Photos of Romania

Introduction

Background

The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 25 00 E

Area

total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

country comparison to the world: 83

Area - comparative

twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km

border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km

Coastline

225 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain

central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation

mean elevation: 414 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

31,490 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues

soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups

Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population

Languages

Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

Religions

Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.12% (male 1,545,196/female 1,463,700)

15-24 years: 10.31% (male 1,126,997/female 1,068,817)

25-54 years: 46.26% (male 4,993,886/female 4,860,408)

55-64 years: 11.73% (male 1,176,814/female 1,322,048)

65 years and over: 17.58% (male 1,516,472/female 2,228,555) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.3

youth dependency ratio: 23.8

elderly dependency ratio: 29.5

potential support ratio: 3.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 42.5 years

male: 41 years

female: 44 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Birth rate

8.39 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 215

Death rate

11.99 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Urbanization

urban population: 54.2% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: -0.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.794 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.1 years (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.41 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 10.82 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years

male: 72.88 years

female: 79.94 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

6.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 95.3% of population

rural: 71.5% of population

total: 84.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.7% of population

rural: 28.5% of population

total: 15.7% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<500 (2019 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.8%

male: 99.1%

female: 98.6% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 16.2%

male: 16.3%

female: 16.2% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania

former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania

etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Bucharest

geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: related to the Romanian word "bucura" that is believed to be of Dacian origin and whose meaning is "to be glad (happy)"; Bucharest's meaning is thus akin to "city of joy"

Administrative divisions

41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea

Independence

9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991

amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles, including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms, cannot be amended; amended 2003

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Florin CITU (since 23 December 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers Dan BARNA and Kelemen HUNOR (since 23 December 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results: Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%; Ludovic ORBAN approved as prime minister with 240 votes

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Senate - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 29.3%, PNL 25.6%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.9%, AUR 9.2%, UDMR 5.9%, other 14.1%; seats by party - PSD 47, PNL 41, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 25, AUR 14, UDMR 9; composition - men NA, women NA, percent of women NA%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 28.9%, PNL 25.2%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.4%, AUR 9.1%, UDMR 5.7%, other 15.7%; seats by party - PSD 110, PNL 93, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 55, AUR 33, UDMR 21, other 18; composition men NA, women NA, percent of women NA; note - total Parliament percent of women NA%

Judicial branch

highest courts: High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders

2020 USR-PLUS Alliance [Dan BARNA and Dacian CIOLOS]
Alliance for the Unity of Romanians {George SIMION and Claudiu TARZIU]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Ioana CONSTANTIN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Ludovic ORBAN]
New Romania Party or PNR [Sebastian POPESCU]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Party of Liberty, Unity, and Solidarity or PLUS [Dacian CIOLOS]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or Partidul USR [Dan BARNA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU]
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian ZUCKERMAN (since 17 December 2019)

telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300

embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118

mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)

FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

Economy

Economic overview

Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in the 2013-17 period, driven by strong industrial exports, excellent agricultural harvests, and, more recently, expansionary fiscal policies in 2016-2017 that nearly quadrupled Bucharest’s annual fiscal deficit, from +0.8% of GDP in 2015 to -3% of GDP in 2016 and an estimated -3.4% in 2017. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2017. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was the major driver, due to tax cuts and large wage increases that began last year and are set to continue in 2018.

An aging population, emigration of skilled labor, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package compromise Romania’s long-term growth and economic stability and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.

Real GDP growth rate

4.2% (2019 est.)

4.54% (2018 est.)

7.11% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.8% (2019 est.)

4.6% (2018 est.)

1.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2011)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2006)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2014)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$579.549 billion (2019 est.)

$556.442 billion (2018 est.)

$532.611 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 37

GDP (official exchange rate)

$249.543 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$29,941 (2019 est.)

$28,576 (2018 est.)

$27,192 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 68

Gross national saving

18.3% of GDP (2019 est.)

18.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

20.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)

services: 62.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, potatoes, barley, grapes, sugar beet, rapeseed, plums/sloes

Industries

electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 28.3%

industry: 28.9%

services: 42.8% (2014)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 15.3%

highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)

Budget

revenues: 62.14 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 68.13 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

36.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

country comparison to the world: 145

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$11.389 billion (2019 est.)

-$10.78 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194

Exports

$114.311 billion (2019 est.)

$110.685 billion (2018 est.)

$105.188 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Exports - partners

Germany 23%, Italy 11.2%, France 6.8%, Hungary 4.7%, UK 4.1% (2017)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials

Imports

$136.091 billion (2019 est.)

$127.553 billion (2018 est.)

$117.292 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Imports - partners

Germany 20%, Italy 10%, Hungary 7.5%, Poland 5.5%, France 5.3%, China 5%, Netherlands 4% (2017)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$44.43 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$40 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Debt - external

$117.829 billion (2019 est.)

$115.803 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -

4.02835 (2020 est.)

4.31655 (2019 est.)

4.0782 (2018 est.)

4.0057 (2014 est.)

3.3492 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,731,047

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17.45 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 25,033,292

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117.08 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services; competition among a number of telecoms; LTE and 5G services; 1Gb/FttP offering; govt. secures EU funding to extend broadband to areas of the country not yet connected and does away with SIM card registration; operators invest in networks capacity upgrades (2020)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 17 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by four mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 117 telephones per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 40; landing point for the Diamond Link Global submarine cable linking Romania with Georgia; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting

Internet users

total: 15,165,890

percent of population: 70.68% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5.083 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,908,235 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.71 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 26 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2017)

under 914 m: 1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 19 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)

under 914 m: 14 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Pipelines

3726 km gas, 2451 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 11,268 km (2014)

standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified) (2014)

narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)

broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 23

Roadways

total: 84,185 km (2012)

paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways) (2012)

unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)

country comparison to the world: 59

Waterways

1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)

country comparison to the world: 45

Merchant marine

total: 120

by type: general cargo 11, oil tanker 7, other 102 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 82

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia

river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Romanian Armed Forces: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Romanian Gendarmerie (2021)

Military expenditures

2.38% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.84% of GDP (2019)

1.8% of GDP (2018)

1.72% of GDP (2017)

1.4% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 40

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Romanian Armed Forces have approximately 65,000 active duty personnel (48,000 Land Forces; 7,000 Naval Forces; 10,000 Air Force; note: some personnel are considered joint service) (2020)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Romanian Armed Forces is comprised mostly of Soviet-era and older domestically-produced weapons systems; there is also a smaller mix of Western-origin equipment; Italy, Portugal (second-hand fighter aircraft), and the US are the leading suppliers of armaments to Romania since 2010 (2019)

Military deployments

740 Afghanistan (NATO); 240 Mali (MINUSMA/EUTM); up to 120 Poland (NATO) (2020)

Military service age and obligation

conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 192 (2019)

note: 6,838 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-February 2021)

Illicit drugs

major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos