Romania

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878.

Geography

Area

total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

People and Society

Population

18,519,899 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

Languages

Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

Religions

Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.09% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Bucharest

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae CIUCA (since 25 November 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Kelemen HUNOR (since 23 December 2020)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, service- and industrial-based European economy; EU member but non-euro user until convergence criteria met; sustained growth prior to COVID-19; major FDI recipient; flat taxation structure; digital hub of Eastern Europe

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$556.07 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$28,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, potatoes, barley, grapes, sugar beet, rapeseed, plums/sloes

Industries

electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Exports

$93.01 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 22%, Italy 10%, France 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, insulated wiring, refined petroleum, electrical control boards, seats (2019)

Imports

$104.16 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 9%, Hungary 7%, Poland 6%, China 5%, France 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, insulated wiring, broadcasting equipment (2019)


Page last updated: Monday, May 23, 2022