Photos of Qatar

Introduction

Background

Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar within the last 60 years transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant hydrocarbon revenues. Former Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, who overthrew his father in a bloodless coup in 1995, ushered in wide-sweeping political and media reforms, unprecedented economic investment, and a growing Qatari regional leadership role, in part through the creation of the pan-Arab satellite news network Al-Jazeera and Qatar's mediation of some regional conflicts. In the 2000s, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and by 2007, Doha had attained the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar did not experience domestic unrest or violence like that seen in other Near Eastern and North African countries in 2011, due in part to its immense wealth and patronage network. In mid-2013, HAMAD peacefully abdicated, transferring power to his son, the current Amir TAMIM bin Hamad. TAMIM is popular with the Qatari public, for his role in shepherding the country through an economic embargo by some other regional countries, for his efforts to improve the country's healthcare and education systems, and for his expansion of the country's infrastructure in anticipation of Doha's hosting international sporting events. Qatar became the first country in the Arab world to host the FIFA Men’s World Cup in 2022.

Following the outbreak of regional unrest in 2011, Doha prided itself on its support for many popular revolutions, particularly in Libya and Syria. This stance was to the detriment of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which temporarily recalled their respective ambassadors from Doha in March 2014. TAMIM later oversaw a warming of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE in November 2014 following Kuwaiti mediation and signing of the Riyadh Agreement. This reconciliation, however, was short-lived. In June 2017, Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE (the "Quartet") cut diplomatic and economic ties with Qatar in response to alleged violations of the agreement, among other complaints. They restored ties in January 2021 after signing a declaration at the Gulf Cooperation Council Summit in Al Ula, Saudi Arabia. In 2022, the United States designated Qatar as a major non-NATO ally.

 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 11,586 sq km

land: 11,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 164

Area - comparative

almost twice the size of Delaware; slightly smaller than Connecticut

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 87 km

border countries (1): Saudi Arabia 87 km

Coastline

563 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line

Climate

arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain

mostly flat and barren desert

Elevation

highest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 m

lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

mean elevation: 28 m

Natural resources

petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use

agricultural land: 5.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 4.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 94.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

130 sq km (2020)

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System

Population distribution

most of the population is clustered in or around the capital of Doha on the eastern side of the peninsula

Natural hazards

haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Geography - note

the peninsula occupies a strategic location in the central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

People and Society

Population

2,532,104 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 143

Nationality

noun: Qatari(s)

adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups

non-Qatari 88.4%, Qatari 11.6% (2015 est.)

Languages

Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Arabic audio sample:

Religions

Muslim 65.2%, Christian 13.7%, Hindu 15.9%, Buddhist 3.8%, folk religion <0.1%, Jewish <0.1%, other <1%, unaffiliated <1% (2020 est.)

MENA religious affiliation

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.08% (male 167,065/female 164,110)

15-64 years: 85.51% (male 1,757,982/female 407,120)

65 years and over: 1.41% (2023 est.) (male 23,544/female 12,283)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 20.7

youth dependency ratio: 16.1

elderly dependency ratio: 2

potential support ratio: 50.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 34.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 35.5 years

female: 28.1 years

comparison ranking: total 100

Population growth rate

0.86% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 109

Birth rate

9.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 195

Death rate

1.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 229

Net migration rate

0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 73

Population distribution

most of the population is clustered in or around the capital of Doha on the eastern side of the peninsula

Urbanization

urban population: 99.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

798,000 Ar-Rayyan, 658,000 DOHA (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 4.32 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.92 male(s)/female

total population: 3.34 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 148

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 164

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80 years (2023 est.)

male: 77.9 years

female: 82.2 years

comparison ranking: total population 54

Total fertility rate

1.9 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Gross reproduction rate

0.94 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 99.6% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

4.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.49 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

1.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

35.1% (2016)

comparison ranking: 15

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.07 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 151

