Photos of Uzbekistan

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the Aral Sea was the world's fourth-largest lake. In the 1960s, the Soviet Union began a massive irrigation project in what are now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, diverting water from the rivers that feed the Aral Sea to irrigate farmland. As its water levels dropped, the lake began splitting into smaller pieces: the Northern (Small) Aral Sea and the Southern (Large) Aral Sea. The Southern Aral Sea further split into eastern and western lobes. In August 2009 when this photo was taken, the Northern Aral Sea (upper right) still appeared healthy, the Southern Aral Sea consisted of two isolated water bodies: an irregular oval shape directly southwest of the Northern Aral Sea, and the long, thin remainder of the Southern Aral Sea's far western lobe. Much of what finally doomed the Southern Aral Sea was an attempt to save its neighbor to the north. In 2005, Kazakhstan built the Kok-Aral Dam between the lake's northern and southern portions to preserve water levels in the north. The Northern Aral Sea actually exceeded expectations with the speed of its recovery, but the dam ended prospects for a recovery of the Southern Aral Sea, which some authorities already regarded as beyond help. Lake sediments from this depleted water body have provided ample material for frequent dust storms. Image courtesy of NASA.



Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia, with a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Russia conquered and united the disparate territories of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to the overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, leaving the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half-dry. Independent since the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) dissolved in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base, although cotton remains a major part of its economy. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in 2016. His successor, former Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, has improved relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic, judicial, and social reforms. MIRZIYOYEV was reelected in 2021 with 80% of the vote and again following a 2023 constitutional referendum with 87% of the vote.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates

41 00 N, 64 00 E


total: 447,400 sq km

land: 425,400 sq km

water: 22,000 sq km

comparison ranking: total 59

Area - comparative

about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 6,893 km

border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km; Kazakhstan 2,330 km; Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km; Tajikistan 1,312 km; Turkmenistan 1,793 km


0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims

none (doubly landlocked)


mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east


mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zaravshan; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west


highest point: Xazrat Sulton Tog' 4,643 m

lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use

agricultural land: 62.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 10.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 51.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 7.7% (2018 est.)

other: 29.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

37,320 sq km (2020)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Aral Sea (shared with Kazakhstan) - largely dried up

Major rivers (by length in km)

Syr Darya (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan [m]) - 3,078 km; Amu Darya river mouth (shared with Tajikistan [s], Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan) - 2,620 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: (Aral Sea basin) Amu Darya (534,739 sq km), Syr Darya (782,617 sq km)

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated

Natural hazards

earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts

Geography - note

along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

People and Society


total: 36,520,593

male: 18,324,813

female: 18,195,780 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 41; male 41; total 42


noun: Uzbekistani

adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups

Uzbek 83.8%, Tajik 4.8%, Kazakh 2.5%, Russian 2.3%, Karakalpak 2.2%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.9% (2017 est.)


Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

major-language sample(s):
Jahon faktlari kitobi, asosiy ma'lumotlar uchun zaruriy manba. (Uzbek)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

note: in the semi-autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status


Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Age structure

0-14 years: 29.6% (male 5,597,947/female 5,213,403)

15-64 years: 63.7% (male 11,649,017/female 11,617,411)

65 years and over: 6.7% (2024 est.) (male 1,077,849/female 1,364,966)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 54

youth dependency ratio: 46.3

elderly dependency ratio: 7.2

potential support ratio: 13 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 28.9 years (2024 est.)

male: 28.1 years

female: 29.8 years

comparison ranking: total 148

Population growth rate

1.43% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 69

Birth rate

20.5 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 64

Death rate

5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 190

Net migration rate

-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 149

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated


urban population: 50.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.25% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

2.603 million TASHKENT (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.7 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

30 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 110

Infant mortality rate

total: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 15.1 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 85

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 73.6 years

female: 79 years

comparison ranking: total population 114

Total fertility rate

2.76 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 57

Gross reproduction rate

1.33 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 96.1% of population

total: 97.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 3.9% of population

total: 2.2% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.8% of GDP (2020)

Physician density

2.37 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

4 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

16.6% (2016)

comparison ranking: 123

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.18 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 124

Tobacco use

total: 17.6% (2020 est.)

male: 34% (2020 est.)

female: 1.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 96

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.2%

women married by age 18: 3.4% (2022 est.)

Education expenditures

4.9% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 82


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2021)


Environment - current issues

shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Land use

agricultural land: 62.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 10.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 51.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 7.7% (2018 est.)

other: 29.7% (2018 est.)


urban population: 50.5% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.25% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 176

Revenue from coal

0.06% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 30

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 40.98 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 91.81 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 96.16 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4 million tons (2016 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Aral Sea (shared with Kazakhstan) - largely dried up

Major rivers (by length in km)

Syr Darya (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan [m]) - 3,078 km; Amu Darya river mouth (shared with Tajikistan [s], Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan) - 2,620 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: (Aral Sea basin) Amu Darya (534,739 sq km), Syr Darya (782,617 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 2.41 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 2.13 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 54.36 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

48.87 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan

conventional short form: Uzbekistan

local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi

local short form: O'zbekiston

former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the Free"

Government type

presidential republic; highly authoritarian


name: Tashkent (Toshkent)

geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: tash means "stone" and kent means "city" in Turkic languages, so the name simply denotes "stone city"

Administrative divisions

12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 3 cities** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati [Bukhara Province], Farg'ona Viloyati [Fergana Province], Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Shahri, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Shahri [Samarkand City], Samarqand Viloyati [Samarkand Province], Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent Province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)  

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses) 


1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 September (1991)


history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992

amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2023

note: in a public referendum passed in April 2023, among the changes were the extension of the presidential term to 7 years from 5 years, and modifications to the structure and powers of the Supreme Assembly and to the criminal code 

Legal system

civil law system; note: in early 2020, the president signed an amendment to the criminal code, criminal procedure code, and code of administrative responsibility; a constitutional referendum passed in April 2023 included criminal code reforms  

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 14 December 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended to 7 years by a 2023 constitutional amendment); election last held on 9 July 2023  (next to be held in 2030); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011 but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president

election results:
2023: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV reelected president in snap election; percent of vote
- Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 87.71%, Robaxon Maxmudova (Adolat) 4.47%, Ulugbek Inoyatov (PDP) 4.05%, Abdushukur Xamzayev (Ecological Party) 3.77%

2021: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 80.3%, Maqsuda VORISOVA (PDP) 6.7%, Alisher QODIROV (National Revival Democratic Party) 5.5%, Narzullo OBLOMURODOV (Ecological Party) 4.1%, Bahrom ABDUHALIMOV (Adolat) 3.4%

2016: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (PDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (National Revival Democratic Party) 2.4%, other 1.8%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats); 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - amendments to the constitution approved in April 2023 call for the reduction of Senate seats to 65 from 100
Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats statutory, 140 seats current; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 16-17 January 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
Legislative Chamber - last held on 22 December 2019 and 5 January 2020 (next to be held in December 2024)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 68, women 22, percentage women 24.4%

Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, National Revival Democratic Party 36, Adolat 24, PDP 22, Ecological Movement 15; composition - men 89, women 47, percentage women 34.6%; total Supreme Assembly percentage women 30.5%

note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, and economic sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for a single 10-year term; the court chairman and deputies appointed for 10-year terms without the right to reelection. (Article 132 of the constitution)

subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts

Political parties and leaders

Ecological Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Partivasi) [Narzullo OBLOMURODOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Bahrom ABDUKHALIMOV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Aktam HAITOV]
National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Alisher QODIROV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or PDP [Ulugbek Ilyosovich INOYATOV] (formerly Communist Party)

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Furqat SIDIKOV (since 19 April 2023)

chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300

FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jonathan HENICK (since 14 October 2022)

embassy: 3 Moyqorghon, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, 100093 Tashkent

mailing address: 7110 Tashkent Place, Washington DC  20521-7110

telephone: [998] 78-120-5450

FAX: [998] 78-120-6335

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a vertical, white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white, five-pointed stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar

National symbol(s)

khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green

National anthem

name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)

lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (5 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Itchan Kala (c); Historic Bukhara (c); Historic Shakhrisyabz (c); Samarkand - Crossroad of Cultures (c); Western Tien Shan (n); Cold Winter Deserts of Turan (n); Silk Roads: Zarafshan-Karakum Corridor (c)


Economic overview

lower middle-income Central Asian economy; CIS Free Trade Area member but no intention of EAEU membership; key natural gas, cotton, and gold exporter; landlocked and environmentally fragile; positive growth through COVID-19, but poverty increasing

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$287.795 billion (2022 est.)
$272.355 billion (2021 est.)
$253.582 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 58

Real GDP growth rate

5.67% (2022 est.)
7.4% (2021 est.)
2% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 59

Real GDP per capita

$8,100 (2022 est.)
$7,800 (2021 est.)
$7,400 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 153

GDP (official exchange rate)

$80.392 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

11.45% (2022 est.)
10.85% (2021 est.)
12.87% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 170

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2018)

Moody's rating: B1 (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2018)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 17.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)

services: 48.5% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 186; industry 51; agriculture 55

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 59.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 25.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 19% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -20% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, carrots/turnips, cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, grapes, vegetables, watermelons, apples (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate

5.48% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 55

Labor force

13.971 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 45

Unemployment rate

4.51% (2022 est.)
5.42% (2021 est.)
5.29% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 93

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 16% (2021 est.)

male: 15.8%

female: 16.2%

comparison ranking: total 108

Population below poverty line

14.1% (2013 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Average household expenditures

on food: 46.5% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.2% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)


20.82% of GDP (2022 est.)
13.33% of GDP (2021 est.)
11.76% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $16.197 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $16.346 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 41

Public debt

24.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 177

Taxes and other revenues

14.79% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 147

Current account balance

$1.55 billion (2022 est.)
-$4.894 billion (2021 est.)
-$3.028 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 42


$24.094 billion (2022 est.)
$16.443 billion (2021 est.)
$14.536 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 86

Exports - partners

Switzerland 25%, Russia 15%, China 12%, Turkey 9%, Kazakhstan 7% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

gold, cotton yarn, garments, natural gas, refined copper (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$35.61 billion (2022 est.)
$27.936 billion (2021 est.)
$22.638 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 75

Imports - partners

China 24%, Russia 19%, Kazakhstan 12%, South Korea 8%, Turkey 6% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

vehicle parts/accessories, packaged medicine, cars, wheat, refined petroleum (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$35.774 billion (2022 est.)
$35.375 billion (2021 est.)
$34.903 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 52

Debt - external

$16.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 101

Exchange rates

Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
11,050.145 (2022 est.)
10,609.464 (2021 est.)
10,054.261 (2020 est.)
8,836.788 (2019 est.)
8,069.606 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2022 est.)


installed generating capacity: 16.926 million kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 67.642 billion kWh (2022 est.)

exports: 2.644 billion kWh (2022 est.)

imports: 6.232 billion kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 10.704 billion kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 180; imports 41; exports 52; consumption 43; installed generating capacity 53

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 93.3% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

hydroelectricity: 6.7% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)


production: 5.356 million metric tons (2022 est.)

consumption: 7.396 million metric tons (2022 est.)

exports: 9,000 metric tons (2022 est.)

imports: 2.194 million metric tons (2022 est.)

proven reserves: 1.375 billion metric tons (2022 est.)


total petroleum production: 64,000 bbl/day (2023 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 91,000 bbl/day (2022 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 594 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 47.5 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

consumption: 43.227 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

exports: 5.595 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

imports: 12,000 cubic meters (2022 est.)

proven reserves: 1.841 trillion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

103.219 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 9.807 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 11.041 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 82.37 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 39

Energy consumption per capita

53.528 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 92


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5.686 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 25

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 35.69 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 43

