Photos of Norway

Reconstructed warehouses on the Bergen Hanseatic Wharf.  Bergen was one of the major foreign trading posts in the Hanseatic League.

Introduction

Background

Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off after King Olav TRYGGVASON adopted Christianity in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Norway remained neutral in World War I and proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but Nazi Germany nonetheless occupied the country for five years (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates

62 00 N, 10 00 E

Area

total: 323,802 sq km

land: 304,282 sq km

water: 19,520 sq km

comparison ranking: total 69

Area - comparative

slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,566 km

border countries (3): Finland 709 km; Sweden 1,666 km; Russia 191 km

Coastline

25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 10 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain

glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation

highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 460 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 2.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 27.8% (2018 est.)

other: 69.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

337 sq km (2016)

Population distribution

most Norwegians live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Natural hazards

rockslides, avalanches

volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

Geography - note

about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world

People and Society

Population

total: 5,509,733

male: 2,780,972

female: 2,728,761 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 120; male 118; total 120

Nationality

noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups

Norwegian 81.5% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.9%, other 9.6% (2021 est.)

Languages

Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms

major-language sample(s):
Verdens Faktabok, den essensielle kilden for grunnleggende informasjon. (Norwegian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Norwegian audio sample:

Religions

Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 67.5%, Muslim 3.1%, Roman Catholic 3.1%, other Christian 3.8%, other 2.6%, unspecified 19.9% (2021 est.)

Demographic profile

Norway is a trendsetter country in gender equality, especially in workforce participation.  Of particular value to families are the child and parental leave benefits.  This supplement is a monthly allowance paid to families from a month after birth until the child reaches 18 to defray some of the costs of raising children.  This is helpful to families with young children where the mother works limited hours.  The parental leave benefit is available to qualified mothers in a child’s first year, enabling parents to share at-home childcare for up to 49 weeks at full salary (or 59 weeks with 80% of their salary).  Afterward, parents can put their child in high-quality subsidized daycare or receive funding toward private child care or as compensation for one parent staying home to care for their child.

Norway was originally a country of emigration with almost 850,000 Norwegians going abroad between 1825 and 1945.  At the turn of the 20th century, most Norwegians emigrated temporarily to work in the US.  Immigrants to Norway in the 1960s were mostly from neighboring Nordic countries, with whom they shared a common labor market.  By the end of the 1960s, with a strong economy and population shortage, Norway admitted guest workers from Pakistan, Morocco, then Yugoslavia, and Turkey.  The labor migrants were expected to be temporary, but many settled in Norway.  Eventually, Norway imposed immigration restrictions and the majority of migrants came in as refugees or for family reunification.  Beginning in the 1990s, Norway’s migration policy aimed at achieving integration – including language instruction and integration into the job market – as well as combatting racism and xenophobia.

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.3% (male 461,979/female 438,243)

15-64 years: 64.5% (male 1,820,692/female 1,734,818)

65 years and over: 19.1% (2024 est.) (male 498,301/female 555,700)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 54

youth dependency ratio: 26.1

elderly dependency ratio: 27.9

potential support ratio: 3.6 (2021 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

Median age

total: 40.8 years (2024 est.)

male: 40.1 years

female: 41.5 years

comparison ranking: total 57

Population growth rate

0.59% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Birth rate

10.4 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 179

Death rate

8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 74

Net migration rate

3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 28

Population distribution

most Norwegians live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Urbanization

urban population: 84% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.086 million OSLO (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.8 years (2020 est.)

note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births

Maternal mortality ratio

2 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 185

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.5 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 223

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.9 years (2024 est.)

male: 81.3 years

female: 84.6 years

comparison ranking: total population 22

Total fertility rate

1.57 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 191

Gross reproduction rate

0.77 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

11.4% of GDP (2020)

Physician density

5.04 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

23.1% (2016)

comparison ranking: 67

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.63 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 70

Tobacco use

total: 16.2% (2020 est.)

male: 17% (2020 est.)

female: 15.4% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 101

Education expenditures

5.9% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 48

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 18 years

female: 19 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Land use

agricultural land: 2.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 27.8% (2018 est.)

other: 69.5% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 84% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.05% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 128

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 56

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 6.3 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 41.02 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.81 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2.187 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 572,119 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 26.2% (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 780 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.07 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 840 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

393 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 4

global geoparks and regional networks: Gea Norvegica; Magma; Sunnhordland; Trollfjell (2023)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form: Norway

local long form: Kongeriket Norge

local short form: Norge

etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Oslo

geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the medieval name was spelt "Aslo"; the as component refered either to the Ekeberg ridge southeast of the town ("as" in modern Norwegian), or to the Aesir (Norse gods); lo refered to "meadow," so the most likely interpretations would have been either "the meadow beneath the ridge" or "the meadow of the gods"; both explanations are considered equally plausible

Administrative divisions

12 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Agder, Innlandet, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Oslo, Rogaland, Romsdal, Troms og Finnmark, Trondelag, Vestfold og Telemark, Vestland, Viken (2024)

Dependent areas

Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard (3)

Independence

7 June 1905 (union with Sweden declared dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union); notable earlier dates: ca. 872 (traditional unification of petty Norwegian kingdoms by HARALD Fairhair); 1397 (Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden); 1524 (Denmark-Norway); 17 May 1814 (Norwegian constitution adopted); 4 November 1814 (Sweden-Norway union confirmed)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution

history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814

amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2023

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister Jonas Gahr STORE (since 14 October 2021)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 13 September 2021 (next to be held by September 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 26.3%, H 20.5%, SP 13.6%, FrP 11.7%, SV 7.6%, R 4.7%, V 4.6%, MDG 3.9%, KrF 3.8%, PF 0.2%, other 3.1%; seats by party - Ap 48, H 36, SP 28, FrP 21, SV 13, R 8, V 8, , KrF 3, MDG 3, PF 1; composition - men 94, women 75, percentage women 44.4%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmennsrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Olaug Vervik BOLLESTAD]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Arild HERMSTAD] 
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Guri MELBY]
Patient Focus or PF [Irene OJALA]
Progress Party or FrP [Sylvi LISTHAUG]
Red Party or R [Marie Sneve MARTINUSSEN]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Kristi BERGSTO]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Anniken Ramberg KRUTNES (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 469-3990

email address and website:
emb.washington@mfa.no

https://www.norway.no/en/usa/

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Sharon HUDSON-DEAN (since February 2024)

embassy: Morgedalsvegen 36, 0378 Oslo

mailing address: 5460 Oslo Place, Washington DC  20521-5460

telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40

FAX: [47] 22-56-27-51

email address and website:
OsloACS@state.gov

https://no.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)

lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the King," serves as the royal anthem

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 8 (7 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Bryggen (c); Urnes Stave Church (c); Røros Mining Town and the Circumference (c); Rock Art of Alta (c); Vegaøyan – The Vega Archipelago (c); Struve Geodetic Arc (c); West Norwegian Fjords – Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord (n); Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site (c)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, non-EU economy with trade links via European Economic Area (EEA); key European energy security role as leader in oil, gas, and electricity exports; major fishing, forestry, and extraction industries; oil sovereign fund supports generous welfare system; low unemployment; inflation and response hampering growth in non-energy sectors

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$368.139 billion (2022 est.)
$356.457 billion (2021 est.)
$343.082 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 52

Real GDP growth rate

3.28% (2022 est.)
3.9% (2021 est.)
-1.28% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 128

Real GDP per capita

$67,500 (2022 est.)
$65,900 (2021 est.)
$63,800 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 13

GDP (official exchange rate)

$579.422 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5.76% (2022 est.)
3.48% (2021 est.)
1.29% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 89

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (1995)

Moody's rating: Aaa (1997)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (1975)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)

services: 64% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 99; industry 50; agriculture 168

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 44.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 4.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 35.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, potatoes, oats, pork, chicken, beef, eggs, rye (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate

0.61% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 155

Labor force

2.981 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 110

Unemployment rate

3.23% (2022 est.)
4.37% (2021 est.)
4.42% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 49

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 13% (2021 est.)

male: 13.5%

female: 12.5%

comparison ranking: total 134

Population below poverty line

12.7% (2019 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

27.7 (2019 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 163

Average household expenditures

on food: 12.5% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.2% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 22.4% (2019 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

0.11% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.13% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.16% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $185.338 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $210.522 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

4.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 8

Public debt

36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

comparison ranking: 146

Taxes and other revenues

25.08% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 50

Current account balance

$174.555 billion (2022 est.)
$66.254 billion (2021 est.)
$4.212 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 3

