Photos of Romania

Mural in the inner court of Peles Castle.



The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 25 00 E


total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

country comparison to the world: 83

Area - comparative

twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

<p>twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon</p>

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km

border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km


225 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms


central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps


highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 414 m

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

31,490 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Geography - note

controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

People and Society


noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups

Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population


Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Cartea informativa a lumii, sursa indispensabila pentru informatii de baza. (Romanian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Romanian audio sample:


Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.12% (male 1,545,196/female 1,463,700)

15-24 years: 10.31% (male 1,126,997/female 1,068,817)

25-54 years: 46.26% (male 4,993,886/female 4,860,408)

55-64 years: 11.73% (male 1,176,814/female 1,322,048)

65 years and over: 17.58% (male 1,516,472/female 2,228,555) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Romania. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.3

youth dependency ratio: 23.8

elderly dependency ratio: 29.5

potential support ratio: 3.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 42.5 years

male: 41 years

female: 44 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Birth rate

8.39 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 215

Death rate

11.99 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania


urban population: 54.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.794 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.9 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.41 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 10.82 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years

male: 72.88 years

female: 79.94 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

6.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 95.3% of population

rural: 71.5% of population

total: 84.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.7% of population

rural: 28.5% of population

total: 15.7% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

19,000 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children

country comparison to the world: 85

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<500 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.8%

male: 99.1%

female: 98.6% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 16.8%

male: 16.3%

female: 17.5% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86


Environment - current issues

soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.29 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 69.26 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 27.62 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.048 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 4.234 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.491 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

212.01 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39


urban population: 54.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.895 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 277,547 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.7% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)


Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania

former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania

etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Bucharest

geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: related to the Romanian word "bucura" that is believed to be of Dacian origin and whose meaning is "to be glad (happy)"; Bucharest's meaning is thus akin to "city of joy"

Administrative divisions

41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea


9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)


history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991

amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles, including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Florin CITU (since 23 December 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers Dan BARNA and Kelemen HUNOR (since 23 December 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results: Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%; Ludovic ORBAN approved as prime minister with 240 votes

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Senate - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 29.3%, PNL 25.6%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.9%, AUR 9.2%, UDMR 5.9%, other 14.1%; seats by party - PSD 47, PNL 41, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 25, AUR 14, UDMR 9; composition - men NA, women NA, percent of women NA%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 28.9%, PNL 25.2%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.4%, AUR 9.1%, UDMR 5.7%, other 15.7%; seats by party - PSD 110, PNL 93, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 55, AUR 33, UDMR 21, other 18; composition men NA, women NA, percent of women NA; note - total Parliament percent of women NA%

Judicial branch

highest courts: High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders

2020 USR-PLUS Alliance [Dan BARNA and Dacian CIOLOS]
Alliance for the Unity of Romanians [George SIMION and Claudiu TARZIU]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Ioana CONSTANTIN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Ludovic ORBAN]
New Romania Party or PNR [Sebastian POPESCU]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Party of Liberty, Unity, and Solidarity or PLUS [Dacian CIOLOS]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or Partidul USR [Dan BARNA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU]
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Cristian GAGINSKY (since 19 June 2021)

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4829; [1] (202) 332-4846

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

email address and website: (chancery) (consular section)

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David MUNIZ (since 20 January 2021)

embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118

mailing address: 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC  20521-5260

telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300

FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution


Economic overview

Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in the 2013-17 period, driven by strong industrial exports, excellent agricultural harvests, and, more recently, expansionary fiscal policies in 2016-2017 that nearly quadrupled Bucharest’s annual fiscal deficit, from +0.8% of GDP in 2015 to -3% of GDP in 2016 and an estimated -3.4% in 2017. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2017. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was the major driver, due to tax cuts and large wage increases that began last year and are set to continue in 2018.

An aging population, emigration of skilled labor, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package compromise Romania’s long-term growth and economic stability and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$579.549 billion (2019 est.)

$556.442 billion (2018 est.)

$532.611 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 37

Real GDP growth rate

4.2% (2019 est.)

