Photos of Slovenia

Introduction

Background

The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, Slovenia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which was renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia joined Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia as one of the constituent republics in the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). In 1990, Slovenia held its first multiparty elections, as well as a referendum on independence. Serbia responded with an economic blockade and military action, but after a short 10-day war, Slovenia declared independence in 1991. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen Area in 2007.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

46 07 N, 14 49 E

Area

total: 20,273 sq km

land: 20,151 sq km

water: 122 sq km

comparison ranking: total 154

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,211 km

border countries (4): Austria 299 km; Croatia 600 km; Hungary 94 km; Italy 218 km

Coastline

46.6 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain

a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation

highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 492 m

Natural resources

lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests

Land use

agricultural land: 22.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 62.3% (2018 est.)

other: 14.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

39 sq km (2020)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere

Natural hazards

flooding; earthquakes

Geography - note

despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

People and Society

Population

2,099,790 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 149

Nationality

noun: Slovene(s)

adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 est.)

Languages

Slovene (official) 87.7%, Croatian 2.8%, Serbo-Croatian 1.8%, Bosnian 1.6%, Serbian 1.6%, Hungarian 0.4% (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside), Italian 0.2% (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), other or unspecified 3.9% (2002 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Svetovni informativni zvezek - neobhoden vir osnovnih informacij. (Slovene)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Catholic 69%, Orthodox 4%, Muslim 3%, Christian 1%, other 3%, atheist 14%, non-believer/agnostic 4%, refused to answer 2% (2019 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.55% (male 156,499/female 148,987)

15-64 years: 62.73% (male 685,750/female 631,553)

65 years and over: 22.72% (2023 est.) (male 208,832/female 268,169)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.5

youth dependency ratio: 23.6

elderly dependency ratio: 31.9

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 45.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 44.6 years

female: 47.5 years

comparison ranking: total 12

Population growth rate

-0.08% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 201

Birth rate

8.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 214

Death rate

10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 29

Net migration rate

1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 62

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere

Urbanization

urban population: 56.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

286,000 LJUBLJANA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 172

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 1.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.4 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 227

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.2 years

female: 85 years

comparison ranking: total population 34

Total fertility rate

1.6 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 184

Gross reproduction rate

0.78 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

3.28 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.4 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.2% (2016)

comparison ranking: 104

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.54 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 5.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 10

Tobacco use

total: 22% (2020 est.)

male: 24.4% (2020 est.)

female: 19.6% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 73

Education expenditures

5.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 49

Literacy

definition: NA

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 17 years

female: 18 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution from road traffic, domestic heating (wood buring), power generation, and industry; water pollution; biodiversity protection

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Land use

agricultural land: 22.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 62.3% (2018 est.)

other: 14.9% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 56.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 93

Revenue from coal

0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 41

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.08 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 12.63 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.1 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 926,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 430,034 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 46.4% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 170 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 830 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 3.9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

31.87 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 2

global geoparks and regional networks: Idrija; Karawanken / Karavanke (includes Austria) (2023)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia

conventional short form: Slovenia

local long form: Republika Slovenija

local short form: Slovenija

former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

etymology: the country's name means "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Ljubljana

geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: likely related to the Slavic root "ljub", meaning "to like" or "to love"; by tradition, the name is related to the Slovene word "ljubljena" meaning "beloved"

Administrative divisions

200 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 12 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)

municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal ob Soci, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Store, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk

urban municipalities: Celje, Koper, Kranj, Krsko, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution

history: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991

amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires participation of a majority of eligible voters and a simple majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2016

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Natasa PIRC MUSAR (since 23 December 2022); note - PIRC MUSAR is Slovenia's first female president

head of government: Prime Minister Robert GOLOB (since 1 June 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 23 October 2022 with a runoff on 13 November 2022 (next to be held in 2027); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

election results:
2022:
Natasa PIRC MUSAR elected president in second round: percent of vote in first round - Anze LOGAR (SDS) 34%, Natasa PIRC MUSAR (independent) 26.9%, Milan BRGLEZ (SD) 15.5%, Vladimir PREBILIC (independent) 10.6%, Sabina SENCAR (Resni.ca) 5.9%, Janez CIGLER KRALJ (NSi) 4.4%, other 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Natasa PIRC MUSAR 53.9%, Anze LOGAR 46.1%; Robert GOLOB (GS) elected prime minister on 25 May 2022, National Assembly vote - 54-30

