Photos of Turkey (Turkiye)

The fountain for ritual ablutions was added to the Hagia Sophia in 1740.

Introduction

Background

Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the Ottoman Empire by reformer and national hero Mustafa KEMAL, known as Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." One-party rule ended in 1950, and periods of instability and military coups have since fractured the multiparty democracy, in 1960, 1971, 1980, 1997, and 2016. 

Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and NATO in 1952. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, began a separatist insurgency in Turkey in 1984, and the struggle has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, but intense fighting resumed in 2015. 

The Turkish Government conducted a referendum in 2017 in which voters approved constitutional amendments changing Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system. 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates

39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 783,562 sq km

land: 769,632 sq km

water: 13,930 sq km

comparison ranking: total 38

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Texas

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,816 km

border countries (8): Armenia 311 km; Azerbaijan 17 km; Bulgaria 223 km; Georgia 273 km; Greece 192 km; Iran 534 km; Iraq 367 km; Syria 899 km

Coastline

7,200 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea

exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea

Climate

temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain

high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Elevation

highest point: Mount Ararat 5,137 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 1,132 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 49.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 26.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19% (2018 est.)

forest: 14.9% (2018 est.)

other: 35.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

52,150 sq km (2020)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Beysehir - 650 sq km; Lake Egridir - 520 sq km

salt water lake(s): Lake Van - 3,740 sq km; Lake Tuz - 1,640 sq km;

Major rivers (by length in km)

Euphrates river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 3,596 km; Tigris river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 1,950 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 sq km)

Population distribution

the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast

Natural hazards

severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van; landslides; flooding

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier

Geography - note

strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; the 3% of Turkish territory north of the Straits lies in Europe and goes by the names of European Turkey, Eastern Thrace, or Turkish Thrace; the 97% of the country in Asia is referred to as Anatolia; Istanbul, which straddles the Bosporus, is the only metropolis in the world located on two continents; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

People and Society

Population

total: 84,119,531

male: 42,247,430

female: 41,872,101 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 19; male 18; total 18

Nationality

noun: Turk(s)

adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups

Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 6-11% (2016 est.)

Languages

Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, temel bilgi edinmek için vazgeçilmez bir kaynak. (Turkish)

ڕاستییەکانی جیهان، باشترین سەرچاوەیە بۆ زانیارییە بنەڕەتییەکان (Kurdish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Turkish audio sample:
Kurdish audio sample:

Religions

Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Age structure

0-14 years: 21.7% (male 9,358,711/female 8,933,673)

15-64 years: 68.6% (male 29,219,389/female 28,494,315)

65 years and over: 9.6% (2024 est.) (male 3,669,330/female 4,444,113)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.1

youth dependency ratio: 34.5

elderly dependency ratio: 12.3

potential support ratio: 8.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 34 years (2024 est.)

male: 33.4 years

female: 34.6 years

comparison ranking: total 108

Population growth rate

0.61% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 139

Birth rate

13.8 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Death rate

6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 151

Net migration rate

-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 156

Population distribution

the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast

Urbanization

urban population: 77.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

15.848 million Istanbul, 5.397 million ANKARA (capital), 3.088 million Izmir, 2.086 million Bursa, 1.836 million Adana, 1.805 million Gaziantep (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.6 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

17 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 130

Infant mortality rate

total: 18.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 83

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.7 years (2024 est.)

male: 74.4 years

female: 79.2 years

comparison ranking: total population 103

Total fertility rate

1.9 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 119

Gross reproduction rate

0.92 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.1% of population

rural: 98.7% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population

rural: 1.3% of population

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

4.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

1.93 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.9 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 98.7% of population

total: 99.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 1.3% of population

total: 0.4% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

32.1% (2016)

comparison ranking: 17

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.18 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.67 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.35 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 147

Tobacco use

total: 30.7% (2020 est.)

male: 42.1% (2020 est.)

