Tajikistan

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s. In 1929, the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Geography

Area

total: 144,100 sq km

land: 141,510 sq km

water: 2,590 sq km

Climate

mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Natural resources

hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

People and Society

Population

9,119,347 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)

Languages

Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz 0.8%, Russian 0.5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)

Religions

Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

1.4% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Dushanbe

Executive branch

chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of:
National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms)
Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

lower middle-income Central Asian economy; key gold, cotton, and aluminum exporter; declining poverty; sustained high growth; very limited private sector; substantial illicit drug trade; significant remittances; environmentally fragile

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$34.88 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$3,700 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, wheat, watermelons, onions, tomatoes, vegetables, cotton, carrots/turnips, beef

Industries

aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil

Exports

$1.41 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Turkey 24%, Switzerland 22%, Uzbekistan 16%, Kazakhstan 12%, China 10% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, aluminum, cotton, zinc, antimony, lead (2019)

Imports

$3.13 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 40%, Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, natural gas, bauxite, aircraft (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022