Tobacco use

total: 11.8% (2020 est.)

male: 21.7% (2020 est.)

female: 1.9% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 124

Education expenditures

3.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 149

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.5%

male: 92.4%

female: 94.7% (2017)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 12 years

female: 15 years (2021)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air, land, and water pollution are significant environmental issues; limited natural freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities; other issues include conservation of oil supplies and preservation of the natural wildlife heritage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Land use

agricultural land: 5.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 4.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 94.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 99.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 173

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 113

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 59.04 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 103.26 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 8.34 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,000,990 tons (2012 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 30,030 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 3% (2014 est.)

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 530 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 400 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: State of Qatar

conventional short form: Qatar

local long form: Dawlat Qatar

local short form: Qatar

etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it dates back at least 2,000 years since a term "Catharrei" was used to describe the inhabitants of the peninsula by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), and a "Catara" peninsula is depicted on a map by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.)

note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation is gat-tar or cot-tar

Government type

absolute monarchy

Capital

name: Doha

geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: derives from the Arabic term "dohat," meaning "roundness," and refers to the small rounded bays along the area's coastline

Administrative divisions

8 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Ash Shamal, Ash Shihaniyah, Az Za'ayin, Umm Salal

Independence

3 September 1971 (from the UK)

National holiday

National Day, 18 December (1878), anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne; Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution

history: previous 1972 (provisional); latest drafted 2 July 2002, approved by referendum 29 April 2003, endorsed 8 June 2004, effective 9 June 2005

amendments: proposed by the Amir or by one third of Advisory Council members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Advisory Council members and approval and promulgation by the emir; articles pertaining to the rule of state and its inheritance, functions of the emir, and citizen rights and liberties cannot be amended

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil law and Islamic (sharia) law (in family and personal matters)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Qatar

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years; 15 years if an Arab national

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister and Foreign Minister MUHAMMAD bin Abd al-Rahman Al Thani (since 7 March 2023); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Muhammad al-Attiyah (since 14 November 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the amir

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 30 members directly elected by popular vote for 4-year re-electable terms; 15 members appointed by the monarch to serve until resignation or until relieved; note - legislative drafting authority rests with the Council of Ministers and is reviewed by the Advisory Council

elections: first election held for 30 elected members on 2 October 2021 (next to be held in 2025); date of appointed members - 14 October 2021 (next appointments - NA)

election results: 30 nonpartisan members elected; composition - men 30, women 0
15 appointed members; composition men 13, women 2, percent of women 13.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and several judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body consisting of judiciary heads appointed by the Amir; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the monarch; term of appointment NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; Courts of Justice; Qatar International Court and Dispute Resolution Center, established in 2009, provides dispute resolution services for institutions and bodies in Qatar, as well as internationally

Political parties and leaders

political parties are banned

International organization participation

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA (observer), EITI (implementing country), FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador MISHAL bin Hamad bin Muhammad Al Thani (since 24 April 2017)

chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 237-0682

email address and website:
info.dc@mofa.gov.qa

https://washington.embassy.qa/en

consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Timmy DAVIS (since 5 September 2022)

embassy: 22 February Street, Al Luqta District, P.O. Box 2399, Doha

mailing address: 6130 Doha Place, Washington DC  20521-6130

telephone: [974] 4496-6000

FAX: [974] 4488-4298

email address and website:
PasDoha@state.gov

https://qa.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side; maroon represents the blood shed in Qatari wars, white stands for peace; the nine-pointed serrated edge signifies Qatar as the ninth member of the "reconciled emirates" in the wake of the Qatari-British treaty of 1916

note: the other eight emirates are the seven that compose the UAE and Bahrain; according to some sources, the dominant color was formerly red, but this darkened to maroon upon exposure to the sun and the new shade was eventually adopted

National symbol(s)

a maroon field surmounted by a white serrated band with nine white points; national colors: maroon, white