female: 19.2% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 28

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

1.5% (2018/19)

comparison ranking: 113

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2%

women married by age 18: 14.7% (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 145

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.7%

male: 99.1%

female: 94.4% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 19 years

female: 18 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; land degradation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic; conservation of biodiversity

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Environmental Modification

Climate

temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Land use

agricultural land: 49.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 26.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19% (2018 est.)

forest: 14.9% (2018 est.)

other: 35.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 77.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 118

Revenue from coal

0.05% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 31

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 23.25 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 372.72 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 57.53 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 31.283 million tons (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Beysehir - 650 sq km; Lake Egridir - 520 sq km

salt water lake(s): Lake Van - 3,740 sq km; Lake Tuz - 1,640 sq km;

Major rivers (by length in km)

Euphrates river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 3,596 km; Tigris river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 1,950 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 6.91 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.03 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 54.27 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

211.6 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Kula-Salihli (2023)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Turkey

conventional short form: Turkey

local long form: Turkey Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Turkey

etymology: the name means "Land of the Turks"

note: Turkiye is an approved English short-form name for Turkey

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Ankara

geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Ankara has been linked with a second millennium B.C. Hittite cult center of Ankuwash, although this connection is uncertain; in classical and medieval times, the city was known as Ankyra (meaning "anchor" in Greek and reflecting the city's position as a junction for multiple trade and military routes); by about the 13th century the city began to be referred to as Angora; following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the city's name became Ankara

Administrative divisions

81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Independence

29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed, succeeding the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday

Republic Day, 29 October (1923)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982

amendments: proposed by written consent of at least one third of Grand National Assembly (GNA) of Turkey (TBMM) members; adoption of draft amendments requires two debates in plenary TBMM session and three-fifths majority vote of all GNA members; the president of the republic can request TBMM reconsideration of the amendment and, if readopted by two-thirds majority TBMM vote, the president may submit the amendment to a referendum; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended several times, last in 2017

Legal system

civil law system based on various European legal systems, notably the Swiss civil code

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (chief of state since 28 August 2014; head of government since 9 July 2018)

head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (head of government since 9 July 2018; chief of state since 28 August 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 May 2023 with a runoff on 28 May 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
2023:
Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in second round - Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.2%, Kemal KILICDAROGLU (CHP) 47.8%

2018:
Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in first round - Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.6%, Muharrem INCE (CHP) 30.6%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 8.4%, Meral AKSENER (IYI) 7.3%, other 1.1%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkey Buyuk Millet Meclisi (600 seats); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote, with a 10% threshold required to win a seat; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 May 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - People's Alliance 49.9% (AKP 35.6%, MHP 10.1%, YRP 2.8%, BBP 1%), Nation Alliance 35.4% (CHP 25.3%, IYI 9.7%), Labor and Freedom Alliance 10.7% (YSGP 8.9%, TIP 1.8%); seats by party/coalition - People's Alliance 323 (AKP 268, MHP 50, YRP 5), Nation Alliance 212 (CHP 169, IYI 43), Labor and Freedom Alliance 65 (YSGP 61, TIP 4); composition - men 480, women 119, percentage women 19.9%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of the president, 2 vice presidents, and 12 judges); Court of Cassation (consists of about 390 judges and is organized into civil and penal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members)

judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 12 by the president of the republic; court president and 2 deputy court presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges serve 12-year, nonrenewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Board of Judges and Prosecutors, a 13-member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges serve until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the Board and by the president of the republic; members serve renewable, 4-year terms

subordinate courts: regional appeals courts; basic (first instance) courts; peace courts; aggravated crime courts; specialized courts, including administrative and audit; note - a constitutional amendment in 2017 abolished military courts unless established to investigate military personnel actions during war conditions

