Cliff dwellings in the Sacred Valley.
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Introduction

Background

Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980 but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016. Facing impeachment after evidence surfaced of his involvement in a vote-buying scandal, President KUCZYNSKI offered his resignation on 21 March 2018. Two days later, First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo was sworn in as president. On 30 September 2019, President VIZCARRA invoked his constitutional authority to dissolve Peru's Congress after months of battling with the body over anticorruption reforms. New congressional elections took place on 26 January 2020 resulting in the return of an opposition-led legislature. President VIZCARRA was impeached by Congress on 9 November 2020 for a second time and removed from office after being accused of corruption and mishandling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of vacancies in the vice-presidential positions, constitutional succession led to the President of the Peruvian Congress, Manuel MERINO, becoming the next president of Peru. His ascension to office was not well received by the population, and large protests forced his resignation on 15 November 2020. On 17 November, Francisco SAGASTI assumed the position of President of Peru after being appointed President of the Congress the previous day. Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones won the second round of presidential elections on 6 June 2021 and was inaugurated on 28 July.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates

10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references

South America

Area

total: 1,285,216 sq km

land: 1,279,996 sq km

water: 5,220 sq km

country comparison to the world: 21

Area - comparative

almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 7,062 km

border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km; Brazil 2,659 km; Chile 168 km; Colombia 1,494 km; Ecuador 1,529 km

Coastline

2,414 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 200 nm; note: the US does not recognize this claim

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain

western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation

highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,746 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 1,555 m

Natural resources

copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use

agricultural land: 18.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 14.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 53% (2018 est.)

other: 28.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

25,800 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lago Titicaca (shared with Bolivia) - 8,030 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Amazon river source (shared with Brazil [m]) - 6,400 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon (6,145,186 sq km)

Major aquifers

Amazon Basin

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated

Natural hazards

earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Geography - note

note 1: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

note 2: Peru is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: on 19 February 1600, Mount Huaynaputina in the southern Peruvian Andes erupted in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historical times; intermittent eruptions lasted until 5 March 1600 and pumped an estimated 16 to 32 million metric tons of particulates into the atmosphere reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface and affecting weather worldwide; over the next two and a half years, millions died around the globe in famines from bitterly cold winters, cool summers, and the loss of crops and animals

note 4: the southern regions of Peru and the extreme northwestern part of Bolivia are considered to be the place of origin for the common potato

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, White 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.7% (2017 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 60%, Christian 14.6% (includes Evangelical 11.1%, other 3.5%), other 0.3%, none 4%, unspecified 21.1% (2017 est.)

Demographic profile

Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.

Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.43% (male 4,131,985/female 3,984,546)

15-24 years: 17.21% (male 2,756,024/female 2,736,394)

25-54 years: 41.03% (male 6,279,595/female 6,815,159)

55-64 years: 8.28% (male 1,266,595/female 1,375,708)

65 years and over: 8.05% (male 1,207,707/female 1,361,276) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.2

youth dependency ratio: 37.1

elderly dependency ratio: 13.1

potential support ratio: 7.6 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 29.1 years

male: 28.3 years

female: 29.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138

Birth rate

17.21 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Death rate

11.32 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Net migration rate

-0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated

Urbanization

urban population: 78.7% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.33% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

11.045 million LIMA (capital), 947,000 Arequipa, 891,000 Trujillo (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.9 years (2013 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

88 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 11.89 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 68.94 years

male: 65.38 years

female: 72.67 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.2% of population

rural: 82.4% of population

total: 94% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population

rural: 17.6% of population

total: 6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.2% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

1.37 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

1.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 93.6% of population

rural: 65.3% of population

total: 87.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 6.4% of population

rural: 34.7% of population

total: 12.6% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2020 est.) <1000

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Peru; as of 18 August 2022, Peru has reported a total of 4,037,977 cases of COVID-19 or 12,246.73 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with a total of 215,088 cumulative deaths or a rate of 652.33 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 14 August 2022, 88.19% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 5.74 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.46 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Tobacco use

total: 8.1% (2020 est.)

male: 13.2% (2020 est.)

female: 3% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2.5%

women married by age 18: 17.4% (2018 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.5%

male: 97%

female: 92% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 12.6%

male: 13%

female: 12.1% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes; overfishing

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 24.27 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 57.41 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 30.17 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Land use

agricultural land: 18.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 14.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 53% (2018 est.)

other: 28.2% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 78.7% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.33% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Peru; as of 18 August 2022, Peru has reported a total of 4,037,977 cases of COVID-19 or 12,246.73 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with a total of 215,088 cumulative deaths or a rate of 652.33 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 14 August 2022, 88.19% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 8,356,711 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 334,268 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 4% (2012 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lago Titicaca (shared with Bolivia) - 8,030 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Amazon river source (shared with Brazil [m]) - 6,400 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon (6,145,186 sq km)

Major aquifers

Amazon Basin

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 2.797 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 206.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 13.1 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

1.88 trillion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru

etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Lima

geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the word "Lima" derives from the Spanish pronunciation of "Limaq," the native name for the valley in which the city was founded in 1535; "limaq" means "talker" in coastal Quechua and referred to an oracle that was situated in the valley but which was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church

Administrative divisions

25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region

Independence

28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 28-29 July (1821)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993

amendments: proposed by Congress, by the president of the republic with the approval of the Council of Ministers or by petition of at least 0.3% of voters; passage requires absolute majority approval by the Congress membership, followed by approval in a referendum; a referendum is not required if Congress approves the amendment by greater than two-thirds majority vote in each of two successive sessions; amended many times, last in 2021

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (since 28 July 2021); First Vice President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 28 July 2021); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (since 28 July 2021); First Vice President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 28 July 2021); Second Vice President (vacant)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 11 April 2021 with a runoff on 6 June 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

election results:
2021: Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (Free Peru) 18.9%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (Popular Force) 13.4%, Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA Cazorla (Popular Renewal) 11.8%, Hernando DE SOTO Polar (Social Integration Party) 11.6%, Yonhy LESCANO Ancieta (Popular Action) 9.1%, Veronika MENDOZA Frisch (JP) 7.9%, Cesar ACUNA Peralta (APP) 6%, George FORSYTH Sommer (National Victory) 5.7%, Daniel Belizario URRESTI Elera (We Can Peru) 5.6%, other 10%; percent of vote second round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (Free Peru) 50.1%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (Popular Force) 49.9%

2016: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Popular Force) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (PPK) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (Broad Front) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (Popular Action) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

note 1: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo assumed office after President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard resigned from office on 21 March 2018; after VIZCARRA was impeached on 9 November 2020, the constitutional line of succession led to the inauguration of the President of the Peruvian Congress, Manuel Arturo MERINO, as President of Peru on 10 November 2020; following his resignation only days later on 15 November 2020, Francisco Rafael SAGASTI Hochhausler - who had been elected by the legislature to be the new President of Congress on 16 November 2020 - was then sworn in as President of Peru on 17 November 2020 by line of succession and remained president until the inauguration of Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones, winner of the 2021 presidential election

note 2:
Prime Minister Anibal TORRES Vasquez (since 8 February 2022) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve single 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 April 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Free Peru 32, Popular Force 24, AP 15, APP 15, Avanza Pais 10, Popular Renewal 9, Democratic Peru 7, We Are Peru 5, We Can Peru 5, JP 5, Purple Party 3; composition - men 78, women 52, percent of women 40%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Board of Justice (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Political parties and leaders

Advance the Nation (Avanza Pais) [Aldo BORRERO Zeta]
Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or FA [Marco ARANA]
Free Peru (Peru Libre) or PL [Vladimir CERRON Rojas]
Front for Hope (Frente Esperanza) [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]
National Victory (Victoria Nacional) or VN [George FORSYTH Sommer]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Force (Fuerza Popular) or FP [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
Popular Renewal (Renovacion Popular) or RP [Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA]
Purple Party (Partido Morado) [Luis DURAN Rojo]
Social Integration Party (Avanza Pais - Partido de Integracion Social) [Aldo BORRERO]
Together For Peru (Juntos por el Peru) or JP [Robert SANCHEZ Palomino]
We Are Peru (Somos Peru) of SP [Patricia LI]
We Can Peru (Podemos Peru) or PP [Jose Leon LUNA Galvez]

International organization participation

APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Oswaldo DE RIVERO Barreto (since 17 November 2021)

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124

email address and website:
Webadmin@embassyofperu.us

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa Suzanne KENNA (since 18 March 2021)

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: 3230 Lima Place, Washington DC  20521-3230

telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000

FAX: [51] (1) 618-2724

email address and website:
LimaACS@state.gov

https://pe.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace

National symbol(s)

vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)

lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO

note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 13 (9 cultural, 2 natural, 2 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Cuzco (c); Machu Picchu (m); Chavin (c); Historic Lima (c); Huascarán National Park (n); Chan Chan (c); Manú National Park (n); Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca (c); Rio Abiseo National Park (m); Historic Arequipa (c); Sacred City of Caral-Supe (c); Qhapaq Ñan/Andean Road System (c)

Economy

Economic overview

Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and copper.

 

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2017, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

 

Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

 

Peru's free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016-17, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2018. However, economic performance was depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm. Massive flooding in early 2017 also was a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$371.29 billion (2020 est.)

$417.88 billion (2019 est.)

$408.87 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 49

Real GDP growth rate

2.18% (2019 est.)

3.97% (2018 est.)

2.48% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Real GDP per capita

$11,300 (2020 est.)

$12,900 (2019 est.)

$12,800 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 133

GDP (official exchange rate)

$230.707 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.1% (2019 est.)

1.3% (2018 est.)

2.8% (2017 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average

country comparison to the world: 113

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB+ (2013)

Moody's rating: A3 (2014)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB+ (2013)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.7% (2017 est.)

services: 59.9% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 64.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 24% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, potatoes, rice, plantains, milk, poultry, maize, cassava, oil palm fruit, grapes

Industries

mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture

Labor force

3.421 million (2020 est.)

note: individuals older than 14 years of age

country comparison to the world: 101

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 17.4%

services: 56.8% (2011)

Unemployment rate

6.58% (2019 est.)

6.73% (2018 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment

country comparison to the world: 104

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 12.6%

male: 13%

female: 12.1% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.4%

highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)

Budget

revenues: 58.06 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 64.81 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

25.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

country comparison to the world: 174

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$3.531 billion (2019 est.)

-$3.821 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Exports

$54.88 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$55.84 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$53.823 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Exports - partners

China 29%, United States 12%, Canada 5%, South Korea 5%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

copper, gold, refined petroleum, zinc, fishmeal, tropical fruits, lead, iron, molybdenum (2019)

Imports

$51.38 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$51.41 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$46.15 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Imports - partners

China 24%, United States 22%, Brazil 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, cars, broadcasting equipment, delivery trucks (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$63.83 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$61.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Debt - external

$81.333 billion (2019 est.)

$75.467 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Exchange rates

nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -

3.599 (2020 est.)

3.3799 (2019 est.)

3.366 (2018 est.)

3.185 (2014 est.)

2.8383 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 97% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 99% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 86% (2019)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 15.34 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 49,121,370,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 60 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 6.408 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 38.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 3.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 55.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 696,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 396,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 252,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 262,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 102 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 122,500 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 265,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 6,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 112,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 858.9 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 12,079,211,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 8,278,048,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 5.446 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 300.158 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

54.996 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.171 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 35.119 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 18.706 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2.47 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 44 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: after suffering a sharp retraction in the number of subscriptions and revenue during 2020 due to the pandemic, Peru’s telecom sector managed to stage a small recovery in the first half of 2021; it will likely be two to three years before penetration rates return to the peak levels last seen in 2018; this is especially true given the overwhelming influence of mobile on Peru’s telecommunications market, which now commands almost 95% of all connections; Peru’s fixed-line teledensity continued its slow dropping below 7% at the end of 2021; investment in network infrastructure is mainly focused on rolling out fiber cable for fixed broadband services in (mainly) urban areas; fixed broadband services inched higher to reach 8.4% at the end of 2020, a positive result that reflected the shift to working from home during enforced lock downs at the start of the year; yet Peru has a relatively low level of computer use, and prices for fixed broadband services are among the highest in Latin America; the overwhelmingly preferred internet access platform will remain the smartphone, with a further 8.6% growth in the number of mobile broadband subscriptions expected in 2021 (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is nearly 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, now nearly 124 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (2019)

international: country code - 51; landing points for the SAM-1, IGW, American Movil-Telxius, SAC and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 5,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2021)

Internet users

total: 21,431,700 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 65% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3.044 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 62

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,758,527 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 313.26 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 59

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 5 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 132

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 30

under 914 m: 82 (2021)

Heliports

5 (2021)

Pipelines

786 km extra heavy crude, 1,526 km gas, 679 km liquid petroleum gas, 1,106 km oil, 15 km refined products (2022)

Railways

total: 1,854.4 km (2017)

standard gauge: 1,730.4 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 124 km (2014) 0.914-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 76

Roadways

total: 18,699 km (2018)

paved: 18,699 km

note: includes 27,109 km of national roads (21,434 km paved), 247,505 km of departmental roads (3,623 km paved), and 113,857 km of local roads (1,858 km paved)

country comparison to the world: 117

Waterways

8,808 km (2011) (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon River system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca)

country comparison to the world: 16

Merchant marine

total: 98

by type: general cargo 1, oil tanker 8, other 89 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 89

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita

oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (2,313,907) (2019)

river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Joint Command of the Armed Forces of Peru (CCFFAA): Peruvian Army (Ejercito del Peru), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval infantry and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP); Ministry of the Interior (Ministerio del Interior): Peruvian National Police (Policía Nacional del Perú, PNP) (2022)

Military expenditures

1.1% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.2% of GDP (2019) (approximately $3.87 billion)

1.2% of GDP (2018) (approximately $3.83 billion)

1.2% of GDP (2017) (approximately $3.86 billion)

country comparison to the world: 123

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 95,000 active duty personnel (60,000 Army; 25,000 Navy, including about 4,000 naval infantry and 1,000 Coast Guard; 10,000 Air Force) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Peruvian military's inventory is a mix of mostly older equipment from a wide variety of suppliers, including Brazil, Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the US; since 2010, Peru has received military equipment from more than a dozen countries, led by Russia and South Korea (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service (12 months); no conscription (abolished in 1999) (2022)

note: as of 2019, women made up about 10% of the active duty military

Military deployments

215 Central African Republic (MINUSCA) (May 2022)

Military - note

as of 2022, the Peruvian security forces continued to conduct operations against remnants of the Shining Path terrorist group (aka Sendero Luminoso; see Appendix T), particularly in the Apurimac, Ene, and Mantaro River Valleys (VRAEM) of eastern Peru; the military had approximately 8,000-10,000 troops in the VRAEM under a combined Special Command comprised of air, ground, naval, police, and special forces units (2022)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Peru are a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2021, 18 attacks against commercial vessels were reported, a more than 50% increase over the eight attacks in 2020; all of these occurred in the main port of Callao while ships were berthed or at anchor

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Peru-Bolivia: Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Peru-Brazil: none identified

Peru-Chile: Bolivia continues to press for a sovereign corridor to the Pacific Ocean; any concession Chile makes to Bolivia to grant them a sovereign corridor requires approval by Peru under the terms of their treaty; in January 2018, the International Court of Justice ruled that Chile is not legally obligated to negotiate a sovereign corridor to the Pacific Ocean with Bolivia

Peru-Chile-Ecuador: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines out to 200 nautical miles, which would give Peru 37,900 square kilometers of water

Peru-Colombia: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; problems also include crossborder illegal migration, human trafficking, and contraband smuggling

Peru-Ecuador: in 1999, Tiwinza memorial park wasvcreated on lands that remains sovereign Peruvian territory, but Ecuador has the right to maintain and administer it in perpetuity

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 1,286,434 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2021)

IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2021)

Illicit drugs

world’s second-largest producer of cocaine, with an estimated 88,200 hectares under coca cultivation in 2020; cocaine is trafficked throughout South America for shipment to Europe, East Asia, Mexico, and the United States; major importer of precursor chemicals for cocaine production