National anthem

name: "Al-Salam Al-Amiri" (The Amiri Salute)

lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDAN

note: adopted 1996; anthem first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council hosted by Qatar

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Al Zubarah Archaeological Site

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, oil-and-gas-based Middle Eastern economy; National Vision 2030 government strategy for economic development, diversification, favorable business conditions to grow investment and employment; infrastructure investments; Islamic finance leader; citizenship-based labor force growth

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$260.235 billion (2022 est.)
$249.725 billion (2021 est.)
$245.727 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 63

Real GDP growth rate

4.21% (2022 est.)
1.63% (2021 est.)
-3.56% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 102

Real GDP per capita

$96,600 (2022 est.)
$92,900 (2021 est.)
$89,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 6

GDP (official exchange rate)

$236.258 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5% (2022 est.)
2.3% (2021 est.)
-2.54% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 74

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA- (2017)

Moody's rating: Aa3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 50.3% (2017 est.)

services: 49.5% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 181; industry 11; agriculture 218

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 24.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 43.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 51% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -37.3% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

eggs, tomatoes, dates, poultry, cucumbers, camel milk, sheep milk, goat milk, pumpkins/gourds, poultry

Industries

liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizer, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair

Industrial production growth rate

1.69% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 135

Labor force

2.011 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 127

Unemployment rate

0.13% (2022 est.)
0.14% (2021 est.)
0.14% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 2

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 1.1% (2021 est.)

male: 0.9%

female: 2.1%

comparison ranking: total 202

Average household expenditures

on food: 12.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 0.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.3%

highest 10%: 35.9% (2007)

Remittances

0.44% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.48% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.45% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $65.922 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $57.258 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 178

Public debt

53.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
46.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 94

Taxes and other revenues

26.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 39

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

$63.118 billion (2022 est.)
$26.319 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.986 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 11

Exports

$161.693 billion (2022 est.)
$105.549 billion (2021 est.)
$70.933 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 39

Exports - partners

China 18%, India 15%, Japan 10%, South Korea 9%, United Kingdom 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, fertilizers, ethylene polymers (2022)

Imports

$74.52 billion (2022 est.)
$61.204 billion (2021 est.)
$59.065 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 56

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 13%, China 11%, United States 10%, United Kingdom 8%, India 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

gas turbines, jewelry, cars, aircraft, broadcasting equipment (2022)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$47.389 billion (2022 est.)
$42.213 billion (2021 est.)
$40.973 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 48

Debt - external

$167.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$157.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 45

Exchange rates

Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
3.64 (2022 est.)
3.64 (2021 est.)
3.64 (2020 est.)
3.64 (2019 est.)
3.64 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 10.633 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 44,116,984,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.772 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 63; transmission/distribution losses 146; imports 181; exports 173; consumption 56

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 1,815,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 293,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,264,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 25.244 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

273,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 46

Refined petroleum products - exports

485,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 18

Refined petroleum products - imports

12,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 143

Natural gas

production: 167,460,996,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 37,701,809,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 126,749,621,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 23,860,500,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

111.922 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 33.44 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 78.482 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 38

Energy consumption per capita

723.582 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 1

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 523,765 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 90

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,876,499 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 144 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 134

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Qatar had developed a mature telecom sector which has been able to absorb the additional data demands made on it during the pandemic; mobile services based on LTE are universally available to migrate to 5G; in combination with a strong fiber rollout, the country is aiming to provide gigabit services nationally; 5G services are largely based on 3.5GHz spectrum made available following an auction in early 2019 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is 17 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership is 144 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 974; landing points for the Qatar-UAE Submarine Cable System, AAE-1, FOG, GBICS/East North Africa MENA and the FALCON submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and Southeast Asia; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; retains full ownership of two commercial satellites, Es'hailSat 1 and 2 (2019)