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Uzbekistan’s telecom markets both wireline and wireless have been playing "catch up" in terms of their development following the country's independence from the former Soviet Union; the government has formally adopted the principles of operating as a market economy, many elements of the old centrally planned economic model remain; this has had the effect of reducing the level of interest from foreign companies and investors in building out the necessary underlying infrastructure, which in turn has constrained the rate of growth in the country’s telecoms sector; the last five years has seen an upswing in prospects for the sector as fiber network roll outs continue beyond the main urban centers, while the mobile market experiences some consolidation for stronger, more efficient competitors; growth is present in the fixed broadband segment with penetration projected to reach 24% by 2027 (a 5-year CAGR of 6.2%); despite the promising signs in the fixed markets, it is the mobile segment that continues to dominate Uzbekistan’s telecoms sector in terms of penetration, revenue, and growth;  there are four major operators providing a modicum of competition; three of the four are government owned entities (2024)

domestic: fixed-line nearly 16 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity of 103 per 100 persons (2022)

international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber-optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008

Broadcast media

the government controls media; 17 state-owned broadcasters - 13 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2019, the Uzbek Agency for Press and Information was reorganized into the Agency of Information and Mass Communications and became part of the Uzbek Presidential Administration (2019)

Internet users

total: 26.18 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 77% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 34

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 4,820,009 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 33


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 34

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,056,558 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 89.43 million (2018) mt-km


74 (2024)

comparison ranking: 68


3 (2024)


13,700 km gas, 944 km oil (2016)


total: 4,642 km (2018)

broad gauge: 4,642 km (2018) 1.520-m gauge (1,684 km electrified)

comparison ranking: total 41


total: 225,500 km (2013)

comparison ranking: total 20


1,100 km (2012)

comparison ranking: 66

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of Uzbekistan: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard 

Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Security Troops, Border Guards, police (2023)

note: the National Guard is under the Defense Ministry, but is independent of the other military services; it is responsible for ensuring public order and the security of diplomatic missions, radio and television broadcasting, and other state entities

Military expenditures

2.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.9% of GDP (2018 est.)
2.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 37

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 50-60,000 active-duty troops, including 10-15,000 Air Force (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Uzbek Armed Forces use mainly Soviet-era equipment; in recent years, Russia has been the leading supplier of arms, followed by China (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 12-month conscript service obligation for men (those conscripted have the option of paying for a shorter service of 1 month while remaining in the reserves until the age of 27) (2023)

note: Uzbek citizens who have completed their service terms in the armed forces have privileges in employment and admission to higher educational institutions

Military - note

the military’s primary concerns and responsibilities are border security, ensuring the country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, instability in neighboring countries, and terrorism; the military is equipped largely with Soviet-era arms and its units are based on Soviet Army formations that were in the territory of Uzbekistan when the USSR collapsed in 1991; the armed forces were established in January 1992 when Uzbekistan assumed jurisdiction over all former Soviet ground, air, and air defense units, formations, and installations then deployed on its soil; the building hosting the headquarters for the ex-Soviet Turkestan Military District became the headquarters for the Uzbek armed forces; all former Soviet troops departed Uzbekistan by 1995

Uzbekistan joined the Russian-sponsored Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in the 1990s but withdrew in 1999; it returned in 2006 but left again in 2012; although it is not part of CSTO, Uzbekistan continues to maintain defense ties with Russia, including joint military exercises and defense industrial cooperation; it also has defense ties with other regional countries, including India, Pakistan, and Turkey; it is part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and participates in SCO training exercises (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Agency for Space Research and Technology (Uzbekcosmos; established 2019) (2024)

Space program overview

has a small space program focused on acquiring satellites and developing the country’s space industry; Uzbekcosmos largely sets state policy and shapes the strategic direction, development, and use of the country’s space-related industries and technologies in key sectors, including cartography, environmental and disaster monitoring, land use, resource management, and telecommunications; also has an astronomy program; cooperates with foreign space agencies or commercial companies from a variety of countries, including those of Canada, China, France, India, Israel, Kazakhstan, Russia, South Korea, and Spain (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic Jihad Union; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - Khorasan (ISIS-K)

note 1: these groups have typically been active in the area where the Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Tajik borders converge and ill-defined and porous borders allow for the relatively free movement of people and illicit goods 

note 2:
details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 13,031 (Afghanistan) (mid-year 2022)

stateless persons: 31,829 (2022)

Illicit drugs

a transit country for Afghan heroin, opium, and hashish destined to Kazakhstan, Russia, and Europe;  cannabis and opium poppy are grown domestically for personal use and sale