2017:
Borut PAHOR reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Borut PAHOR (independent) 47.1%, Marjan SAREC (Marjan Sarec List) 25%, Romana TOMC (SDS) 13.7%, Ljudmila NOVAK (NSi) 7.2%, other 7%; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR 52.9%, Marjan SAREC 47.1%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
National Council (State Council)or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms); note - the Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
National Council - last held on 24 November 2022 (next to be held in 2027)
National Assembly - last held on 24 April 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition as of January 2023) - men 33, women 7, percent of women 17.5%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party - GS 34.5%, SDS 23.5%, NSi 6.9%, SD 6.7%, Levica 4.4%, other 24%; seats by party - GS 41, SDS 27, NSi 8, SD 7, Levica 5; composition as of January 2023 - men 56, women 34, percent of women 37.8%; note - total Parliament percent of women 31.5%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among its own membership for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Ljubo JASNIC]
Freedom Movement or GS [Robert GOLOB] (formerly Greens Actions Party or Z.DEJ)
List of Marjan Sarec or LMS [Marjan SAREC]
New Slovenia - Christian Democrats or NSi [Matej TONIN]
Party of Alenka Bratusek or SAB [Alenka BRATUSEK] (formerly Alliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD and before that Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB)
Resni.ca [Zoran STEVANOVICH]
Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA] (formerly the Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDSS)
Slovenian National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC Plemeniti]
Social Democrats or SD [Tanja FAJON]
The Left or Levica [Luka MESEC] (successor to United Left or ZL)

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Iztok MIROŠIČ (since 15 September 2023)

chancery: 2410 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 386-6611

FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633

email address and website:
sloembassy.washington@gov.si

http://www.washington.embassy.si/

consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jamie L. HARPOOTLIAN  (since 17 February 2022)

embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana

mailing address: 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140

telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500

FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555

email address and website:
LjubljanaACS@state.gov

https://si.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the prominent Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands

National symbol(s)

Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)

lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL

note: adopted in 1989 while still part of Yugoslavia; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 5 (3 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Škocjan Caves (n); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (n); Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps (c); Heritage of Mercury: Almadén and Idrija (c); The works of Jože Plečnik in Ljubljana (c)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, fast-growing EU-member economy; high human capital; key health infrastructure investments; high government spending; key Croatian investments; high-technology and manufacturing sectors; growing financial hub

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$86.624 billion (2022 est.)
$84.543 billion (2021 est.)
$78.115 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 97

Real GDP growth rate

2.46% (2022 est.)
8.23% (2021 est.)
-4.24% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 153

Real GDP per capita

$41,000 (2022 est.)
$40,100 (2021 est.)
$37,200 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 50

GDP (official exchange rate)

$60.063 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

8.83% (2022 est.)
1.92% (2021 est.)
-0.05% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 145

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2019)

Moody's rating: A3 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.2% (2017 est.)

services: 65.9% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 91; industry 66; agriculture 179

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 18.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 82.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -72.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, maize, wheat, grapes, barley, potatoes, poultry, apples, beef, pork

Industries

ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate

-0.99% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 182

Labor force

1.056 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 145

Unemployment rate

4.01% (2022 est.)
4.74% (2021 est.)
4.99% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 80

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 13.9% (2021 est.)

male: 12.7%

female: 15.5%

comparison ranking: total 125

Population below poverty line

12.1% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

24 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 175

Average household expenditures

on food: 14.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5.1% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 20.5% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

1.3% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.34% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.37% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $23.735 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $23.456 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 45

Public debt

73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
78.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the central, state, local government, and social security funds

comparison ranking: 49

Taxes and other revenues

18.27% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 101

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$617.374 million (2022 est.)
$2.073 billion (2021 est.)
$3.882 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 111

Exports

$56.51 billion (2022 est.)
$51.662 billion (2021 est.)
$41.855 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 67

Exports - partners

Germany 18%, Italy 11%, Croatia 8%, Austria 7%, France 5%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, electrical lighting/signaling equipment, electricity (2019)

Imports

$55.158 billion (2022 est.)
$47.997 billion (2021 est.)
$37 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 65

Imports - partners

Germany 14%, Italy 12%, Austria 8%, Switzerland 8%, China 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, electricity (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.268 billion (2022 est.)
$2.267 billion (2021 est.)
$1.311 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 140

Debt - external

$48.656 billion (2019 est.)
$50.004 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 69

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 4.062 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 13.447 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 9.123 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 7.12 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 848 million kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 97; imports 33; exports 22; consumption 85; installed generating capacity 96

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 27.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 36.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 32% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 1 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 0.69GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 36.9% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 40.6% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Coal

production: 3.175 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.502 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 3,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 335,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 371 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 54,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 168

Refined petroleum products - exports

29,350 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Refined petroleum products - imports

93,060 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 56

Natural gas

production: 4.899 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 904.439 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 903.108 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

13.553 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 4.08 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 7.967 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.506 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 99

Energy consumption per capita

134.836 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 39

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 675,823 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 83

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 2,674,900 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 145

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Slovenia’s telecom sector is dominated by four operators; the mobile market has four MNOs and a small number of MVNOs, operating in a country with a potential market of just over two million people; the regulator in recent years has addressed the need for mobile operators to have more spectrum, so enabling them to improve the quality and range of services; a multi-spectrum auction was concluded in mid-2021, aimed at supporting 5G services; the broadband market continues to be dominated by a small number of players; DSL lost its dominance some years ago, being taken over by fiber as subscribers are migrated to new fiber-based networks; fiber accounted for almost half of all fixed broadband connections by March 2022 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is 32 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 126 per 100 teledensity (2022)

international: country code - 386 (2016)

Broadcast media

public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations

Internet users

total: 1.869 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 89% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 136

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 651,604 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 84

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,094,762 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 540,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

42 (2024)

comparison ranking: 99

Heliports

4 (2024)

Pipelines

1,155 km gas, 5 km oil (2018)

Railways

total: 1,207 km (2020) 609 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 86

Roadways

total: 38,125 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 93

Waterways

710 km (2022) (some transport on the Drava River)

comparison ranking: 81

Merchant marine

total: 8 (2023)

by type: other 8

comparison ranking: total 163

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Koper

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): structured as a combined force with air, land, maritime, special operations, combat support, and combat service support elements

Ministry of Interior: National Police (2024)

Military expenditures

1.3% of GDP (2024 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2022)
1.2% of GDP (2021)
1% of GDP (2020)

comparison ranking: 103

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 6,000 active-duty troops (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of Soviet-era and smaller quantities of more modern, mostly Western equipment; in recent years, Slovenia has begun a modernization program and imported growing amounts of European and US equipment  (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; must be a citizen of the Republic of Slovenia; recruits sign up for 3-, 5-, or 10-year service contracts; conscription abolished in 2003 (2023)

note: as of 2023, women comprised about 16% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

100 Kosovo (NATO); 100 Slovakia (NATO) (2024)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Slovenia, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Military - note

the Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska or SV) are responsible for the defense of the country’s sovereignty and territory, deterring external threats, and contributing to European security and other international peacekeeping missions; the SV is also active in civil-military cooperation, such as the maintenance of local infrastructure; Slovenia has been a member of the EU and NATO since 2004, and one of the SV’s key missions is fulfilling the country’s commitments to NATO, including equipment modernization, participating in training exercises, and contributing to NATO missions; the SV provides troops to NATO’s efforts to enhance its presence in the Baltics (Latvia) and Eastern Europe (Slovakia); it has also participated in other international security missions with small numbers of personnel in such places as Africa, southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Middle East

the SV is configured as a joint force with land, naval, air, and special forces components; the SV is led by a General Staff with a joint-service Forces Command controlling the operational elements; the principal land combat units are two infantry brigades, but they may be organized as battlegroups or other response forces based on their mission; the naval component has a few patrol boats; the SV air component has no fighter aircraft, and NATO allies Hungary and Italy provide air policing for Slovenia

the SV was formally established in 1993 as a reorganization of the Slovenia Defense Force; the Defense Force, along with the Slovenian police, comprised the majority of the forces that engaged with the Yugoslav People’s Army during the 10-Day War after Slovenia declared its independence in 1991 (2023)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Slovenia-Austria: none identified

Slovenia-Croatia: since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piran Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; in June 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a ruling on the border, but Croatia had withdrawn from the proceedings in 2015 and refused to implement it; Croatia joined the Schengen Area in January 2023, resulting in all of Slovenia’s borders being within the border-free Schengen Area

Slovenia-Hungary: none identified

Slovenia-Italy: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 11,035 (Ukraine) (as of 1 March 2024)

stateless persons: 10 (2020)

note:  634,128 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-February 2024)

Illicit drugs

minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals