A farm field in Slovenia near Lake Bled, with the Julian Alps in the background. The structure on the right is a rack for drying hay, a design unique to Slovenia.
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Introduction

Background

The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia was one of the republics in the restored Yugoslavia, which, though communist, soon distanced itself from the Soviet Union and spearheaded the Non-Aligned Movement. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a growing economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's postcommunist transition. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen Area in 2007.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

46 07 N, 14 49 E

Area

total: 20,273 sq km

land: 20,151 sq km

water: 122 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,211 km

border countries (4): Austria 299 km; Croatia 600 km; Hungary 94 km; Italy 218 km

Coastline

46.6 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain

a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation

highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 492 m

Natural resources

lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests

Land use

agricultural land: 22.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 62.3% (2018 est.)

other: 14.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

60 sq km (2012)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere

Natural hazards

flooding; earthquakes

Geography - note

despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

People and Society

Population

2,101,208 (2022 est.)

Nationality

noun: Slovene(s)

adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 est.)

Languages

Slovene (official) 87.7%, Croatian 2.8%, Serbo-Croatian 1.8%, Bosnian 1.6%, Serbian 1.6%, Hungarian 0.4% (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside), Italian 0.2% (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), other or unspecified 3.9% (2002 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Svetovni informativni zvezek - neobhoden vir osnovnih informacij. (Slovene)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 1%, unaffiliated 3.5%, no response or unspecified 22.8%, none 10.1% (2002 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.84% (male 160,134/female 151,960)

15-24 years: 9.01% (male 98,205/female 91,318)

25-54 years: 40.73% (male 449,930/female 406,395)

55-64 years: 14.19% (male 148,785/female 149,635)

65 years and over: 21.23% (male 192,420/female 253,896) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.9

youth dependency ratio: 23.6

elderly dependency ratio: 32.3

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 44.9 years

male: 43.4 years

female: 46.6 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.06% (2022 est.)

Birth rate

8.3 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Death rate

10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Net migration rate

1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere

Urbanization

urban population: 55.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

286,000 LJUBLJANA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.12 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.52 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 1.63 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.82 years

male: 78.96 years

female: 84.79 years (2022 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.6 children born/woman (2022 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

8.5% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

3.28 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.4 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.54 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 5.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 22% (2020 est.)

male: 24.4% (2020 est.)

female: 19.6% (2020 est.)

Education expenditures

4.9% of GDP (2018 est.)

Literacy

definition: NA

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 17 years

female: 18 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.2%

male: 12.7%

female: 16.2% (2020 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution from road traffic, domestic heating (wood buring), power generation, and industry; water pollution; biodiversity protection

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.81 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 12.63 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.1 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Land use

agricultural land: 22.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 62.3% (2018 est.)

other: 14.9% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 55.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 926,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 430,034 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 46.4% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 169.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 758 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 3.9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

31.87 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia

conventional short form: Slovenia

local long form: Republika Slovenija

local short form: Slovenija

former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

etymology: the country's name means "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Ljubljana

geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: likely related to the Slavic root "ljub", meaning "to like" or "to love"; by tradition, the name is related to the Slovene word "ljubljena" meaning "beloved"

Administrative divisions

200 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 12 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)

municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal ob Soci, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Store, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk

urban municipalities: Celje, Koper, Kranj, Krsko, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution

history: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991

amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires participation of a majority of eligible voters and a simple majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2016

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Robert GOLOB (since 25 May 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 23 October with a runoff on 13 November 2022 (next election to be held in 2027); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

election results: 2022: Natasa PIRC MUSAR elected in second round: percent of vote in first round - Natasa PIRC MUSAR (independent) 26.9%, Anze LOGAR (SDS) 34%, Milan BRGLEZ (SD) 15.5%, Vladimir PREBILIC (independent) 10.6%, Sabina SENCAR (Resni.ca) 5.9%, Janez CIGLER KRALJ (NSi) 4.4%, Miha KORDIS (The Left) 2.8%; percent of vote in second round - Natasa PIRC MUSAR 53.9%, Anze LOGAR 46.1%

