Country Summary



Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia. The country has a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Independent since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base.



total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km


mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

People and Society


31,360,836 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Uzbek 83.8%, Tajik 4.8%, Kazakh 2.5%, Russian 2.3%, Karakalpak 2.2%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.9% (2017 est.)


Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%


Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Population growth rate

1.61% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic; highly authoritarian


name: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 14 December 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats); 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - amendments to the constitution approved in April 2023 call for the reduction of Senate seats to 65 from 100
Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats statutory, 140 seats current; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

lower middle-income Central Asian economy; CIS Free Trade Area member but no intention of EAEU membership; key natural gas, cotton, and gold exporter; landlocked and environmentally fragile; positive growth through COVID-19, but poverty increasing

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$287.795 billion (2022 est.)
$272.355 billion (2021 est.)
$253.582 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$8,100 (2022 est.)
$7,800 (2021 est.)
$7,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, potatoes, carrots/turnips, cotton, tomatoes, vegetables, grapes, onions, watermelons


textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals


$24.094 billion (2022 est.)
$16.443 billion (2021 est.)
$14.536 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Switzerland 19%, United Kingdom 17%, Russia 15%, China 14%, Kazakhstan 9%, Turkey 8%, Kyrgyzstan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, natural gas, cotton fibers, copper, ethylene polymers (2019)


$35.61 billion (2022 est.)
$27.936 billion (2021 est.)
$22.638 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 23%, Russia 18%, South Korea 11%, Kazakhstan 9%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, refined petroleum, aircraft, construction vehicles (2019)

Exchange rates

Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
11,050.145 (2022 est.)
10,609.464 (2021 est.)
10,054.261 (2020 est.)
8,836.788 (2019 est.)
8,069.606 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, April 09, 2024