Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar has transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. Leadership changes in 1995 ushered in wide-sweeping political and media reforms, unprecedented economic investment, and a growing Qatari regional leadership role.



total: 11,586 sq km
land: 11,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Natural resources

petroleum, fish, natural gas

People and Society


total: 2,552,088
male: 1,961,135
female: 590,953 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

non-Qatari 88.4%, Qatari 11.6% (2015 est.)


Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language


Muslim 65.2%, Christian 13.7%, Hindu 15.9%, Buddhist 3.8%, folk religion <0.1%, Jewish <0.1%, other <1%, unaffiliated <1% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.71% (2024 est.)


Government type

absolute monarchy


name: Doha

Executive branch

chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister and Foreign Minister MUHAMMAD bin Abd al-Rahman Al Thani (since 7 March 2023); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Muhammad al-Attiyah (since 14 November 2017)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 30 members directly elected by popular vote for 4-year re-electable terms; 15 members appointed by the monarch to serve until resignation or until relieved; note - legislative drafting authority rests with the Council of Ministers and is reviewed by the Advisory Council


Economic overview

high-income, oil-and-gas-based Middle Eastern economy; National Vision 2030 government strategy for economic development, diversification, favorable business conditions to grow investment and employment; infrastructure investments; Islamic finance leader; citizenship-based labor force growth

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$260.235 billion (2022 est.)
$249.725 billion (2021 est.)
$245.727 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$96,600 (2022 est.)
$92,900 (2021 est.)
$89,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

tomatoes, dates, chicken, cucumbers/gherkins, camel milk, eggs, sheep milk, goat milk, pumpkins/squash, milk (2022)


liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizer, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair


$161.693 billion (2022 est.)
$105.549 billion (2021 est.)
$70.933 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 18%, India 15%, Japan 10%, South Korea 9%, UK 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, fertilizers, ethylene polymers (2022)


$74.52 billion (2022 est.)
$61.204 billion (2021 est.)
$59.065 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

UAE 13%, China 11%, US 10%, UK 8%, India 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

gas turbines, jewelry, cars, garments, aircraft (2022)

Exchange rates

Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
3.64 (2022 est.)
3.64 (2021 est.)
3.64 (2020 est.)
3.64 (2019 est.)
3.64 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024