Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar within the last 60 years transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. Leadership changes in 1995 ushered in wide-sweeping political and media reforms, unprecedented economic investment, and a growing Qatari regional leadership role.



total: 11,586 sq km
land: 11,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Natural resources

petroleum, fish, natural gas

People and Society


2,532,104 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

non-Qatari 88.4%, Qatari 11.6% (2015 est.)


Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language


Muslim 65.2%, Christian 13.7%, Hindu 15.9%, Buddhist 3.8%, folk religion <0.1%, Jewish <0.1%, other <1%, unaffiliated <1% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.86% (2023 est.)


Government type

absolute monarchy


name: Doha

Executive branch

chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister and Foreign Minister MUHAMMAD bin Abd al-Rahman Al Thani (since 7 March 2023); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Mohamed AL Attiyah (since 14 November 2017)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 30 members directly elected by popular vote for 4-year re-electable terms; 15 members appointed by the monarch to serve until resignation or until relieved; note - legislative drafting authority rests with the Council of Ministers and is reviewed by the Advisory Council


Economic overview

high-income, oil-and-gas-based Middle Eastern economy; better regional integration after 2021 terrorism resolution; infrastructure investments ahead of 2022 World Cup; Islamic finance leader; citizenship-based labor force growth

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$249.636 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$92,900 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

tomatoes, dates, camel milk, sheep milk, goat milk, pumpkins/gourds, mutton, poultry, milk, eggplants


liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizer, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair


$105.549 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Japan 17%, South Korea 16%, India 14%, China 13%, Singapore 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, ethylene polymers, fertilizers (2019)


$61.204 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 15%, France 13%, United Kingdom 9%, China 9%, Germany 5%, Italy 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

aircraft, gas turbines, cars, jewelry, iron piping (2019)

Exchange rates

Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar -
3.64 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, March 07, 2023