Uzbekistan

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia. The country has a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Independent since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base.

Geography

Area

total: 447,400 sq km

land: 425,400 sq km

water: 22,000 sq km

Climate

mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

People and Society

Population

31,104,937 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Uzbek 83.8%, Tajik 4.8%, Kazakh 2.5%, Russian 2.3%, Karakalpak 2.2%, Tatar 1.5%, other 4.4% (2017 est.)

Languages

Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Religions

Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Population growth rate

0.83% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic; highly authoritarian

Capital

name: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016; reelected president on 24 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

lower middle-income Central Asian economy; CIS Free Trade Area member but no intention of EAEU membership; key natural gas, cotton, and gold exporter; landlocked and environmentally fragile; positive growth through COVID-19, but poverty increasing

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$239.42 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$7,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, potatoes, carrots/turnips, cotton, tomatoes, vegetables, grapes, onions, watermelons

Industries

textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals

Exports

$14.52 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Switzerland 19%, United Kingdom 17%, Russia 15%, China 14%, Kazakhstan 9%, Turkey 8%, Kyrgyzstan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, natural gas, cotton fibers, copper, ethylene polymers (2019)

Imports

$22.56 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 23%, Russia 18%, South Korea 11%, Kazakhstan 9%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, refined petroleum, aircraft, construction vehicles (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022