Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s. In 1929, the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union.



total: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km


mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Natural resources

hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

People and Society


9,245,937 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)


Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz 0.8%, Russian 0.5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)


Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

1.36% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Dushanbe

Executive branch

chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly Chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of:
National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms)
Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

lower middle-income Central Asian economy; key gold, cotton, and aluminum exporter; declining poverty; sustained high growth; very limited private sector; substantial illicit drug trade; significant remittances; environmentally fragile

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$38.058 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$3,900 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, wheat, watermelons, onions, tomatoes, vegetables, cotton, carrots/turnips, beef


aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil


$2.161 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Turkey 24%, Switzerland 22%, Uzbekistan 16%, Kazakhstan 12%, China 10% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, aluminum, cotton, zinc, antimony, lead (2019)


$4.258 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

China 40%, Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, natural gas, bauxite, aircraft (2019)

Exchange rates

Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
11.309 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023