Political parties and leaders

Democracy and Progress Party or DEVA [Ali BABACAN]
Democrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
Democratic Regions Party or DBP [Saliha AYDENIZ, Keskin BAYINDIR]
Felicity Party (Saadet Party) or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
Free Cause Party or HUDA PAR [Zekeriya YAPICIOGLU]
Future Party (Gelecek Partisi) or GP [Ahmet DAVUTOGLU]
Good Party or IYI [Meral AKSENER]
Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
Labor and Freedom Alliance (electoral alliance includes YSGP, HDP, TIP)
Nation Alliance [collective leadership] (electoral alliance includes CHP, DEVA, DP, GP, IYI, SP) (dissolved 1 June 2023)
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
New Welfare Party or YRP [Fatih ERBAKAN]
Party of Greens and the Left Future or YSGP [Cigfrm  Kilicgun UCAR and Ibrahim AKIN]
People's Alliance (electoral alliance includes AKP, BBP, MHP, YRP)
Peoples' Democratic Party or HDP [Pervin BULDAN, Mithat SANCAR]
Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
Workers' Party of Turkey or TIP [Erkan BAS]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

note: Turkey is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Halime Digdem BUNER (since 13 January 2024)

chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744

email address and website:
embassy.washingtondc@mfa.gov.tr

T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı - Turkish Embassy In Washington, D.C. (mfa.gov.tr)

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffry Lane FLAKE (since 26 January 2022)

embassy: 1480 Sokak No. 1, Cukurambar Mahallesi, 06530 Cankaya, Ankara

mailing address: 7000 Ankara Place, Washington  DC 20512-7000

telephone: [90] (312) 294-0000

FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019

email address and website:
Ankara-ACS@state.gov

https://tr.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Istanbul

consulate(s): Adana

Flag description

red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors

National symbol(s)

vertical crescent moon with adjacent five-pointed star; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)

lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR

note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 19 (17 cultural, 2 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Archaeological Site of Troy (c); Ephesus (c); Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape (c); Hierapolis-Pamukkale (m); Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia (m); Göbekli Tepe (c); Historic Areas of Istanbul (c); Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex (c); Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük (c); Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the Birth of the Ottoman Empire (c); Gordion (c)

Economy

Economic overview

upper middle-income, diversified Middle Eastern economy; heightened inflation and currency depreciation triggered by expansionary monetary and fiscal policy ahead of 2023 elections, now being reversed; industrializing economy that maintains large agricultural base

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.817 trillion (2022 est.)
$2.669 trillion (2021 est.)
$2.395 trillion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 11

Real GDP growth rate

5.53% (2022 est.)
11.44% (2021 est.)
1.86% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 63

Real GDP per capita

$33,100 (2022 est.)
$31,700 (2021 est.)
$28,700 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 70

GDP (official exchange rate)

$907.118 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

72.31% (2022 est.)
19.6% (2021 est.)
12.28% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 217

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2019)

Moody's rating: B2 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2018)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.3% (2017 est.)

services: 60.7% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 119; industry 65; agriculture 111

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 29.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 24.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, sugar beets, tomatoes, barley, maize, potatoes, apples, grapes, watermelons (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage

Industries

textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate

-0.57% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 173

Labor force

34.63 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 18

Unemployment rate

10.43% (2022 est.)
11.98% (2021 est.)
13.11% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 166

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 24.3% (2021 est.)

male: 21.4%

female: 29.9%

comparison ranking: total 65

Population below poverty line

14.4% (2020 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

41.9 (2019 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 40

Average household expenditures

on food: 27.3% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 2.8% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 31.6% (2019 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

0.08% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.09% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.11% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $210.536 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $249.268 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 89

Public debt

35.25% of GDP (2022 est.)
42.58% of GDP (2021 est.)
41.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 153

Taxes and other revenues

16.09% (of GDP) (2022 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 129

Current account balance

-$48.751 billion (2022 est.)
-$7.232 billion (2021 est.)
-$31.888 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 202

Exports

$343.688 billion (2022 est.)
$286.094 billion (2021 est.)
$206.621 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 26

Exports - partners

Germany 8%, US 7%, Iraq 5%, UK 5%, Italy 5% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

garments, refined petroleum, cars, jewelry, plastic products (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$383.5 billion (2022 est.)
$283.595 billion (2021 est.)
$230.136 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 20

Imports - partners

China 13%, Germany 9%, Russia 8%, US 5%, Italy 5% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

gold, refined petroleum, plastics, scrap iron, cars (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$123.735 billion (2022 est.)
$109.535 billion (2021 est.)
$93.512 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 25

Debt - external

$438.677 billion (2019 est.)
$454.251 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 30

Exchange rates

Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
16.549 (2022 est.)
8.85 (2021 est.)
7.009 (2020 est.)
5.674 (2019 est.)
4.828 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 96.846 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 263.952 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 2.484 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 1.888 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 29.275 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 200; imports 58; exports 47; consumption 17; installed generating capacity 14

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 56.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 8.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 26.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 3.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 0

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 4 (2023)

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 0GW

Percent of total electricity production: 0%

Percent of total energy produced: 0%

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Coal

production: 78.871 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 108.271 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 54,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 40.919 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 11.525 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 70,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 987,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 423,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 366 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

657,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 27

Refined petroleum products - exports

141,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 37

Refined petroleum products - imports

560,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 16

Natural gas

production: 469.464 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 44,605,473,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 759.372 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 45,091,248,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 3.794 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

391.792 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 172.298 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 133.587 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 85.907 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 17

Energy consumption per capita

79.126 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 76

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 11.198 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 17

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 90.298 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 19

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Turkey continues to develop its capabilities within its telecom sector, becoming one of the relatively few countries able to build and develop its own communications satellites; with the successful launch of the Turksat 5A and 5B satellites in 2021, the country has vastly increased its bandwidth capacity; these satellites will be joined by the Turksat 6A in 2023; the country’s telcos have invested in fiber infrastructure; deployment of fiber-based broadband networks are well established, with fiber accounting for 26.7% of all fixed broadband connections as of early 2022; the DSL sector still dominates, accounting for about 63% of connections, but its share is steadily declining, year-on-year, while the number of fiber connections has grown strongly; improved fixed and mobile infrastructure is underpinning the country’s initiatives relating to Smart City concepts, which have become a key area of focus for the emerging digital economy and the transformation to a knowledge-based economy; Turkey’s National Smart Cities Strategy and Action Plan runs through to 2023 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line nearly 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 106 telephones per 100 persons (2022)

international: country code - 90; landing points for the SeaMeWe-3 & -5, MedNautilus Submarine System, Turcyos-1 & -2 submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia ; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2020)

Broadcast media

Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and 567 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; 1,007 private radio broadcast stations

(2019)

Internet users

total: 68.85 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 81% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 14

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 16,734,853 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 13

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 618

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,595,495 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,949,210,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

115 (2024)

comparison ranking: 46

Heliports

213 (2024)

Pipelines

14,666 km gas, 3,293 km oil (2017)

Railways

total: 11,497 km (2018)

standard gauge: 11,497 km (2018) 1.435-m gauge (1.435 km high speed train)

comparison ranking: total 21

Roadways

total: 68,526 km (2023)

paved: 24,082 km (2018) (includes 2,159 km of expressways)

unpaved: 43,251 km (2018)

comparison ranking: total 72

Waterways

1,200 km (2010)

comparison ranking: 62

Merchant marine

total: 1,170 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 43, container ship 43, general cargo 223, oil tanker 134, other 727

comparison ranking: total 22

Ports

total ports: 54 (2024)

large: 3

medium: 3

small: 6

very small: 42

ports with oil terminals: 28

key ports: Haydarpasa, Istanbul, Izmir, Mersin, Nemrut Limani Bay, Samsun

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri)

Ministry of Interior: Gendarmerie of the Turkish Republic (aka Gendarmerie General Command), Turkish Coast Guard Command, National Police (2024)

note: the Gendarmerie (Jandarma) is responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas); in wartime, the Gendarmerie and Coast Guard would be placed under the operational control of the Land Forces and Naval Forces, respectively

Military expenditures

1.6% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2022)
1.6% of GDP (2021)
1.9% of GDP (2020)
1.9% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 84

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 450,000 active-duty personnel (350,000 Army; 50,000 Navy; 50,000 Air Force); approximately 150,000 Gendarmerie (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is mostly comprised of a mix of domestically produced and Western weapons systems, although in recent years, Turkey has also acquired some Chinese, Russian, and South Korean equipment; over the past decade, Italy, Spain, and the US have been among the leading providers of armaments to Turkey; Turkey has a robust defense industry capable of producing a range of weapons systems for both export and internal use, including armored vehicles, naval vessels, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs); Turkey's defense industry also partners with other countries for defense production (2023)

Military service age and obligation

mandatory military service for men at age 20; service can be delayed if in university or in certain professions (researchers, professionals, and athletic, or those with artistic talents have the right to postpone military service until the age of 35); 6-12 months service; women may volunteer (2023)

note 1: in 2019, a new law cut the men’s mandatory military service period in half, as well as making paid military service permanent; with the new system, the period of conscription was reduced from 12 months to 6 months for privates and non-commissioned soldiers (the service term for reserve officers chosen among university or college graduates remained 12 months); after completing 6 months of service, if a conscripted soldier wants to and is suitable for extending his military service, he may do so for an additional 6 months in return for a monthly salary; under the new law, all male Turkish citizens over the age of 20 are required to undergo a 1 month military training period, but they can obtain an exemption from the remaining 5 months of their mandatory service by paying a fee

note 2:
as of 2020, women made up about 0.3% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

approximately 150 (Azerbaijan; monitoring cease-fire, clearing mines); 250 Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR); approximately 30-35,000 Cyprus; 800 Kosovo (NATO/KFOR); 130 Lebanon (UNIFIL); estimated 500 Libya; up to 5,000 Qatar; approximately 200 Somalia (training mission) (2023)

note: Turkey maintains significant military forces in both Iraq and Syria; size estimates vary as some forces are long-term deployments while others are deployed for specific operations; between 2016 and 2020, Turkey conducted four significant military ground campaigns in northern Syria with the stated purpose of securing its southern border; Turkey also has deployed troops into northern Iraq on numerous occasions to combat the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK), including large operations involving thousands of troops in 2007, 2011, and 2018, and smaller-scale operations in 2021 and 2022; Turkey has also conducted numerous air strikes in both Iraq and Syria

Military - note

the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) have a range of responsibilities, including defending and deterring against external threats, participating in international peacekeeping operations, fulfilling Turkey’s military commitments to NATO, providing disaster/humanitarian relief and assistance to domestic law enforcement if requested by civil authorities, and supporting Turkey’s overall national security interests; the TAF also has overall responsibility for the security of Turkey’s borders; Turkey is active in international peacekeeping and other security operations under the EU, NATO, and the UN, as well as under bilateral agreements with some countries; Turkey has established expeditionary military bases in northern Cyprus, Qatar, Somalia, and Sudan

Turkey has been a member of NATO since 1952 and hosts a considerable NATO and US military presence, including the headquarters for a NATO Land Command and a Rapid Deployment Corps, multiple airbases for NATO and US aircraft, NATO air/missile defense systems, and training centers; the TAF is the second-largest military in NATO behind the US and exercises regularly with NATO partners

the TAF is a large, well-equipped force comprised of a mix of professionals and conscripts; it has considerable operational experience; in addition to peacekeeping and military assistance operations in recent years in such places as Afghanistan (NATO), Bosnia and Herzegovina (EU), Kosovo (NATO), Lebanon (UN), and Somalia (bilateral), it has conducted combat missions of varying duration and scale in Iraq, Libya, and Syria; since the 1980s, the TAF has been involved in a protracted counterinsurgency campaign against the US-designated terrorist group the Kurdistan Worker’s Party or PKK, a Kurdish militant political organization and armed guerrilla movement, which historically operated throughout Kurdistan but is now primarily based in the mountainous Kurdish-majority regions of southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq; other key areas of concern for the TAF include tensions with fellow NATO member Greece over territorial disputes and Cyprus, tensions between neighboring Armenia and Azerbaijan, threats from the terrorist groups al-Qa’ida and the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham, and the Russia-Ukraine war; under a long-range (2033) strategic plan, the TAF continues a considerable effort to modernize its equipment and force structure

the TAF is led by a General Staff headed by a Chief of the General Staff; the Land Forces are organized into four army- and eight corps-level commands; these include an army command for the Aegean and a corps command for northern Cyprus (“Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus”); subordinate units include a few armored, mechanized infantry, or motorized infantry divisions, but most of the Land Force’s combat forces are formed into more than 30 armored, commando, light infantry, mechanized infantry, and motorized infantry brigades; the Land Forces also have an aviation command; the TAF has a Special Forces Command that is directly subordinate to the General Staff and independent of the other services

the Naval Forces’ role includes securing control of Turkey’s territorial waters and sea lines of communications; it is one of the largest maritime forces in the region and is seeking to develop greater blue water capabilities to protect Turkey’s broader regional interests with plans to acquire new frigates, submarines, and a light aircraft carrier in the next few years; the backbone of its warship inventory is a recently acquired large landing helicopter dock (LHD) amphibious assault ship, which is the fleet’s largest warship and serves as its flagship, and a sizeable force of frigates and attack-type submarines, which are supported by dozens of corvettes, fast-attack craft, and patrol vessels of varying sizes and capabilities

the Air Force is organized into commands for combat, training, and logistics, with the combat command further divided into two regional (east and west) tactical commands; it has about 200 US-made fighter and multirole fighter aircraft organized into squadrons; Air Force priorities include acquiring more advanced aircraft, boosting ground-based air defenses, and establishing a sustainable command and control system

Turkey’s military has a rich history that it traces back to 200 B.C., although the modern TAF was formed following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1923); the TAF has traditionally had a significant influence in the country as the “guardian” of Turkish politics, but its political role was largely lost after the failed 2016 coup attempt; the military has a substantial stake in Turkey's economy through a holding company that is involved in the automotive, energy, finance, and logistics sectors, as well as iron and steel production (2023)

Space

Space agency/agencies

Turkish Space Agency (TUA; established 2018); TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (UZAY; established in 1985 as Ankara Electronics Research and Development Institute) (2024)

Space launch site(s)

rocket test launch site on the Black Sea in Sinop Province; the 2021 national space program called for the establishment of a space port; has reportedly discussed building a rocket launch site in Somalia or using a sea-launch facility for future space launch vehicles (2024)

Space program overview

has an ambitious space program with a large focus on satellites, software development, ground station technologies, and building up the country’s space industries; in recent years has also initiated a space launch program with the goal of placing domestically produced satellites into orbit independently and a probe on the Moon; manufactures and operates remote sensing and telecommunications satellites, as well as satellite components; has a space/satellite launch vehicle program; space sector is heavily import-reliant, particularly at the component level; has established relations with more than 25 foreign space agencies and corporations, including those of Azerbaijan, China, France, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, Ukraine, and the US, as well as the European Space Agency; has state-owned rocket development and satellite communications companies, including some under the Ministry of Defense (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU); Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)/Qods Force; Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK); al-Qa'ida; Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 10,244 (Iraq) (mid-year 2022); 41,665 (Ukraine) (as of 15 February 2024) (2023); 3,122,899 (Syria) (2024)

IDPs: 1.099 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2022)

stateless persons: 117 (2018)

Illicit drugs

a significant transit country for illicit drug trafficking; an increase of heroin and methamphetamine seizures along the Turkiye-Iran border; Syrian drug traffickers play a significant role in Turkiye’s drug trade; domestic Illegal drug use relatively low compared to countries in the region