Photos of Tajikistan



The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. At that time, bands of indigenous guerrillas (known as "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but in 1929 the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd Province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between political, regional, and religious factions from 1992 to 1997.

Though the country holds general elections for both the presidency (once every seven years) and legislature (once every five years), observers note an electoral system rife with irregularities and abuse, with results that are neither free nor fair. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power in 1992 during the civil war and was first elected president in 1994, used an attack planned by a disaffected deputy defense minister in 2015 to ban the last major opposition political party in Tajikistan. In December 2015, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself declared "Founder of Peace and National Unity, Leader of the Nation," with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which made RAHMON's first-born son Rustam EMOMALI, the mayor of the capital city of Dushanbe, eligible to run for president in 2020. In April 2020, RAHMON orchestrated EMOMALI's selection as chairman of the Majlisi Milli (Tajikistan's senate), positioning EMOMALI as next in line of succession for the presidency. RAHMON opted to run in the presidential election in October 2020 and received 91% of the vote.

The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistani migrant laborers working in Russia and Kazakhstan, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade and other destabilizing violence emanating from neighboring Afghanistan. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and residents and informal leaders in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Tajikistan suffered its first ISIS-claimed attack in 2018, when assailants attacked a group of Western bicyclists with vehicles and knives, killing four.



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Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan

Geographic coordinates

39 00 N, 71 00 E


total: 144,100 sq km

land: 141,510 sq km

water: 2,590 sq km

comparison ranking: total 96

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries

total: 4,130 km

border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km; China 477 km; Kyrgyzstan 984 km; Uzbekistan 1,312 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains


mountainous region dominated by the Alay Mountains in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofirnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest


highest point: Qullai Somoniyon 7,495 m

lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m

mean elevation: 3,186 m

Natural resources

hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

Land use

agricultural land: 34.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 2.9% (2018 est.)

other: 62.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

5,690 sq km (2020)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Syr Darya (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan [m]) - 3,078 km; Amu Darya river source (shared with Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan [m]) - 2,620 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Tarim Basin (1,152,448 sq km), (Aral Sea Basin) Amu Darya (534,739 sq km), Syr Darya (782,617 sq km)

Population distribution

the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west

Natural hazards

earthquakes; floods

Geography - note

landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

People and Society


9,245,937 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 97


noun: Tajikistani(s)

adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups

Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)


Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz 0.8%, Russian 0.5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Китоби Фактҳои Ҷаҳонӣ, манбаи бебадали маълумоти асосӣ (Tajik)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

note: Russian widely used in government and business


Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

Tajikistan has a youthful age structure with almost 50% of the population under the age of 25.  As a Soviet republic, Tajikistan had the highest fertility rate in the Soviet Union.  The total fertility rate – the average number of births per woman – was highest in the mid-1970s, when it reached 6.3.  In an effort to expand populations to meet economic goals, the Soviets provided resources that made large families affordable.  The fertility rate decreased to 5 by the time of independence in 1991 and continued to decline thereafter.  In 1996, the Tajik Government discontinued subsidies for large families and having several children became too expensive.  The loss of subsidies, the 5-year civil war that followed independence, and other factors caused fertility to continue to fall steadily, but it remains above replacement level at 2.5.  The availability of healthcare providers and family planning services is limited, contributing to couples having more children than they would like.  As of 2017, 21% of women were using contraceptives.

Tajikistan’s ethnic make-up changed with the Soviet’s introduction of industrialization.  Large numbers of Russian and Ukrainian immigrants arrived in the mid-1920s. Some were forced to immigrate while others came voluntarily to work in the cotton industry and in Tajikistan’s Soviet Government.  The Russian and Ukrainian immigrants formed urban communities, while Tajiks and Uzbeks continued to live predominantly in rural areas.  In addition, thousands of Tatars and Germans were deported to Tajikistan, accused of Nazi complicity during WWII. 

Tajikistan’s ethnic composition was later shaped by the post-independence civil war from 1992-1997 and the economic devastation that followed.  Most non-Tajik ethnic groups, including Uzbeks, Russians, Kyrgyz, and Ukrainians, fled to Russia and other former Soviet republics and many never returned, making the country overwhelming Tajik; approximately 80% of the population was Tajik by 2000. 

