Turkey (Turkiye)

Country Summary



Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community.



total: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km


temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

People and Society


83,593,483 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 6-11% (2016 est.)


Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages


Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Population growth rate

0.64% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Ankara

Executive branch

chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (chief of state since 28 August 2014; head of government since 9 July 2018); Vice President Cevdet YILMAZ (since 3 June 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (head of government since 9 July 2018; chief of state since 28 August 2014)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkey Buyuk Millet Meclisi (600 seats); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote, with a 10% threshold required to win a seat; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

upper middle-income, diversified Middle Eastern economy; economic instability from 2016 attempted coup and 2018 currency recession; hit hard by COVID-19, increasing poverty and unemployment; endemic corruption; large agriculture labor force

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.668 trillion (2021 est.)
$2.396 trillion (2020 est.)
$2.35 trillion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$31,500 (2021 est.)
$28,500 (2020 est.)
$28,200 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, sugar beet, tomatoes, barley, maize, potatoes, grapes, watermelons, apples


textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper


0.09% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.11% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.11% of GDP (2019 est.)


$282.851 billion (2021 est.)
$203.816 billion (2020 est.)
$244.941 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 9%, United Kingdom 6%, Iraq 5%, Italy 5%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, jewelry, clothing and apparel (2019)


$285.578 billion (2021 est.)
$230.141 billion (2020 est.)
$227.638 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 11%, China 9%, Russia 9%, United States 5%, Italy 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

gold, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, scrap iron (2019)

Exchange rates

Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
8.85 (2021 est.)
7.009 (2020 est.)
5.674 (2019 est.)
4.828 (2018 est.)
3.648 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, November 14, 2023