Photos of Romania



The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia -- for centuries under the control of the Turkish Ottoman Empire -- secured their autonomy through the Treaty of Paris in 1856. They were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country joined the Allied Powers in World War I and subsequently acquired new territories -- most notably Transylvania -- that more than doubled its size. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004, the EU in 2007, and the Schengen Area for air and sea travel in 2024.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 25 00 E


total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

comparison ranking: total 83

Area - comparative

twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km

border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km; Hungary 424 km; Moldova 683 km; Serbia 531 km; Ukraine 601 km


225 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms


central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps


highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 414 m

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

4,730 sq km (2020)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunărea (Danube) river mouth (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Geography - note

controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

People and Society


18,326,327 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 68


noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups

Romanian 89.3%, Hungarian 6%, Romani 3.4%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.1%, other 0.9% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared an ethnic group in the 2021 national census; 13% did not respond; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population


Romanian (official) 91.6%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 0.7% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared a maternal language in the 2021 national census; 13.1% did not respond

major-language sample(s):
Cartea informativa a lumii, sursa indispensabila pentru informatii de baza. (Romanian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Romanian audio sample:


Romanian Orthodox 85.3%, Roman Catholic 4.5%, Reformed 3%, Pentecostal 2.5%, other 4.7% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared a religion in the 2021 national census; 13.9% did not respond

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.63% (male 1,472,449/female 1,391,671)

15-64 years: 62.13% (male 5,689,908/female 5,696,224)

65 years and over: 22.24% (2023 est.) (male 1,682,695/female 2,393,380)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.7

youth dependency ratio: 24.6

elderly dependency ratio: 29.1

potential support ratio: 3.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 45.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 43.6 years

female: 46.5 years

comparison ranking: total 17

Population growth rate

-1.01% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 229

Birth rate

8.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 209

Death rate

14.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 5

Net migration rate

-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 194

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania


urban population: 54.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.776 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.1 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 144

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 172

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 72.9 years

female: 80 years

comparison ranking: total population 104

Total fertility rate

1.63 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 176

Gross reproduction rate

0.79 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

6.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 96.9% of population

rural: 76% of population

total: 87.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.1% of population

rural: 24% of population

total: 12.7% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.5% (2016)

comparison ranking: 76

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 5.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 14

Tobacco use

total: 28% (2020 est.)

male: 35.9% (2020 est.)

female: 20% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 37

Education expenditures

3.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 130


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.9%

male: 99.1%

female: 98.7% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)


urban population: 54.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.16% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 99

Revenue from coal

0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 39

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 13.3 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 69.26 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 27.62 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.895 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 277,547 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.7% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunărea (Danube) river mouth (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.09 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3.9 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 1.43 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

212 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 2

global geoparks and regional networks: Buzău; Haţeg (2023)


Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania

former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania

etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Bucharest

geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: related to the Romanian word "bucura" that is believed to be of Dacian origin and whose meaning is "to be glad (happy)"; Bucharest's meaning is thus akin to "city of joy"

Administrative divisions

41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea


9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)


history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991

amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles, including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Marcel CIOLACU (since 15 June 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Hunor KELEMEN (since 23 December 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results:
Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%

2014: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Senate - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 29.3%, PNL 25.6%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.9%, AUR 9.2%, UDMR 5.9%, other 14.1%; seats by party - PSD 47, PNL 41, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 25, AUR 14, UDMR 9; composition - men 111, women 24, percentage women 17.8%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 28.9%, PNL 25.2%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.4%, AUR 9.1%, UDMR 5.7%, other 15.7%; seats by party - PSD 110, PNL 93, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 55, AUR 33, UDMR 21, other 18; composition - men 265, women 63, percentage women 19.2%; total Parliament percentage women 18.8%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders

2020 USR-PLUS Alliance [Dan BARNA and Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Alliance for the Fatherland or APP [Codrin STEFANESCU]
Alliance for the Unity of Romanians or AUR [George SIMION]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Force of the Right or FD [Ludovic ORBAN]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Victor IOVICI]
Green Party [Marius LAZAR and Lavinia COSMA]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Nicolae CIUCA]
Party of Liberty, Unity, and Solidarity or PLUS [Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugen TOMAC]
PRO Romania or PRO [Victor PONTA]
Romanian Nationhood Party or PNR [Ninel PEIA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Catalin DRULA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU]
Social Liberal Humanist Party or PUSL [Daniel IONASCU] (formerly Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal) or PPU-SL)
The Right Alternative or AD [Adela MIRZA]
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]
We are Renewing the European Project in Romania or REPER [Dacian CIOLOS; Ramona STRUGARIU; Dragos PISLARU]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dan Andrei MURARU (since 15 September 2021)

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4829; [1] (202) 332-4846

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

email address and website:;

Embassy of Romania - Washington, DC (

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen KAVALEC (since 14 February 2023)

embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118

mailing address: 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC  20521-5260

telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300

FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 9 (7 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Danube Delta (n); Churches of Moldavia (c); Monastery of Horezu (c); Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania (c); Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains (c); Historic Center of Sighişoara (c); Wooden Churches of Maramureş (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Roșia Montană Mining Landscape (c)


Economic overview

high-income, service- and industrial-based European economy; EU member but non-euro user until convergence criteria met; sustained growth prior to COVID-19; major FDI recipient; flat taxation structure; digital hub of Eastern Europe

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$618.95 billion (2022 est.)
$591.757 billion (2021 est.)
$559.798 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 37

Real GDP growth rate

4.6% (2022 est.)
5.71% (2021 est.)
-3.68% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 89

Real GDP per capita

$32,500 (2022 est.)
$30,900 (2021 est.)
$29,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 72

GDP (official exchange rate)

$300.691 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

13.8% (2022 est.)
5.05% (2021 est.)
2.63% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 180

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2011)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2006)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)

services: 62.6% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 103; industry 55; agriculture 134

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seeds, potatoes, barley, grapes, sugar beets, rapeseed, plums/sloes


electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate

3.25% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 109

Labor force

8.296 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 64

Unemployment rate

5.61% (2022 est.)
5.59% (2021 est.)
5.03% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 115

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 20.6% (2021 est.)

male: 20.9%

female: 20.1%

comparison ranking: total 80

Population below poverty line

21.2% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

34.6 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 106

Average household expenditures

on food: 27.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5.7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 24.2% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population


2.88% of GDP (2022 est.)
3.19% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.03% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $72.193 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $83.59 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 125

Public debt

55.57% of GDP (2021 est.)
57.11% of GDP (2020 est.)
43.21% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 89

Taxes and other revenues

14.96% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 143

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$27.326 billion (2022 est.)
-$20.627 billion (2021 est.)
-$12.535 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 200


$129.286 billion (2022 est.)
$115.879 billion (2021 est.)
$93.024 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 41

Exports - partners

Germany 20%, Italy 10%, France 6%, Hungary 5%, Poland 4% (2021)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, insulated wiring, refined petroleum, electrical control boards, seats (2019)


$149.209 billion (2022 est.)
$132.056 billion (2021 est.)
$103.899 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 39

Imports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 9%, Hungary 7%, Poland 6%, China 6% (2021)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, insulated wiring, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$55.81 billion (2022 est.)
$51.886 billion (2021 est.)
$52.191 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 46

Debt - external

$117.829 billion (2019 est.)
$115.803 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 50

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
4.688 (2022 est.)
4.16 (2021 est.)
4.244 (2020 est.)
4.238 (2019 est.)
3.942 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 20.528 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 50,039,421,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 5.459 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 8.252 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 6.501 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 28; exports 35; installed generating capacity 46; transmission/distribution losses 172; consumption 50

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 32.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 20.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 29.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 2 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 1.3GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 18.5% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 12.9% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0


production: 15.002 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 16.412 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 2,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.384 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 291 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 74,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 222,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 161,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 600 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

232,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 47

Refined petroleum products - exports

103,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 44

Refined petroleum products - imports

49,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 81

Natural gas

production: 10,367,941,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 11,087,528,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 11.185 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 2,800,985,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 105.48 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

68.746 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 20.891 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 27.268 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 20.588 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 51

Energy consumption per capita

71.736 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 84


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2.222 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 50

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 22.929 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 56

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Romania’s telecom market has undergone several significant changes in recent years; the mobile market is served by network operators that have extensive LTE networks in place, while services based on 5G have been offered under their existing spectrum concessions since 2019; the delayed multi-spectrum auction, expected to be completed later in 2021, will enable the operators to expand 5G network capacity and enable consumers to make far greater use of the technology’s potential; in line with legislation passed in July 2021 the MNOs will have to replace equipment provided by vendors deemed to be a security risk (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 13 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is119 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 40; landing point for the Diamond Link Global submarine cable linking Romania with Georgia; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2019)

Broadcast media

a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting

Internet users

total: 15.96 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 84% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 48

