Country Summary



In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia, which became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945. In 1989, Yugoslavia broke up along ethnic lines, and the ensuing conflicts in Serbia lasted until NATO intervention in 1999. Serbia is currently a candidate for EU membership.



total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km


in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)

Natural resources

oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

People and Society


6,693,375 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)


Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romani 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%; note - Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Ruthenian (Rusyn) are official in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina; most ethnic Albanians boycotted the 2011 census (2011 est.)


Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8% (includes agnostics, other Christians, Eastern, Jewish), undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.63% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Belgrade (Beograd)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)
head of government: Acting Prime Minister Ivica DACIC (since 20 March 2024); note - former Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC stepped down on 20 March 2024 after her election as parliament speaker; Ivica DACIC will be acting prime minister until the next election (date not yet set)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected by party list proportional representation vote in a single nationwide constituency to serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

upper middle-income Balkan economy; current EU accession candidate; hit by COVID-19; pursuing green growth development; manageable public debt; new anticorruption efforts; falling unemployment; historic Russian relations; energy import-dependent

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$139.193 billion (2022 est.)
$135.732 billion (2021 est.)
$125.997 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$20,900 (2022 est.)
$19,900 (2021 est.)
$18,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, sugar beet, milk, sunflower seed, potatoes, soybeans, plums/sloes, apples, barley


automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals


$39.905 billion (2022 est.)
$34.035 billion (2021 est.)
$25.5 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 12%, Italy 10%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7%, Romania 6%, Russia 5%  (2019)

Exports - commodities

insulated wiring, tires, corn, cars, iron products, copper (2019)


$47.395 billion (2022 est.)
$39.476 billion (2021 est.)
$30.177 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 13%, Russia 9%, Italy 8%, Hungary 6%, China 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, natural gas, refined petroleum (2019)

Exchange rates

Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
111.662 (2022 est.)
99.396 (2021 est.)
103.163 (2020 est.)
105.25 (2019 est.)
100.175 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, April 09, 2024