Rock carving, on the Romanian side of the Danube River, depicting the Dacian King Decebalus (r. A.D. 87-106), who fought the Romans in the early 2nd century but was ultimately defeated. He is considered a Romanian national hero. The carving, made between 1994 and 2004, is 42.9 m (141 ft) tall and 31.6 m (104 ft) wide and is the tallest rock relief in Europe.
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Introduction

Background

The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 25 00 E

Area

total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

Area - comparative

twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km

border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km; Hungary 424 km; Moldova 683 km; Serbia 531 km; Ukraine 601 km

Coastline

225 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain

central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 414 m

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

31,490 sq km (2012)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube river mouth (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Geography - note

controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

People and Society

Population

18,519,899 (2022 est.)

Nationality

noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups

Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population

Languages

Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Cartea informativa a lumii, sursa indispensabila pentru informatii de baza. (Romanian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Romanian audio sample:

Religions

Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.12% (male 1,545,196/female 1,463,700)

15-24 years: 10.31% (male 1,126,997/female 1,068,817)

25-54 years: 46.26% (male 4,993,886/female 4,860,408)

55-64 years: 11.73% (male 1,176,814/female 1,322,048)

65 years and over: 17.58% (male 1,516,472/female 2,228,555) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.3

youth dependency ratio: 23.8

elderly dependency ratio: 29.5

potential support ratio: 3.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 42.5 years

male: 41 years

female: 44 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.09% (2022 est.)

Birth rate

8.76 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Death rate

15.26 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Net migration rate

-4.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Urbanization

urban population: 54.5% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.785 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.1 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.84 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.07 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.75 years

male: 72.3 years

female: 79.4 years (2022 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.63 children born/woman (2022 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.7% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

6.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 96.9% of population

rural: 76% of population

total: 87.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.1% of population

rural: 24% of population

total: 12.7% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 5.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 28% (2020 est.)

male: 35.9% (2020 est.)

female: 20% (2020 est.)

Education expenditures

3.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.8%

male: 99.1%

female: 98.6% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 17.3%

male: 17.9%

female: 16.5% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.29 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 69.26 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 27.62 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 54.5% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.16% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.895 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 277,547 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.7% (2015 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Danube river mouth (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.048 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 4.234 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.491 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

212.01 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania

former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania

etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Bucharest

geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: related to the Romanian word "bucura" that is believed to be of Dacian origin and whose meaning is "to be glad (happy)"; Bucharest's meaning is thus akin to "city of joy"

Administrative divisions

41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea

Independence

9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991

amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles, including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae CIUCA (since 25 November 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Kelemen HUNOR (since 23 December 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results: 2019: Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%; Nicolae CIUCA approved as prime minister with 318 votes

2014: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in the second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Senate - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 29.3%, PNL 25.6%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.9%, AUR 9.2%, UDMR 5.9%, other 14.1%; seats by party - PSD 47, PNL 41, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 25, AUR 14, UDMR 9; composition - men 111, women 25, percent of women 18.4%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 28.9%, PNL 25.2%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.4%, AUR 9.1%, UDMR 5.7%, other 15.7%; seats by party - PSD 110, PNL 93, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 55, AUR 33, UDMR 21, other 18; composition - men 267, women 63, percent of women 19.1%; note - total Parliament percent of women 18.9%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders

2020 USR-PLUS Alliance [Dan BARNA and Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Alliance for the Fatherland or APP [Codrin STEFANESCU]
Alliance for the Unity of Romanians or AUR [George SIMION]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Force of the Right or FD [Ludovic ORBAN]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Victor IOVICI]
Green Party [Marius LAZAR and Lavinia COSMA]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Nicolae CIUCA]
Party of Liberty, Unity, and Solidarity or PLUS [Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugen TOMAC]
PRO Romania or PRO [Victor PONTA]
Romanian Nationhood Party or PNR [Ninel PEIA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Catalin DRULA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU]
Social Liberal Humanist Party or PUSL [Daniel IONASCU] (formerly Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal) or PPU-SL)
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Andrei MURARU (since 15 September 2021)

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4829; [1] (202) 332-4846

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

email address and website:
washington@mae.ro (chancery)
contact@informatiiconsulare.ro (consular section)

https://washington.mae.ro/en

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David MUNIZ (since 20 January 2021)

embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118

mailing address: 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC  20521-5260

telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300

FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442

email address and website:
ACSBucharest@state.gov

https://ro.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 9 (7 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Danube Delta (n); Churches of Moldavia (c); Monastery of Horezu (c); Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania (c); Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains (c); Historic Center of Sighişoara (c); Wooden Churches of Maramureş (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Roșia Montană Mining Landscape (c)

Economy

Economic overview

Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

 

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

 

Economic growth rebounded in the 2013-17 period, driven by strong industrial exports, excellent agricultural harvests, and, more recently, expansionary fiscal policies in 2016-2017 that nearly quadrupled Bucharest’s annual fiscal deficit, from +0.8% of GDP in 2015 to -3% of GDP in 2016 and an estimated -3.4% in 2017. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2017. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was the major driver, due to tax cuts and large wage increases that began last year and are set to continue in 2018.

 

An aging population, emigration of skilled labor, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package compromise Romania’s long-term growth and economic stability and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$556.07 billion (2020 est.)

$578.39 billion (2019 est.)

$555.47 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real GDP growth rate

4.2% (2019 est.)

4.54% (2018 est.)

7.11% (2017 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$28,800 (2020 est.)

$29,900 (2019 est.)

$28,500 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$249.543 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.8% (2019 est.)

4.6% (2018 est.)

1.3% (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2011)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2006)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)

services: 62.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, potatoes, barley, grapes, sugar beet, rapeseed, plums/sloes

Industries

electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Labor force

4.889 million (2020 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 28.3%

industry: 28.9%

services: 42.8% (2014)

Unemployment rate

3.06% (2019 est.)

3.56% (2018 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 17.3%

male: 17.9%

female: 16.5% (2020 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 15.3%

highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)

Budget

revenues: 62.14 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 68.13 billion (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

36.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

Taxes and other revenues

29.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$11.389 billion (2019 est.)

-$10.78 billion (2018 est.)

Exports

$93.01 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$100.9 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$101.11 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports - partners

Germany 22%, Italy 10%, France 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, insulated wiring, refined petroleum, electrical control boards, seats (2019)

Imports

$104.16 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$111.18 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$109.26 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Imports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 9%, Hungary 7%, Poland 6%, China 5%, France 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, insulated wiring, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$44.43 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$40 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt - external

$117.829 billion (2019 est.)

$115.803 billion (2018 est.)

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -

4.02835 (2020 est.)

4.31655 (2019 est.)

4.0782 (2018 est.)

4.0057 (2014 est.)

3.3492 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 20.528 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 50,039,421,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 5.459 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 8.252 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 6.501 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 32.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 20.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 29.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 15.002 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 16.412 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 2,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.384 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 291 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 74,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 222,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 161,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 600 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

232,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

103,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

49,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas

production: 10,367,941,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 11,087,528,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 11.185 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 2,800,985,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 105.48 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

68.746 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 20.891 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 27.268 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 20.588 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita

71.736 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3.025 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2020 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 22.592 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (2020 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Romania’s telecom market has undergone several significant changes in recent years; the mobile market is served by network operators that have extensive LTE networks in place, while services based on 5G have been offered under their existing spectrum concessions since 2019; the delayed multi-spectrum auction, expected to be completed later in 2021, will enable the operators to expand 5G network capacity and enable consumers to make far greater use of the technology’s potential; in line with legislation passed in July 2021 the MNOs will have to replace equipment provided by vendors deemed to be a security risk (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 16 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by four mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 117 telephones per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 40; landing point for the Diamond Link Global submarine cable linking Romania with Georgia; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting

Internet users

total: 15,020,866 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 78% (2020 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,684,782 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2020 est.)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,908,235 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.71 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

total: 45 (2021)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 26

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

under 914 m: 1 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 14 (2021)

Heliports

2 (2021)

Pipelines

3,726 km gas, 2,451 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 11,268 km (2014)

standard gauge: 10,781 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 427 km (2014) 0.760-m gauge

broad gauge: 60 km (2014) 1.524-m gauge

Roadways

total: 84,185 km (2012)

paved: 49,873 km (2012) (includes 337 km of expressways)

unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)

Waterways

1,731 km (2010) (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals)

Merchant marine

total: 121

by type: general cargo 11, oil tanker 6, other 104 (2021)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia

river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Romanian Armed Forces: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Romanian Gendarmerie, Romanian Police, Romanian Border Police (2022)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2022 est.)

2% of GDP (2021)

2% of GDP (2020)

1.8% of GDP (2019) (approximately $7.47 billion)

1.8% of GDP (2018) (approximately $6.9 billion)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 75,000 active duty personnel (58,000 Land Forces; 7,000 Naval Forces; 10,000 Air Force) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Romanian Armed Forces is comprised mostly of Soviet-era and older domestically-produced weapons systems; there is also a smaller mix of Western-origin equipment received in more recent years from European countries and the US  (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary service for men and women; all military inductees contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36; conscription ended in 2006 (2021)

Military deployments

up to 120 Poland (NATO) (2022)

Military - note

Romania became a member of NATO in 2004

Romania hosts a NATO multinational divisional headquarters (Multinational Division Southeast; became operational in 2017) and a French-led ground force battlegroup as part of NATO's tailored forward presence in the southeastern part of the Alliance; NATO reinforced the battlegroup with additional troops in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine; Romania conducts its own air policing mission, but because of Russian aggression in the Black Sea region, NATO allies have sent detachments of fighters to augment the Romanian Air Force since 2014 (2022)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Romania-Bulgaria: none identified

Romania-Hungary: none identified

Romania-Moldova: none identified

Romania-Serbia: none identified

Romania-Ukraine: the International Court of Justice ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; in 2007, Romania opposed Ukraine's construction of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea, arguing that it runs through a unique ecological area, the Danube Delta

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 92,076 (Ukraine) (as of 20 November 2022)

stateless persons: 314 (mid-year 2021)

note: 11,847 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-November 2022)

Illicit drugs

a source country for cannabis