Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878.



total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

People and Society


18,326,327 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Romanian 89.3%, Hungarian 6%, Romani 3.4%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.1%, other 0.9% (2021 est.)


Romanian (official) 91.6%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 0.7% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared a maternal language in the 2021 national census; 13.1% did not respond


Romanian Orthodox 85.3%, Roman Catholic 4.5%, Reformed 3%, Pentecostal 2.5, other 4.7% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.01% (2023 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Bucharest

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae CIUCA (since 25 November 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Hunor KELEMEN (since 23 December 2020)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income, service- and industrial-based European economy; EU member but non-euro user until convergence criteria met; sustained growth prior to COVID-19; major FDI recipient; flat taxation structure; digital hub of Eastern Europe

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$588.451 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$30,800 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, potatoes, barley, grapes, sugar beet, rapeseed, plums/sloes


electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials


3.22% of GDP (2021 est.)


$115.879 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 22%, Italy 10%, France 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, insulated wiring, refined petroleum, electrical control boards, seats (2019)


$132.056 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 9%, Hungary 7%, Poland 6%, China 5%, France 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, insulated wiring, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -
4.16 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, April 24, 2023