Since the mid-1990s, labor has probably been Tajikistan’s main export.  Remittances accounted for 30% of GDP in 2018 and are Tajikistan’s largest source of external income.  Poverty, a lack of jobs, and higher wages abroad push Tajiks to emigrate.  Russia – particularly Moscow – is the main destination, while a smaller number of religious Muslims, usually of Uzbek ancestry, migrate to Uzbekistan.  The vast majority of labor migrants are unskilled or low-skilled young men who work primarily in construction but also agriculture, transportation, and retail.  Many Tajik families are dependent on the money they send home for necessities, such as food and clothing, as well as for education and weddings rather than investment.

Age structure

0-14 years: 29.98% (male 1,411,335/female 1,360,882)

15-64 years: 65.84% (male 3,025,782/female 3,061,836)

65 years and over: 4.18% (2023 est.) (male 159,728/female 226,374)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 65.9

youth dependency ratio: 60.4

elderly dependency ratio: 5.5

potential support ratio: 18.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 25.3 years

male: 24.6 years

female: 26 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 161

Population growth rate

1.36% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 69

Birth rate

20.28 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 68

Death rate

5.67 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 174

Net migration rate

-1.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 149

Population distribution

the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west


urban population: 28.2% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.73% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

987,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.2 years (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

17 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 131

Infant mortality rate

total: 31.62 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 36.28 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 26.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total 48

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 69.66 years

male: 66.49 years

female: 72.99 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total population 179

Total fertility rate

2.42 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 70

Gross reproduction rate

1.18 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 96.5% of population

rural: 79.9% of population

total: 84.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.5% of population

rural: 20.1% of population

total: 15.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

8.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

1.72 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

4.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 98.9% of population

rural: 99.6% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population

rural: 0.4% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

14.2% (2016)

comparison ranking: 128

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 156

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.1%

women married by age 18: 8.7% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

5.9% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 47


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2013)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 17.4%

male: 19.4%

female: 14.4% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 97


Environment - current issues

areas of high air pollution from motor vehicles and industry; water pollution from agricultural runoff and disposal of untreated industrial waste and sewage; poor management of water resources; soil erosion; increasing levels of soil salinity

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Land use

agricultural land: 34.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 2.9% (2018 est.)

other: 62.4% (2018 est.)


urban population: 28.2% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.73% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

1.12% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 51

Revenue from coal

0.54% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 10

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 40.05 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 5.31 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.87 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,787,400 tons (2013 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Syr Darya (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan [m]) - 3,078 km; Amu Darya river source (shared with Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan [m]) - 2,620 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Tarim Basin (1,152,448 sq km), (Aral Sea Basin) Amu Darya (534,739 sq km), Syr Darya (782,617 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 910 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.61 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 7.38 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

21.91 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan

conventional short form: Tajikistan

local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

local short form: Tojikiston

former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"

Government type

presidential republic


name: Dushanbe

geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: today's city was originally at the crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe, which in Persian means Monday, i.e., the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe)

Administrative divisions

2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Bokhtar), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses


9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)


history: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval of the president or approval by at least two-thirds majority of the Assembly of Representatives; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; constitutional articles, including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature, cannot be amended; amended 1999, 2003, 2016

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly Chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (two-term limit); however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 11 October 2020 (next to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2020: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 92.1%, Rustam LATIFZODA (APT) 3.1%, and other 4.8%

2013: Emomali RAHMOND reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMOND (PDPT) 84%, Ismoil TALBAKOV CPT) 5%, other 11%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of:
National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms)
Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition as of mid-2202 (31 members) - men 23, women 8, percent of women 25.8%
Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 50.4%, PERT 16.6%, APT 16.5%, SPT 5.2%, DPT 5.1%, CPT 3.1%, other 3.1%; seats by party - PDPT 47, APT 7, PERT 5, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1; composition as of mid 2022 - men 46, women 17, percent of women 27%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 26.6%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, family, criminal, administrative offense, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, deputy chairman, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no term limits, but the last appointment must occur before the age of 65

subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region

Political parties and leaders

Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOEV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Rustam RAHMATZODA]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [vacant]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFORZODA]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Farrukh HAMRALIZODA (since 17 February 2021)

chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090

FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091

email address and website:;

