Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.



total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

People and Society


10,223,150 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Portuguese 95%; citizens from Portugal’s former colonies in Africa, Asia (Han Chinese), and South America (Brazilian) and other foreign born 5%


Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)


Roman Catholic 79.7%, Protestant 2.2%, other Christian 2.5%, other non-Christian, 1.1%, none 14.5% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.17% (2023 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Lisbon

Executive branch

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis MONTENEGRO (since 2 April 2024)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

fast-growing, high-income European economy; EU and NATO member; heavy Chinese infrastructure ownership; key tourism, banking, and telecommunications sectors; declining populations; major energy exporter

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$372.331 billion (2022 est.)
$348.535 billion (2021 est.)
$329.623 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$35,800 (2022 est.)
$33,600 (2021 est.)
$32,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, tomatoes, olives, grapes, maize, potatoes, pork, apples, oranges, poultry


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics


$126.541 billion (2022 est.)
$105.648 billion (2021 est.)
$85.128 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Spain 26%, France 12%, Germany 12%, United States 6%, United Kingdom 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, leather footwear, tires, paper (2021)


$131.627 billion (2022 est.)
$112.413 billion (2021 est.)
$89.515 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Spain 31%, Germany 12%, France 6%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2021)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, natural gas (2021)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, April 24, 2024