 years

female: 84.6 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.92 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 18 years

female: 19 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 10%

male: 10.4%

female: 9.5% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Environment

Environment - current issues

water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 7.02 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 41.02 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.81 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 775.3 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 1.071 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 844.9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

393 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Land use

agricultural land: 2.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 27.8% (2018 est.)

other: 69.5% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Urbanization

urban population: 83.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2.187 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 572,119 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 26.2% (2015 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form: Norway

local long form: Kongeriket Norge

local short form: Norge

etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Oslo

geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the medieval name was spelt "Aslo"; the "as" component refered either to the Ekeberg ridge southeast of the town ("as" in modern Norwegian), or to the Aesir (Norse gods); "lo" refered to "meadow," so the most likely interpretations would have been either "the meadow beneath the ridge" or "the meadow of the gods"; both explanations are considered equally plausible

Administrative divisions

18 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Telemark, Troms, Trondelag, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas

Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence

7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union); notable earlier dates: ca. 872 (traditional unification of petty Norwegian kingdoms by HARALD Fairhair); 1397 (Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden); 1524 (Denmark-Norway); 17 May 1814 (Norwegian constitution adopted); 4 November 1814 (Sweden-Norway union confirmed)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution

history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814

amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2020

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 13 September 2021 (next to be held in September 2025)

election results:

percent of vote by party - Ap 26.3%, H 20.4%, SP 13.5%, FrP 11.6%, SV 7.6%, R 4.7%, V 4.6%, MDG 3.9%, KrF 3.8%, PF .2%; seats by party - Ap 48, H 36, SP 28, FrP 21, SV 13, V 8, R 8, KrF 3, MDG 3, PF 1

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmennsrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Kjell Ingolf ROPSTADT]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Une Aina BASTHOLM] 
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Guri MELBY]
Patient Focus or PF [Irene OJALA]
Progress Party or FrP [Sylvi LISTHAUG]
Red Party or R [Bionar MOXNES]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Anniken Ramberg KRUTNES (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 469-3990

email address and website:
emb.washington@mfa.no

https://www.norway.no/en/usa/

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sharon HUDSON-DEAN (since 29 July 2021)

embassy: Morgedalsvegen 36, 0378 Oslo

mailing address: 5460 Oslo Place,  Washington DC  20521-5460

telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40

FAX: [47] 22-56-27-51

email address and website:
OsloACS@state.gov

https://no.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)

lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem

Economy

Economic overview

Norway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. However, as a member of the European Economic Area, Norway partially participates in the EU’s single market and contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources such as oil and gas, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, although oil production is close to 50% below its peak in 2000. Gas production, conversely, has more than doubled since 2000. Although oil production is historically low, it rose in 2016 for the third consecutive year due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream. Norway’s domestic electricity production relies almost entirely on hydropower.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $1 trillion at the end of 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a "fiscal rule," which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017, the government revised the expected rate of return for the fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in the 2004-07 period, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. The Norwegian economy has been adjusting to lower energy prices, as demonstrated by growth in labor force participation and employment in 2017. GDP growth was about 1.5% in 2017, driven largely by domestic demand, which has been boosted by the rebound in the labor market and supportive fiscal policies. Economic growth is expected to remain constant or improve slightly in the next few years.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$340.303 billion (2019 est.)

$336.418 billion (2018 est.)

$332.135 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 52

Real GDP growth rate

0.86% (2019 est.)

1.36% (2018 est.)

2.75% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 175

Real GDP per capita

$63,633 (2019 est.)

$63,333 (2018 est.)

$62,941 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 14

GDP (official exchange rate)

$405.695 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.1% (2019 est.)

2.7% (2018 est.)

1.8% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (1995)

Moody's rating: Aaa (1997)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (1975)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)

services: 64% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 44.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 4.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 35.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, potatoes, oats, pork, poultry, beef, eggs, rye

Industries

petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.1%

industry: 19.3%

services: 78.6% (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)

Budget

revenues: 217.1 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 199.5 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

36.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 146

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$16.656 billion (2019 est.)

$31.111 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Exports

$185.101 billion (2019 est.)

$184.094 billion (2018 est.)

$185.952 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Exports - partners

United Kingdom 18%, Germany 14%, Netherlands 10%, Sweden 9%, France 6%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, fish, refined petroleum, aluminum (2019)

Imports

$158.037 billion (2019 est.)

$150.972 billion (2018 est.)

$148.802 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Imports - partners

Sweden 17%, Germany 12%, China 8%, Denmark 7%, United States 6%, United Kingdom 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, natural gas, crude petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$65.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Debt - external

$651.04 billion (2019 est.)

$648.878 billion (2018 est.)

note: Norway is a net external creditor

country comparison to the world: 21

Exchange rates

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -

8.81535 (2020 est.)

9.14245 (2019 est.)

8.4837 (2018 est.)

8.0646 (2014 est.)

6.3021 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 444,600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8.2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 5,775,830

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106.57 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

sophisticated telecom market with high broadband and mobile penetration rates and a highly developed digital media sector; synchronized with EC legislation; comprehensive LTE and focus on 5G;  broadband penetration among highest in Europe; operators will migrate all DSL subscribers to fiber by 2023 and close 2G and 3G networks by 2025; regulator assigned spectrum for 5G; operator partners with Huawei for smart agriculture project; Oslo utilizes smart city technology; municipalities access EU-funded public Wi-Fi; importer of broadcasting equipment and computers from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems; fixed-line 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular 107 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 47; landing points for the Svalbard Undersea Cable System, Polar Circle Cable, Bodo-Rost Cable, NOR5KE Viking, Celtic Norse, Tempnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, Denmark-Norwary6, Havfrue/AEC-2, Skagerrak 4, and the Skagenfiber West & East submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries, Europe and the US; satellite earth stations - Eutelsat, Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2019)

Internet users

total: 5,183,627

percent of population: 96.49% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2,260,605

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41.71 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 125

Airports - with paved runways

total: 67

2,438 to 3,047 m: 14

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 21 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 28

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 22 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

8520 km gas, 1304 km oil/condensate (2017)

Railways

total: 4,200 km (2019)

standard gauge: 4,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2,480 km electrified) (2019)

country comparison to the world: 45

Roadways

total: 94,902 km (includes 455 km of expressways) (2018)

country comparison to the world: 52

Merchant marine

total: 1,619

by type: bulk carrier 102, general cargo 242, oil tanker 92, other 1,183 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 18

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture

LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island

LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Norwegian Armed Forces:  Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Norwegian Special Forces, Norwegian Cyber Defense, Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2021)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.86% of GDP (2019)

1.73% of GDP (2018)

1.72% of GDP (2017)

1.74% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 57

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Norwegian Armed Forces have approximately 23,000 active personnel (8,500 Army; 3,500 Navy; 3,500 Air Force; 7,500 other, including special operations, cyber, joint staff, intelligence, logistics support, active Home Guard, etc.); 40,000 Home Guard (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Norwegian Armed Forces inventory includes mostly imported European and US weapons systems, as well as a limited mix of domestically-produced equipment, particularly small naval craft; since 2010, the US is the leading supplier of weapons systems to Norway, followed by a variety of other countries, including France, Italy, South Korea, and Spain (2020)

Military deployments

120 Lithuania (NATO) (2021)

Military service age and obligation

19-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 17 years of age for male volunteers (16 in wartime); 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation; conscripts first serve 12 months from 19-28, and then up to 4-5 refresher training periods until age 35, 44, 55, or 60 depending on rank and function (2019)

note - Norway was the first NATO country to allow females to serve in all combat arms branches of the military (1988); it also has an all-female commando unit known as Jegertroppen (The Hunter Troop), which was established in 2014

Military - note

Norway is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

the Norwegian Armed Forces cooperate closely with the militaries of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden; areas of cooperation include armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; NORDEFCO was established in 2009

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 14,359 (Syria), 14,038 (Eritrea), 6,518 (Somalia), 5,108 (Afghanistan) (2019)

stateless persons: 4,206 (2020)