Broadcast media

TV and radio broadcast licensing and access to local media markets are state controlled; home of the satellite TV channel Al-Jazeera, which was originally owned and financed by the Qatari government but has evolved to independent corporate status; Al-Jazeera claims editorial independence in broadcasting; local radio transmissions include state, private, and international broadcasters on FM frequencies in Doha; in August 2013, Qatar's satellite company Es'hailSat launched its first communications satellite Es'hail 1 (manufactured in the US), which entered commercial service in December 2013 to provide improved television broadcasting capability and expand availability of voice and Internet; Es'hailSat launched its second commercial satellite in 2018 with aid of SpaceX (2019)

Internet users

total: 2.7 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 100% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 126

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 296,126 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 107

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 251

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 29,178,923 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 12,666,710,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

8 (2024)

comparison ranking: 166

Heliports

12 (2024)

Pipelines

288 km condensate, 221 km condensate/gas, 2,383 km gas, 90 km liquid petroleum gas, 745 km oil, 103 km refined products (2013)

Roadways

total: 7,039 km (2016)

comparison ranking: total 145

Merchant marine

total: 123 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 4, general cargo 4, oil tanker 2, other 108

comparison ranking: total 80

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Doha, Musay'id, Ra's Laffan

LNG terminal(s) (export): Ras Laffan

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Qatar Armed Forces (QAF): Qatari Amiri Land Force (QALF, includes Emiri Guard), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN, includes Coast Guard), Qatari Amiri Air Force (QAAF)

Ministry of Interior: General Directorate of Public Security, General Directorate of Coasts and Border Security, Internal Security Forces (includes Mobile Gendarmerie) (2024)

note: the national police and Ministry of Interior forces maintain internal security, including preventing terrorism, cyberattacks, and espionage

Military expenditures

5% of GDP (2022 est.)
4% of GDP (2021 est.)
4% of GDP (2020 est.)
3.4% of GDP (2019 est.)
3.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 8

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 15,000 active-duty personnel (10,000 Land Force, including Emiri Guard; 3,000 Navy; 2,000 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Qatari military's inventory includes a broad mix of older and modern weapons systems, mostly from the US and Europe; in the 2010s, Qatar embarked on an extensive military expansion and modernization program with large air, ground, and naval equipment purchases; in recent years, France and the US have been the top suppliers; other major suppliers have included Germany, Italy, and the UK; Qatar is one of the world's largest arms importers (2023)

Military service age and obligation

conscription for men aged 18-35 introduced in 2013; compulsory service times range from 4-12 months, depending on educational and professional circumstances; since 2018, women have been permitted to serve as volunteers in the armed forces, including as uniformed officers and pilots (2023)

note 1: the military incorporates about 2,000 conscripts annually

note 2: Qatar recruits foreign contract soldiers to overcome manpower limitations

Military - note

the QAF is a small and well-equipped force that is responsible for defense against external threats; following the downturn in ties with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE in the mid-2010s, the Qatari Government embarked on a major arms acquisition and modernization program to increase the QAF’s capabilities and regional standing; the Air Force has benefited the most, growing from an inventory of 12 older combat aircraft and a few fighter trainers in 2017 to a current inventory of about 60 modern multirole fighter aircraft from France, the UK, and the US; it is slated to grow to about 100 such aircraft by the mid-2020s; other aircraft acquisitions have included US attack helicopters; the Land Force has re-equipped its armored brigade and separate mechanized and artillery battalions with modern tanks, armored vehicles, and self-propelled artillery, mostly with purchases from Germany and Turkey; meanwhile, the Navy over the same period has received four corvettes and four offshore patrol vessels from Italy and Turkey

Qatar hosts the regional headquarters for the US Central Command (CENTCOM; established 1983) and several thousand US military forces at various military facilities, including the large Al Udeid Air Base; it has Major Non-NATO Ally status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation; Qatar also hosts Turkish military forces at two bases established in 2014 and 2019 (2023)

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 1,200 (2022)