Photos of Portugal

Introduction

Background

Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates

39 30 N, 8 00 W

Area

total: 92,090 sq km

land: 91,470 sq km

water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

country comparison to the world: 111

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,224 km

border countries (1): Spain 1224 km

Coastline

1,793 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain

the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains

Elevation

highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 372 m

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 20% (2018 est.)

forest: 37.8% (2018 est.)

other: 22.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

5,400 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

77.4 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities

Natural hazards

Azores subject to severe earthquakes

volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; they are two of the four North Atlantic archipelagos that make up Macaronesia; the others are the Canary Islands (Spain) and Cabo Verde

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups

white homogeneous Mediterranean population; citizens of African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990, Eastern Europeans have migrated to Portugal

Languages

Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)

Religions

Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% (2011 est.)

note: data represent population 15 years of age and older

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.58% (male 716,102/female 682,582)

15-24 years: 10.94% (male 580,074/female 547,122)

25-54 years: 41.49% (male 2,109,693/female 2,164,745)

55-64 years: 13.08% (male 615,925/female 731,334)

65 years and over: 20.92% (male 860,198/female 1,294,899) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.8

youth dependency ratio: 20.3

elderly dependency ratio: 35.5

potential support ratio: 2.8 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 44.6 years

male: 42.7 years

female: 46.5 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Birth rate

8.02 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 220

Death rate

10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Net migration rate

0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities

Urbanization

urban population: 66.8% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.44% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.972 million LISBON (capital), 1.316 million Porto (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.6 years (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.53 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.89 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 217

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.29 years

male: 78.14 years

female: 84.6 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

5.12 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<500 (2018 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.1%

male: 97.4%

female: 95.1% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 17 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 18.3%

male: 15.5%

female: 21.4% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Environment

Environment - current issues

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in urban centers and coastal areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 7.87 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 48.74 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 10.93 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 914.1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 1.497 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 8.767 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

77.4 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 20% (2018 est.)

forest: 37.8% (2018 est.)

other: 22.5% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Urbanization

urban population: 66.8% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.44% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.71 million tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 764,433 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 16.2% (2014 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Lisbon

geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Portugal has two time zones, including the Azores (UTC-1)

etymology: Lisbon is one of Europe's oldest cities (the second oldest capital city after Athens) and the origin of the name is lost in time; it may have been founded as an ancient Celtic settlement that subsequently maintained close commercial relations with the Phoenicians (beginning about 1200 B.C.); the name of the settlement may have been derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River that runs through the city, Lisso or Lucio; the Romans named the city "Olisippo" when they took it from the Carthaginians in 205 B.C.; under the Visigoths the city name became "Ulixbona," under the Arabs it was "al-Ushbuna"; the medieval version of "Lissabona" became today's Lisboa

Administrative divisions

18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Independence

1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60 years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis DE CAMOES (1524-80) died

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976

amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005 (2021)

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese-speaking country

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2021 (next to be held on 24 January 2026); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 60.7%, Ana GOMES (independent) 12.97%, Andre VENTURA (CH) 11.9%, João FERREIRA (PCP-PEV) 4.32%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 3.95%, other 6.16%

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) (e.g. 2019)

elections: last held on 6 October 2019 (next to be held 2023) (e.g. 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - PS 36.4%, PSD 27.8%, B.E. 9.5%, CDU 6.5%, other 20.8%; seats by party - PS 108, PSD 79,  B.E. 19, CDU 12, other 12; composition - men 158, women 72, percent of women 31.3% (e.g. 2019)

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges can serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party (Partido do Centro Democratico   Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Assuncao CRISTAS]
Ecologist Party "The Greens" or "Os Verdes" (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]
Enough (Chega) [Andre VENTURA] (formed in 2019)
People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Andre SILVA]
Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD (original name Partido Popular Democratico) or PPD [Rui RIO]
Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Antonio COSTA]
The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Catarina MARTINS]
Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos Teixeira de Abreu FEZAS VITAL (since 28 January 2016)

chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 332-3007

FAX: [1] (202) 223-3926

consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco

consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador George E. GLASS (since 25 August 2017)

telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon

mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726

FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbol(s)

armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

National anthem

name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)

lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

Economy

Economic overview

Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members.

The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. After the global financial crisis in 2008, Portugal’s economy contracted in 2009 and fell into recession from 2011 to 2013, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. Portugal successfully exited its EU-IMF program in May 2014, and its economic recovery gained traction in 2015 because of strong exports and a rebound in private consumption. GDP growth accelerated in 2016, and probably reached 2.5 % in 2017. Unemployment remained high, at 9.7% in 2017, but has improved steadily since peaking at 18% in 2013.

