Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence from Spain in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980.



total: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km


varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Natural resources

copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

People and Society


total: 32,600,249
male: 15,952,556
female: 16,647,693 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (mixed Indigenous and White) 60.2%, Indigenous 25.8%, White 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)


Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.7% (2017 est.)


Roman Catholic 66.4%, Protestant 22.4% (Evangelical 19.6%, other Protestant 1.3%), other 1.9%, agnostic/atheist none 6.8%, unspecified 1.2% (2023 est.)

Population growth rate

0.48% (2024 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Lima

Executive branch

chief of state: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022) 
head of government: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la República del Perú (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve single 5-year terms)


Economic overview

upper middle-income South American economy; hit hard by political instability and COVID-19 but rebounding quickly; second-largest cocaine producer; current account balance improving; persistent income inequality; diversified exporter

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$433.926 billion (2022 est.)
$422.584 billion (2021 est.)
$372.592 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,700 (2022 est.)
$12,500 (2021 est.)
$11,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, potatoes, rice, bananas, milk, chicken, maize, oil palm fruit, cassava, grapes (2022)


mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture


$71.197 billion (2022 est.)
$65.914 billion (2021 est.)
$45.544 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 30%, US 15%, Japan 5%, Canada 5%, South Korea 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

copper ore, gold, natural gas, refined copper, refined petroleum (2022)


$69.506 billion (2022 est.)
$58.708 billion (2021 est.)
$42.303 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 27%, US 24%, Brazil 6%, Argentina 4%, Chile 3% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, cars, broadcasting equipment, trucks (2022)

Exchange rates

nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
3.835 (2022 est.)
3.881 (2021 est.)
3.495 (2020 est.)
3.337 (2019 est.)
3.287 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, July 09, 2024