2017:
 Borut PAHOR is reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Borut PAHOR (independent) 47.1%, Marjan SAREC (Marjan Sarec List) 25%, Romana TOMC (SDS) 13.7%, Ljudmila NOVAK (NSi) 7.2%, other 7%; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR 52.9%, Marjan SAREC 47.1%; Robert GOLOB (GS) elected prime minister on 25 May 2022, National Assembly vote - 54-30

2012: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR (SD) 67.4%, Danilo TURK (independent) 32.6%; note - a snap election was held on 13 July 2014 following the resignation of Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK on 5 May 2014; Miro CERAR (SMC) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 11

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
National Council (State Council)or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms); note - the Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
National Council - last held on 22 November 2017 (next to be held on 23 October 2022)
National Assembly - last held on 24 April 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 36, women 4, percent of women 10%
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - GS 34.5%, SDS 23.5%, NSi 6.9%, SD 6.7%, Levica 4.4%, other 24%; seats by party - GS 41, SDS 27, NSi 8, SD 7, Levica 5; composition - men 54, women 36, percent of women 40%; note - total Parliament percent of women 30.8%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among its own membership for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Ljubo JASNIC]
Freedom Movement or GS [Robert GOLOB] (formerly Greens Actions Party or Z.DEJ)
List of Marjan Sarec or LMS [Marjan SAREC]
New Slovenia - Christian Democrats or NSi [Matej TONIN]
Party of Alenka Bratusek or SAB [Alenka BRATUSEK] (formerly Alliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD and before that Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB)
Resni.ca [Zoran STEVANOVICH]
Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA] (formerly the Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDSS)
Slovenian National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC Plemeniti]
Social Democrats or SD [Tanja FAJON]
The Left or Levica [Luka MESEC] (successor to United Left or ZL)

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Tone KAJZER (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 2410 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601

FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633

email address and website:
vwa@gov.si

http://www.washington.embassy.si/index.php?id=51&L=1

consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jamie L. HARPOOTLIAN  (since 17 February 2022)

embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana

mailing address: 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140

telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500

FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555

email address and website:
LjubljanaACS@state.gov

https://si.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the prominent Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands

National symbol(s)

Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)

lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL

note: adopted in 1989 while still part of Yugoslavia; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 5 (3 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Škocjan Caves (n); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (n); Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps (c); Heritage of Mercury: Almadén and Idrija (c); The works of Jože Plečnik in Ljubljana (c)

Economy

Economic overview

With excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in the 2008-09 period in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 EU entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced a stable political and economic transition.

 

In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. From 2014 to 2016, export-led growth, fueled by demand in larger European markets, pushed annual GDP growth above 2.3%. Growth reached 5.0% in 2017 and is projected to near or reach 5% in 2018. What used to be stubbornly high unemployment fell below 5.5% in early 2018, driven by strong exports and increasing consumption that boosted labor demand. Continued fiscal consolidation through increased tax collection and social security contributions will likely result in a balanced government budget in 2019.

 

Prime Minister CERAR’s government took office in September 2014, pledging to press ahead with commitments to privatize a select group of state-run companies, rationalize public spending, and further stabilize the banking sector. Efforts to privatize Slovenia’s largely state-owned banking sector have largely stalled, however, amid concerns about an ongoing dispute over Yugoslav-era foreign currency deposits.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$76.75 billion (2020 est.)

$81.25 billion (2019 est.)

$78.74 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real GDP growth rate

2.4% (2019 est.)

4.24% (2018 est.)

5.14% (2017 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$36,500 (2020 est.)

$38,900 (2019 est.)

$38,000 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$54.16 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.6% (2019 est.)

1.7% (2018 est.)

