Turkey (Turkiye)

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community.

Geography

Area

total: 783,562 sq km

land: 769,632 sq km

water: 13,930 sq km

Climate

temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

People and Society

Population

83,047,706 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 6-11% (2016 est.)

Languages

Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

Religions

Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Population growth rate

0.67% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Ankara

Executive branch

chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (chief of state since 28 August 2014; head of government since 9 July 2019); Vice President Fuat OKTAY (since 9 July 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (head of government since 9 July 2019; chief of state since 28 August 2014); note - a 2017 constitutional referendum eliminated the post of prime minister after the 2018 general election 

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkey Buyuk Millet Meclisi (600 seats - increased from 550 seats beginning with June 2018 election; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms - increased from 4 to 5 years beginning with June 2018 election)

Economy

Economic overview

upper middle-income, diversified Middle Eastern economy; economic instability from 2016 attempted coup and 2018 currency recession; hit hard by COVID-19, increasing poverty and unemployment; endemic corruption; large agriculture labor force

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2,393,960,000,000 (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$28,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, sugar beet, tomatoes, barley, maize, potatoes, grapes, watermelons, apples

Industries

textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Exports

$203.29 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 9%, United Kingdom 6%, Iraq 5%, Italy 5%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, jewelry, clothing and apparel (2019)

Imports

$232.01 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 11%, China 9%, Russia 9%, United States 5%, Italy 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

gold, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, scrap iron (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022