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Manuel P. MICALLER JR (since 9 March 2023)

embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue (Zarafshon district), Dushanbe 734019

mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Washington DC  20521-7090

telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00

FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50

email address and website:

Flag description

three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness

National symbol(s)

crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV

note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (2 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Proto-urban Site of Sarazm (c); Tajik National Park (Mountains of the Pamirs) (n); Silk Roads: Zarafshan-Karakum Corridor (c)


Economic overview

lower middle-income Central Asian economy; key gold, cotton, and aluminum exporter; declining poverty; sustained high growth; very limited private sector; substantial illicit drug trade; significant remittances; environmentally fragile

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$38.058 billion (2021 est.)
$34.851 billion (2020 est.)
$33.382 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 127

Real GDP growth rate

9.2% (2021 est.)
4.4% (2020 est.)
7.4% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 31

Real GDP per capita

$3,900 (2021 est.)
$3,700 (2020 est.)
$3,600 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 185

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.522 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.7% (2019 est.)
3.9% (2018 est.)
7.3% (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 39

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: B- (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 25.5% (2017 est.)

services: 45.9% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 194; industry 109; agriculture 20

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 98.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 11.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 10.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -36.6% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, wheat, watermelons, onions, tomatoes, vegetables, cotton, carrots/turnips, beef


aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil

Industrial production growth rate

22.04% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 3

Labor force

2.5 million (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 116

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 43%

industry: 10.6%

services: 46.4% (2016 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.75% (2021 est.)
7.58% (2020 est.)
7.06% (2019 est.)

note: official rate; actual unemployment is much higher

comparison ranking: 98

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 17.4%

male: 19.4%

female: 14.4% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 97

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: (2009 est.) NA

highest 10%: (2009 est.) NA


revenues: $2.222 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $2.393 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 90

Public debt

50.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
42% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 106

Taxes and other revenues

31.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 24

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$734.735 million (2021 est.)
$335.906 million (2020 est.)
-$185.295 million (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 57


$2.161 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.409 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.243 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 157

Exports - partners

Turkey 24%, Switzerland 22%, Uzbekistan 16%, Kazakhstan 12%, China 10% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, aluminum, cotton, zinc, antimony, lead (2019)


$4.258 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.125 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.409 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 149

Imports - partners

China 40%, Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, natural gas, bauxite, aircraft (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.499 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$2.238 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.466 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 124

Debt - external

$6.47 billion (2019 est.)
$5.849 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 127

Exchange rates

Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
11.309 (2021 est.)
10.322 (2020 est.)
9.53 (2019 est.)
9.151 (2018 est.)
8.55 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.5% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 98.9% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 7.114 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 15.071 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 3.175 billion kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 281 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.429 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 78; transmission/distribution losses 79; imports 96; exports 43; consumption 82

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 8.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 91.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 2.103 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 2.16 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 57,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 375 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 26,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

172 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 108

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 151

Refined petroleum products - imports

22,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 114

Natural gas

production: 18.208 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 157.611 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 139.375 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 5.663 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

7.643 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 4.362 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 2.971 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 309,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 121

Energy consumption per capita

27.651 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 124


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 500,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 92

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 82

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the nation of Tajikistan has had to struggle through economic hardship following the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic; the strain on financial resources inevitably means a continuation of the absence of any meaningful investment or development programs for telecommunications infrastructure; the fixed line telephony and fixed broadband markets continue to languish far behind the mobile sector in terms of teledensity and penetration; with only around 6,000 fixed broadband customers (0.07% penetration), there would appear to be growth potential, but the limited fixed line infrastructure in the country suggests there’s little likelihood of that occurring any time soon; the size of Tajikistan’s mobile market dwarfs the fixed line segment, with an estimated penetration rate of nearly 120%; with a number of private sector companies active in the mobile market, there been more commitment to investment in network upgrades and expansion; three MNOs have all launched commercial 5G services, initially in areas of the capital city Dushanbe; the move towards higher speed mobile services should further underpin the growth in the nascent mobile broadband market, which is still estimated to be at a relatively low penetration level of 42% (at least relative to most other Asian nations) but is predicted to be a strong compound annual growth rate of more than 8% for at least the next five years (2021)

domestic: fixed-line over 5 per 100 and mobile-cellular over 120 per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); 3 satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita

Broadcast media

state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)

Internet users

total: 3,009,054 (2022 est.)

percent of population: 30.4% (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total 121

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 6,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.1 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 184


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 492,320 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.34 million (2018) mt-km


24 (2021)

comparison ranking: total 129

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


549 km gas, 38 km oil (2013)


total: 680 km (2014)

broad gauge: 680 km (2014) 1.520-m gauge

comparison ranking: total 102


total: 30,000 km (2018)

comparison ranking: total 98


200 km (2011) (along Vakhsh River)

comparison ranking: 108

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan: Land Forces, Mobile Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard

Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Troops (reserves for Armed Forces in wartime), police

State Committee on National Security: Border Guard Forces (2023)

note: the National Guard, formerly the Presidential Guard, is tasked with ensuring public safety and security, similar to the tasks of the Internal Troops; it also takes part in ceremonial duties

Military expenditures

1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2021 est.)
1% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 126

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 10,000 active-duty troops (8,000 Land and Mobile Forces; 2,000 Air and Air Defense Forces) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is comprised of older Russian and Soviet-era equipment; it has received limited quantities of weapons systems in recent years, most of which was secondhand material from Russia (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service for men; women may volunteer; 24-month conscript service obligation; in August 2021, the Tajik Government began allowing men to pay a fee in order to avoid conscription (2023)

Military - note

Tajikistan is the only former Soviet republic that did not form its armed forces from old Soviet Army units following the collapse of the USSR in 1991; rather, Russia retained command of the Soviet units there while the Tajik government raised a military from scratch; the first ground forces were officially created in 1993 from groups that fought for the government during the Tajik Civil War

the military is a small and limited force equipped largely with Soviet-era weapons; its primary concerns are terrorism, border security, territorial defense, and instability in neighboring countries; following the 2021 Taliban takeover in Afghanistan, Tajikistan deployed thousands of troops to the Afghan border and conducted exercises focused on border-related scenarios; since 2012, Tajikistan has had more than 100 border-related clashes with Kyrgyzstan, triggered mostly by disputes over water, roads, or land along a poorly-defined frontier; the most recent in September 2022 saw the use of armored vehicles and artillery and resulted in about 100 killed; the Tajik Land and Mobile Forces have together an estimated 5 combat brigades of mechanized infantry, light/mountain infantry, air assault and special forces, and artillery; the Air and Air Defense force has a small number attack and multipurpose helicopters

Russia is Tajikistan’s primary security partner; approximately 5-7,000 Russian soldiers are stationed in the country, primarily at the 201st military base, which is leased until at least 2042; the Russian forces include combat troops and combat aircraft; Russia and Tajikistan have a joint air defense system and they conduct periodic joint exercises; Tajikistan has been a member of the Russian-led Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) since 1994 and contributes troops to CSTO's rapid reaction force (2023)


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note 1: US-designated foreign terrorist groups such as the Islamic Jihad Union, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, and the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan Province have operated in the area where the Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Tajik borders converge and ill-defined and porous borders allow for the relatively free movement of people and illicit goods 

note 2:
details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Tajikistan-Afghanistan: none identified

Tajikistan-China: in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; in 2011, Tajikistan and China ratified the 2002 border demarcation agreement whereby Tajikistan ceded approximately 1,100 square kilometers in the Pamirs to China

Tajikistan-Kyrgyzstan: disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan; in May 2021, both countries agreed to a ceasefire following recent clashes at their border

Tajikistan-Uzbekistan: talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and clear minefields; as of January 2020, Uzbekistan reported that it had cleared all mines along its side of the border

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,775 (Afghanistan) (mid-year 2021)

stateless persons: 4,898 (2022)

Illicit drugs

Tajikistan is a primary transit country along the “Northern Route” for Afghanistan-sourced opiates and cannabis for the Russian and Eastern European markets and beyond; minimal domestic recreational drug use though it is increasing