Exports

$321.093 billion (2022 est.)
$203.228 billion (2021 est.)
$118.314 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 29

Exports - partners

Germany 27%, UK 21%, France 9%, Belgium 7%, Sweden 6% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, fish, refined petroleum, aluminum (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$156.892 billion (2022 est.)
$140.331 billion (2021 est.)
$121.662 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 36

Imports - partners

Sweden 18%, Germany 11%, China 10%, Denmark 6%, Netherlands 6% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, ships, garments, nickel (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$72.077 billion (2022 est.)
$84.271 billion (2021 est.)
$75.259 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 35

Debt - external

$651.04 billion (2019 est.)
$648.878 billion (2018 est.)

note: Norway is a net external creditor

comparison ranking: 21

Exchange rates

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
9.614 (2022 est.)
8.59 (2021 est.)
9.416 (2020 est.)
8.8 (2019 est.)
8.133 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2022 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 40.54 million kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 121.899 billion kWh (2022 est.)

exports: 25.792 billion kWh (2022 est.)

imports: 13.259 billion kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 8.951 billion kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 175; imports 19; exports 9; consumption 31; installed generating capacity 31

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

wind: 10.3% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

hydroelectricity: 88.7% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

Coal

production: 117,000 metric tons (2022 est.)

consumption: 1.201 million metric tons (2022 est.)

exports: 84,000 metric tons (2022 est.)

imports: 1.204 million metric tons (2022 est.)

proven reserves: 2 million metric tons (2022 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 2.02 million bbl/day (2023 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 229,000 bbl/day (2023 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 8.122 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 123.727 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

consumption: 4.548 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

exports: 121.285 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

imports: 67.96 million cubic meters (2022 est.)

proven reserves: 1.544 trillion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

38.928 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 3.231 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 26.72 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 8.977 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 65

Energy consumption per capita

201.034 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 19

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 140,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 127

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 6.015 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 117

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Norway has a sophisticated telecom market with high broadband and mobile penetration rates and a highly developed digital media sector. Although not a member of the European Union, the country’s telecoms sector is synchronized with relevant EC legislation; Norway enjoys near comprehensive LTE coverage with upgrades to 5G technologies in the future (2023)

domestic: fixed-line is 7 per 100 and mobile-cellular nearly 110 per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 47; landing points for the Svalbard Undersea Cable System, Polar Circle Cable, Bodo-Rost Cable, NOR5KE Viking, Celtic Norse, Tempnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, Denmark-Norwary6, Havfrue/AEC-2, Skagerrak 4, and the Skagenfiber West & East submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries, Europe and the US; satellite earth stations - Eutelsat, Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2019)

Broadcast media

state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2019)

Internet users

total: 5.346 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 99% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 89

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2,387,661 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 44 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 54

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 125

Airports

145 (2024)

comparison ranking: 36

Heliports

77 (2024)

Pipelines

8,520 km gas, 1,304 km oil/condensate (2017)

Railways

total: 3,848 km (2020) 2,482 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 50

Roadways

total: 95,120 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 53

Waterways

1,577 km (2010)

comparison ranking: 54

Merchant marine

total: 1,720 (2022)

by type: bulk carrier 109, container ship 1, general cargo 274, oil tanker 95, other 1,241

comparison ranking: total 17

Ports

total ports: 141 (2024)

large: 1

medium: 10

small: 34

very small: 90

size unknown: 6

ports with oil terminals: 54

key ports: Bergen, Drammen, Hammerfest, Harstad, Horten, Karsto, Mongstad, Oslo, Stavanger, Tromso, Trondheim

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Norwegian Armed Forces (Forsvaret or "the Defense"): Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Norwegian Special Forces, Norwegian Cyber Defense Force, Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2024)

note: the national police have primary responsibility for internal security; the National Police Directorate, an entity under the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, oversees the police force

Military expenditures

2.2% of GDP (2024 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2023)
1.5% of GDP (2022)
1.7% of GDP (2021)
2% of GDP (2020)

comparison ranking: 53

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 27,000 active personnel (9,000 Army; 4,300 Navy; 4,700 Air Force; 9,000 other, including special operations, cyber, joint staff, intelligence, logistics support, active Home Guard, etc.); approximately 40,000 Home Guard (2024)

note: active personnel include about 10,000 conscripts

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory includes a mix of modern, imported European, US, and domestically produced weapons systems and equipment; in recent years, the US has been the leading supplier of weapons systems to Norway (2023)

Military service age and obligation

19-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service for men and women; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women volunteers; 12-19 month service obligation; conscripts first serve 12 months between the ages of 19 and 28, and then up to 4-5 refresher training periods until age 35, 44, 55, or 60 depending on rank and function (2024)

note 1: individuals conscripted each year are selected from a larger cohort who are evaluated through online assessments and physical tests; for the 2023 conscription cohort, over 24,000 men and women were selected for the physical tests, and from among them about 9,800 were selected for military service—36 percent were women; Norway has had compulsory military service since 1907

note 2: Norway was the first NATO country to allow women to serve in all combat arms branches of the military (1985); it also has an all-female special operations unit known as Jegertroppen (The Hunter Troop), which was established in 2014; as of 2023, women comprised about 20% of the military's full-time personnel

note 3: beginning in 1995, the military began offering Icelandic citizens the opportunity to apply for admission to officer schools in Norway with an associated education and service contract under special reasons and based on recommendations from Icelandic authorities; as early as 1996, Norway and Iceland entered into a cooperation agreement on the voluntary participation of Icelandic personnel in Norwegian force contributions in foreign operations

Military deployments

up to 200 Lithuania (NATO); Norway also has deployed air and naval assets in support of other NATO operations such as the Iceland Air Policing and the Mine Counter Measures Group missions  (2024)

Military - note

the Norwegian Armed Forces (Forsvaret) are responsible for protecting Norway and its allies, including monitoring Norway’s airspace, digital, land, and maritime areas, maintaining the country’s borders and sovereignty, contributing to NATO and UN missions, and providing support to civil society, such as assisting the police, search and rescue, and maritime counterterrorism efforts; the military’s territorial and sovereignty defense missions are complicated by Norway’s vast sea areas, numerous islands, long and winding fjords, and difficult and mountainous terrain; a key area of emphasis is its far northern border with Russia

Norway is one of the original members of NATO, and the Alliance is a key component of Norway’s defense policy; the Forsvaret participates regularly in NATO exercises, missions, and operations, including air policing of NATO territory, NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence mission in the Baltic States and Eastern Europe, and standing naval missions, as well as operations in non-NATO areas, such as the Middle East; the Forsvaret also cooperates closely with the militaries of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO; established 2009), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden; areas of cooperation include armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; Norway contributes to the UK-led Joint Expeditionary Force, a pool of high-readiness military forces from 10 Baltic and Scandinavian countries designed to respond to a wide range of contingencies both in peacetime and in times of crisis or conflict with a focus on the High North, North Atlantic, and Baltic Sea regions; the Forsvaret participates in UN missions in such areas as Africa and the Middle East; Norway has close military ties with the US, including rotational US military deployments and an agreement allowing for mutual defense activities and US military forces to access some Norwegian facilities

the Forsvaret's origins go back to the leidangen, defense forces which were established along the coastline in the 10th century to protect the Norwegian coast (2024)

Space

Space agency/agencies

the Norwegian Space Agency (NOSA, aka Norsk Romsenter; established 1987) (2024)

Space launch site(s)

Andøya Space Center (Andøya Island; note - first operational spaceport in continental Europe) (2024)

Space program overview

has a broad and active space program coordinated with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the EU; jointly designs and builds satellites with foreign partners, including communications, remote sensing (RS), scientific, and navigational/positional; operates satellites; develops and launches sounding rockets; researches and produces a range of other space-related technologies, including satellite/space launch vehicle (SLV) and space station components, telescopes, and robotics; conducts solar and telecommunications research; participates in international space programs, such as the International Space Station; hosts training for Mars landing missions on the island of Svalbard; active member of the ESA and cooperates with a variety of foreign space agencies and industries, including those of Canada, ESA/EU member states, Japan, Russia, and the US; has an active and advanced space industry that cooperates with both the NOSA and foreign space programs and produces a variety of space-related products, from terminals for satellite communications and technologies for RS satellites to sensors for gamma radiation in deep space (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 15,901 (Syria), 10,883 (Eritrea) (mid-year 2022); 70,085 (Ukraine) (as of 8 March 2024)

stateless persons: 3,901 (2022)