1.4% (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2019)

Moody's rating: A3 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.2% (2017 est.)

services: 65.9% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 18.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 82.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -72.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, maize, wheat, grapes, barley, potatoes, poultry, apples, beef, pork

Industries

ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Labor force

885,000 (2020 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 5.5%

industry: 31.2%

services: 63.3% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.64% (2019 est.)

8.25% (2018 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.2%

male: 12.7%

female: 16.2% (2020 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 20.1% (2016)

Budget

revenues: 21.07 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 21.06 billion (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

78.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the central, state, local government, and social security funds

Taxes and other revenues

43.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$3.05 billion (2019 est.)

$3.17 billion (2018 est.)

Exports

$41.73 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$45.41 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$45.93 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports - partners

Germany 18%, Italy 11%, Croatia 8%, Austria 7%, France 5%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, electrical lighting/signaling equipment, electricity (2019)

Imports

$36.6 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$40.8 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$41.32 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Imports - partners

Germany 14%, Italy 12%, Austria 8%, Switzerland 8%, China 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, electricity (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$889.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$853 million (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt - external

$48.656 billion (2019 est.)

$50.004 billion (2018 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 4.062 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 13.447 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 9.123 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 7.12 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 848 million kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 27.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 36.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 32% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 3.175 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.502 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 3,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 335,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 371 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 54,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

29,350 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

93,060 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas

production: 4.899 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 904.439 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 903.108 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

13.553 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 4.08 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 7.967 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.506 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita

134.836 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 704,909 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2020 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 2,511,980 (2019)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120.85 (2019)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Slovenia’s telecom sector is dominated by four operators; the mobile market has four MNOs and a small number of MVNOs, operating in a country with a potential market of just over two million people; the regulator in recent years has addressed the need for mobile operators to have more spectrum, so enabling them to improve the quality and range of services; a multi-spectrum auction was concluded in mid-2021, aimed at supporting 5G services; the broadband market continues to be dominated by a small number of players; DSL lost its dominance some years ago, being taken over by fiber as subscribers are migrated to new fiber-based networks; fiber accounted for almost half of all fixed broadband connections by March 2022 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line nearly 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular over 122 per 100 teledensity (2020)

international: country code - 386 (2016)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations

Internet users

total: 1,829,105 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 87% (2020 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 651,604 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,094,762 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 540,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

total: 16 (2021)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 9

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2021)

Pipelines

1,155 km gas, 5 km oil (2018)

Railways

total: 1,229 km (2014)

standard gauge: 1,229 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified)

Roadways

total: 38,985 km (2012)

paved: 38,985 km (2012) (includes 769 km of expressways)

Waterways

710 km (2022) (some transport on the Drava River)

Merchant marine

total: 9

by type: other 9 (2021)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Koper

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): structured as a combined force with air, land, maritime, special operations, combat support, and combat service support elements (2022)

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)

1.2% of GDP (2021)

1% of GDP (2020)

1.1% of GDP (2019) (approximately $800 million)

1% of GDP (2018) (approximately $750 million)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 6,000 active duty troops (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of Soviet-era and smaller quantities of more modern Russian and Western equipment; since 2010, it has received limited amounts of military equipment from several countries led by France and Russia (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription abolished in 2003 (2021)

note: as of 2019, women comprised about 15% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

200 Kosovo (NATO); 100 Slovakia (NATO) (2022)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Slovenia, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Military - note

Slovenia became a member of NATO in 2004; Hungary and Italy provide NATO's air policing mission for Slovenia’s airspace (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Slovenia-Austria: none identified

Slovenia-Croatia: since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piran Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; in June 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a ruling on the border, but Croatia had withdrawn from the proceedings in 2015 and refused to implement it; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

Slovenia-Hungary: none identified

Slovenia-Italy: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 8,490 (Ukraine) (as of 22 November 2022)

stateless persons: 10 (2020)

note:  557,468 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-October 2022)

Illicit drugs

minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals