Country Summary



In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia was one of the communist republics in the restored Yugoslavia. Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991.



total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km


Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Natural resources

lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests

People and Society


2,099,790 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 est.)


Slovene (official) 87.7%, Croatian 2.8%, Serbo-Croatian 1.8%, Bosnian 1.6%, Serbian 1.6%, Hungarian 0.4% (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside), Italian 0.2% (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), other or unspecified 3.9% (2002 est.)


Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 1%, unaffiliated 3.5%, no response or unspecified 22.8%, none 10.1% (2002 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.08% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Ljubljana

Executive branch

chief of state: President Natasa PIRC MUSAR (since 23 December 2022); note - PIRC MUSAR is Slovenia's first female president
head of government: Prime Minister Robert GOLOB (since 1 June 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
National Council (State Council)or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms); note - the Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income, fast-growing EU-member economy; high human capital; key health infrastructure investments; high government spending; key Croatian investments; high-technology and manufacturing sectors; growing financial hub

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$84.4 billion (2021 est.)
$77.996 billion (2020 est.)
$81.519 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$40,000 (2021 est.)
$37,100 (2020 est.)
$39,000 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, maize, wheat, grapes, barley, potatoes, poultry, apples, beef, pork


ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools


1.21% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.22% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.22% of GDP (2019 est.)


$51.634 billion (2021 est.)
$41.823 billion (2020 est.)
$45.516 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 18%, Italy 11%, Croatia 8%, Austria 7%, France 5%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, electrical lighting/signaling equipment, electricity (2019)


$47.665 billion (2021 est.)
$36.804 billion (2020 est.)
$40.809 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 14%, Italy 12%, Austria 8%, Switzerland 8%, China 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, electricity (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, November 20, 2023