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,684,782 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 32


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,908,235 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.71 million (2018) mt-km


82 (2024)

comparison ranking: 65


18 (2024)


3,726 km gas, 2,451 km oil (2013)


total: 10,628 km (2020) 4,030 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 23


total: 85,387 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 59


1,731 km (2010) (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals)

comparison ranking: 47

Merchant marine

total: 127 (2023)

by type: general cargo 9, oil tanker 7, other 111

comparison ranking: total 79

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia

river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Romanian Armed Forces (Forțele Armate Române or Armata Română): Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force

Ministry of Internal Affairs: General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie (Jandarmeria Română), the Romanian Border Police, the General Directorate for Internal Protection, and the Directorate General for Anticorruption (2024)

Military expenditures

1.6% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2022)
1.9% of GDP (2021)
2% of GDP (2020)
1.8% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 88

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 75,000 active-duty military personnel (58,000 Land Forces; 7,000 Naval Forces; 10,000 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory includes a considerable amount of Soviet-era and older domestically produced weapons systems, although in recent years it has launched an effort to acquire more Western-origin equipment from European countries and the US, including aircraft and armored vehicles (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary service for men and women; all military inductees contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36; conscription ended in 2006 (2023)

Military deployments

up to 120 Poland (NATO) (2023)

Military - note

the Romanian Armed Forces are responsible for territorial defense, fulfilling Romania’s commitments to European security, and contributing to multinational peacekeeping operations; the military has a variety of concerns, including cyber attacks and terrorism, but its primary focus is Russian aggression against neighboring Ukraine and Russia's activities in the Black Sea and Romania’s other eastern neighbor, Moldova

Romania joined NATO in 2004, and the Alliance forms a key pillar of the country’s defense policy; it hosts a NATO multinational divisional headquarters (Multinational Division Southeast) and a French-led ground force battlegroup as part of NATO's Enhanced Forward Presence initiative in the southeastern part of the Alliance, which came about in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine; NATO allies have also sent detachments of fighters to augment the Romanian Air Force since 2014 because of aggressive Russian activity in the Black Sea region; the Romanian military trains regularly with NATO and its member states and participates in NATO- and EU-led multinational missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Poland

the military is an all-volunteer force equipped largely with Soviet-era or other aging weapons systems, although since joining NATO it has embarked on an effort to acquire more modern, NATO-compatible weapons systems, such as armored vehicles, combat aircraft, and naval vessels; the main combat formations of the Land Forces are two combined arms infantry divisions, each comprised of three or four mechanized and mountain infantry brigades, plus artillery, reconnaissance, and other combat support forces; the Army also has a tactical missile brigade; the military’s special operations forces were consolidated into a special operations command in 2018

the Romanian Navy operates on the Black Sea and the Danube River; the Black Sea fleet command has a small force of frigates and corvettes organized into flotillas and divisions, as well as divisions of mine warfare vessels, naval missiles, and coastal defense; the Danube River flotilla operates gunboats and has a marine infantry regiment 

the Air Force had approximately 400 Soviet-made combat aircraft when Romania was a member of the Warsaw Pact, but by the 2020s the number was down to a few dozen that were being replaced by secondhand US-origin F-16 fighter aircraft acquired from NATO partners; in 2023, Romania retired the last of its Soviet-era fighters and signed a contract to acquire about 30 additional F-16s from Norway (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Romanian Space Agency (Agentia Spatiala Romania, ROSA; established 1991) (2023)

Space program overview

space program is integrated into the European Space Agency (ESA) and dates back to the 1960s; program is involved in the development and production of a wide range of capabilities and technologies, including satellites, satellite/space launch vehicles (SLVs), remote sensing, human space flight, navigation, telecommunications, and other space-related applications; in addition to the ESA/EU and their member states (particularly Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy), it cooperates with a variety of other space agencies and commercial space entities, including those of Azerbaijan, China, Japan, Russia, and the US; also participates in international programs; has an active space industry sector with over 50 entities involved in space-related activities (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Romania-Bulgaria: none identified

Romania-Hungary: none identified

Romania-Moldova: none identified

Romania-Serbia: none identified

Romania-Ukraine: the International Court of Justice ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; in 2007, Romania opposed Ukraine's construction of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea, arguing that it runs through a unique ecological area, the Danube Delta

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 77,250 (Ukraine) (as of 24 March 2024)

stateless persons: 297 (2022)

note: 16,085 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2024)

Illicit drugs

a source country for cannabis