The center-left minority Socialist government has unwound some unpopular austerity measures while managing to remain within most EU fiscal targets. The budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 1.8% in 2017, the country’s lowest since democracy was restored in 1974, and surpassing the EU and IMF projections of 3%. Portugal exited the EU’s excessive deficit procedure in mid-2017.

Real GDP growth rate

2.24% (2019 est.)

2.85% (2018 est.)

3.51% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.3% (2019 est.)

0.9% (2018 est.)

1.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2007)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$358.344 billion (2019 est.)

$350.507 billion (2018 est.)

$340.796 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 51

GDP (official exchange rate)

$237.698 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$34,894 (2019 est.)

$34,083 (2018 est.)

$33,086 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 58

Gross national saving

18.9% of GDP (2019 est.)

18.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

18% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 22.1% (2017 est.)

services: 75.7% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 65.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 76.5 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 90.9 (2020)

Trading score: 100 (2020)

Enforcement score: 67.9 (2020)

Agricultural products

milk, tomatoes, olives, grapes, maize, potatoes, pork, apples, oranges, poultry

Industries

textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 8.6%

industry: 23.9%

services: 67.5% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 25.9% (2015 est.)

Budget

revenues: 93.55 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 100 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

125.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 9

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$203 million (2019 est.)

$988 million (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Exports

$114.512 billion (2019 est.)

$110.591 billion (2018 est.)

$106.201 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Exports - partners

Spain 23%, France 13%, Germany 12%, United Kingdom 6%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, leather footwear, paper products, tires (2019)

Imports

$120.334 billion (2019 est.)

$114.957 billion (2018 est.)

$109.515 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Imports - partners

Spain 29%, Germany 13%, France 9%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, aircraft, packaged medicines, refined petroleum, natural gas (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$26.11 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Debt - external

$462.431 billion (2019 est.)

$483.206 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.7525 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5,179,685

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50.15 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12,028,436

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116.46 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities; FttP in 2020; 3G universal and 4G upgrades; regulator release 700MHz spectrum for 5G use; DSL moves to fiber services; FttP for over 5 million customers in 2020 providing national coverage; fiber subscriber base grows 24% in 2018; development in M-payment solutions (2020)

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations; fixed-line 50 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 116 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 351; landing points for the Ella Link, BUGIO, EIG, SAT-3/WASC, SeaMeWe-3, Equino, MainOne, Tat TGN-Western Europe, WACS, ACE, Atlantis2 and Columbus-III submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations

Internet users

total: 7,731,411

percent of population: 74.66% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,784,684

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 168

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,367,956 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 454.21 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 43 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2017)

under 914 m: 8 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 21 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

under 914 m: 20 (2013)

Pipelines

1344 km gas, 11 km oil, 188 km refined products (2013)

Railways

total: 3,075 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified) (2014)

other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)

country comparison to the world: 60

Roadways

total: 82,900 km (2008)

paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways) (2008)

unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

country comparison to the world: 61

Waterways

210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 95

Merchant marine

total: 673

by type: bulk carrier 74, container ship 255, general cargo 122, oil tanker 23, other 199 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 35

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

container port(s) (TEUs): Sines (1,669,057) (2017)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Sines

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Portuguese Armed Forces: Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP); Portuguese National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana, GNR) (2021)

note: the GNR is a national gendarmerie force comprised of military personnel with law enforcement, internal security, civil defense, disaster response, and coast guard duties; it is responsible to the Minister of Internal Administration and to the Minister of National Defense; in the event of war or crisis, it may be placed under the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces

Military expenditures

1.63% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.39% of GDP (2019)

1.35% of GDP (2018)

1.24% of GDP (2017)

1.27% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 75

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Portuguese Armed Forces have approximately 28,000 active duty personnel (14,500 Army; 7,500 Navy, inc about 1,000 marines; 6,000 Air Force); 24,500 National Republican Guard (military personnel) (2020)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Portuguese Armed Forces inventory includes mostly European and US-origin weapons systems along with a smaller mix of domestically-produced equipment; since 2010, Germany and the US are the leading suppliers of armaments to Portugal; Portugal's defense industry is primarily focused on shipbuilding (2020)

Military deployments

175 Afghanistan (NATO); 200 Central African Republic (MINUSCA/EUTM); up to 120 Baltic States (NATO) (Jan 2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary or contract military service; no compulsory military service (abolished 2004), but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1992, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; contract service lasts for an initial period from two to six years, and can be extended to a maximum of 20 years of service. Voluntary military service lasts 12 months; reserve obligation to age 35 (2019)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) (2019)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 14 (2019)

Illicit drugs

seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin