Romania

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the control of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856. They were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. Romania joined NATO in 2004, the EU in 2007, and the Schengen Area for air and sea travel in 2024.

Geography

Area

total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

People and Society

Population

total: 18,148,155
male: 8,747,795
female: 9,400,360 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Romanian 89.3%, Hungarian 6%, Romani 3.4%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.1%, other 0.9% (2021 est.)

Languages

Romanian (official) 91.6%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 0.7% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared a maternal language in the 2021 national census; 13.1% did not respond

Religions

Romanian Orthodox 85.3%, Roman Catholic 4.5%, Reformed 3%, Pentecostal 2.5%, other 4.7% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.94% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Bucharest

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Marcel CIOLACU (since 15 June 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Hunor KELEMEN (since 23 December 2020)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, service- and industrial-based European economy; EU member but non-euro user until convergence criteria met; sustained growth prior to COVID-19; major FDI recipient; flat taxation structure; digital hub of Eastern Europe

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$618.95 billion (2022 est.)
$591.757 billion (2021 est.)
$559.798 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$32,500 (2022 est.)
$30,900 (2021 est.)
$29,100 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, maize, milk, sunflower seeds, barley, potatoes, rapeseed, grapes, plums, apples (2022)

Industries

electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Exports

$129.286 billion (2022 est.)
$115.879 billion (2021 est.)
$93.024 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 10%, Hungary 7%, France 6%, Bulgaria 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

vehicle parts/accessories, cars, insulated wire, refined petroleum, wheat (2022)

Imports

$149.209 billion (2022 est.)
$132.056 billion (2021 est.)
$103.899 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 17%, Italy 8%, Hungary 6%, Turkey 6%, Poland 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, vehicle parts/accessories, refined petroleum, packaged medicine, cars (2022)

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
4.688 (2022 est.)
4.16 (2021 est.)
4.244 (2020 est.)
4.238 (2019 est.)
3.942 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024