4.54% (2018 est.)

7.11% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Real GDP per capita

$29,941 (2019 est.)

$28,576 (2018 est.)

$27,192 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 68

GDP (official exchange rate)

$249.543 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.8% (2019 est.)

4.6% (2018 est.)

1.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2011)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2006)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2014)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)

services: 62.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, potatoes, barley, grapes, sugar beet, rapeseed, plums/sloes


electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 28.3%

industry: 28.9%

services: 42.8% (2014)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 15.3%

highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)


revenues: 62.14 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 68.13 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

36.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

country comparison to the world: 145

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$11.389 billion (2019 est.)

-$10.78 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194


$114.311 billion (2019 est.)

$110.685 billion (2018 est.)

$105.188 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Exports - partners

Germany 22%, Italy 10%, France 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, insulated wiring, refined petroleum, electrical control boards, seats (2019)


$136.091 billion (2019 est.)

$127.553 billion (2018 est.)

$117.292 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Imports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 9%, Hungary 7%, Poland 6%, China 5%, France 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, insulated wiring, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$44.43 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$40 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Debt - external

$117.829 billion (2019 est.)

$115.803 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -

4.02835 (2020 est.)

4.31655 (2019 est.)

4.0782 (2018 est.)

4.0057 (2014 est.)

3.3492 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3.38 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.8 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 22.671 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

Romania’s telecom sector benefits from infrastructure-based competition; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services; fiber sector is one of strongest in Europe; government secured EU funding to extend broadband to rural areas; operators invest in networks’ capacity upgrades; operator testing IoT; importer of broadcasting equipment from EU neighbors (2021)


domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 17 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by four mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 117 telephones per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 40; landing point for the Diamond Link Global submarine cable linking Romania with Georgia; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting

Internet users

total: 15,165,890

percent of population: 70.68% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,277,700

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24.68 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,908,235 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.71 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 26

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

under 914 m: 1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 14 (2013)


2 (2013)


3726 km gas, 2451 km oil (2013)


total: 11,268 km (2014)

standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified) (2014)

narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)

broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 23


total: 84,185 km (2012)

paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways) (2012)

unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)

country comparison to the world: 59


1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)

country comparison to the world: 45

Merchant marine

total: 120

by type: general cargo 11, oil tanker 7, other 102 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 82

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia

river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Romanian Armed Forces: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Romanian Gendarmerie (2021)

Military expenditures

2.07% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.84% of GDP (2019)

1.81% of GDP (2018)

1.72% of GDP (2017)

1.41% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 54

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Romanian Armed Forces have approximately 67,000 active duty personnel (50,000 Land Forces; 7,000 Naval Forces; 10,000 Air Force; note: 10-15,000 personnel are considered joint service) (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Romanian Armed Forces is comprised mostly of Soviet-era and older domestically-produced weapons systems; there is also a smaller mix of Western-origin equipment; Italy, Portugal (second-hand fighter aircraft), and the US are the leading suppliers of armaments to Romania since 2010 (2020)

Military deployments

up to 120 Poland (NATO) (2021)

Military service age and obligation

conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2019)

Military - note

Romania officially became a member of NATO in 2004


Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 275 (2020)

note: 8,368 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-October 2021)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Romania and Romanians abroad;  Romania remains a primary source country for sex and labor trafficking victims in Europe; Romanian men, women, and children are subjected to forced labor in agriculture, construction, hotels, manufacturing, domestic service, commercial sex, and forced begging and theft; Romania is a destination country for a limited number of foreign trafficking victims, including migrants from Africa, Europe, and South and Southeast Asia, exploited in the construction, hotel, and food-processing industries

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Romania does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government identified more trafficking victims during the reporting period, participated in more international investigations, and conducted awareness campaigns; however, authorities investigated, prosecuted, and convicted fewer traffickers; officials complicit in trafficking crimes, especially with minors in government-run homes or placement centers, were not prosecuted; government funding of services for child trafficking victims remained inadequate (2020)

Illicit drugs

major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos