Trekking through the desert.
Country Flag
Country Map
Special Country Products
Locator Map



Algeria has known many empires and dynasties starting with the ancient Numidians (3rd century B.C.), Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, over a dozen different Arab and Berber dynasties, Spaniards, and Ottoman Turks. It was under the latter that the Barbary pirates operated from North Africa and preyed on shipping beginning in roughly 1500, peaking in the early to mid-17th century, until finally subdued by the French capture of Algiers in 1830. The French southward conquest of the entirety of Algeria proceeded throughout the 19th century and was marked by many atrocities. The country was heavily colonized by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A bloody eight-year struggle culminated in Algerian independence in 1962.

Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics, though it is falling out of favor with the youth. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 legislative elections led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths – many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS’s armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. FIS membership is illegal.

Former president Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election that was boycotted by several candidates protesting alleged fraud, and won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. Protests broke out across the country in late February 2019 against President BOUTEFLIKA’s decision to seek a fifth term. BOUTEFLIKA resigned in April 2019, and in December 2019, Algerians elected former Prime Minister Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE as the country's new president. A longtime FLN member, TEBBOUNE ran for president as an independent. In 2020, Algeria held a constitutional referendum, which President TEBBOUNE enacted in January 2021. Subsequent reforms to the national electoral law introduced open list voting to curb corruption. The new law also eliminated gender quotas in Parliament, and the June 2021 legislative elections saw female representation plummet. Local elections took place in November 2021. The referendum, parliamentary elections, and local elections saw record low voter turnout. Since 2014, Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to fund the government and finance the large subsidies for the population has fallen under stress because of declining oil prices.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates

28 00 N, 3 00 E


total: 2,381,740 sq km

land: 2,381,740 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 11

Area - comparative

slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 6,734 km

border countries (6): Libya 989 km; Mali 1,359 km; Mauritania 460 km; Morocco 1,941 km; Niger 951 km; Tunisia 1,034 km


998 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm


arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer


mostly high plateau and desert; Atlas Mountains in the far north and Hoggar Mountains in the south; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain


highest point: Tahat 2,908 m

lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m

mean elevation: 800 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use

agricultural land: 17.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 0.8% (2018 est.)

other: 81.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

12,605 sq km (2016)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Chad (2,497,738 sq km)

Major aquifers

Lullemeden-Irhazer Aquifer System, Murzuk-Djado Basin, North Western Sahara Aquifer, Taoudeni-Tanezrouft Basin

Population distribution

the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season; droughts

Geography - note

largest country in Africa but 80% desert; canyons and caves in the southern Hoggar Mountains and in the barren Tassili n'Ajjer area in the southeast of the country contain numerous examples of prehistoric art - rock paintings and carvings depicting human activities and wild and domestic animals (elephants, giraffes, cattle) - that date to the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, when the region was completely vegetated

People and Society


noun: Algerian(s)

adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups

Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as primarily Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers and several other communities; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has officially recognized Berber languages and introduced them into public schools


Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Arabic audio sample:


Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Ahmadi Muslims, Shia Muslims, Ibadi  Muslims) <1% (2012 est.)

Demographic profile

For the first two thirds of the 20th century, Algeria's high fertility rate caused its population to grow rapidly. However, about a decade after independence from France in 1962, the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria's population growth rate by the late 1980s. The lower fertility rate was mainly the result of women's rising age at first marriage (virtually all Algerian children being born in wedlock) and to a lesser extent the wider use of contraceptives. Later marriages and a preference for smaller families are attributed to increases in women's education and participation in the labor market; higher unemployment; and a shortage of housing forcing multiple generations to live together. The average woman's age at first marriage increased from about 19 in the mid-1950s to 24 in the mid-1970s to 30.5 in the late 1990s.

Algeria's fertility rate experienced an unexpected upturn in the early 2000s, as the average woman's age at first marriage dropped slightly. The reversal in fertility could represent a temporary fluctuation in marriage age or, less likely, a decrease in the steady rate of contraceptive use.

Thousands of Algerian peasants - mainly Berber men from the Kabylia region - faced with land dispossession and economic hardship under French rule migrated temporarily to France to work in manufacturing and mining during the first half of the 20th century. This movement accelerated during World War I, when Algerians filled in for French factory workers or served as soldiers. In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (known as Harkis) emigrated en masse to France. Tighter French immigration rules and Algiers' decision to cease managing labor migration to France in the 1970s limited legal emigration largely to family reunification.

Not until Algeria's civil war in the 1990s did the country again experience substantial outmigration. Many Algerians legally entered Tunisia without visas claiming to be tourists and then stayed as workers. Other Algerians headed to Europe seeking asylum, although France imposed restrictions. Sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria after its civil war to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations, increasing their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers principally from China and Egypt came to work in Algeria's construction and oil sectors. Illegal migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Malians, Nigeriens, and Gambians, continue to come to Algeria in search of work or to use it as a stepping stone to Libya and Europe.

Since 1975, Algeria also has been the main recipient of Sahrawi refugees from the ongoing conflict in Western Sahara (today part of Morocco). More than 100,000 Sahrawis are estimated to be living in five refugee camps in southwestern Algeria near Tindouf.

Age structure

0-14 years: 29.58% (male 6,509,490/female 6,201,450)

15-24 years: 13.93% (male 3,063,972/female 2,922,368)

25-54 years: 42.91% (male 9,345,997/female 9,091,558)

55-64 years: 7.41% (male 1,599,369/female 1,585,233)

65 years and over: 6.17% (male 1,252,084/female 1,401,357) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.5

youth dependency ratio: 48.7

elderly dependency ratio: 9.8

potential support ratio: 10.2 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 28.9 years

male: 28.6 years

female: 29.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Birth rate

18.52 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78

Death rate

4.32 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 207

Net migration rate

-0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138

Population distribution

the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast as shown in this population distribution map


urban population: 75.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.902 million ALGIERS (capital), 936,000 Oran (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

112 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

Infant mortality rate

total: 19.72 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.77 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.03 years

male: 76.57 years

female: 79.57 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 98.8% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 1.2% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.2% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

1.72 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

1.9 beds/1,000 population (2015)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 98.3% of population

rural: 91.3% of population

total: 96.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.7% of population

rural: 8.7% of population

total: 3.5% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.31 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Tobacco use

total: 21% (2020 est.)

male: 41.3% (2020 est.)

female: 0.7% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 80

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0%

women married by age 18: 3.8% (2019 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.4%

male: 87.4%

female: 75.3% (2018)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 39.3%

male: 33.1%

female: 82% (2017 est.)


Environment - current issues

air pollution in major cities; soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 35.17 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 150.01 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 49.94 megatons (2020 est.)


arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Land use

agricultural land: 17.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 0.8% (2018 est.)

other: 81.8% (2018 est.)


urban population: 75.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 12,378,740 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 990,299 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 8% (2013 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Chad (2,497,738 sq km)

Major aquifers

Lullemeden-Irhazer Aquifer System, Murzuk-Djado Basin, North Western Sahara Aquifer, Taoudeni-Tanezrouft Basin

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 3.6 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 191 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 6.671 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

11.67 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

conventional short form: Algeria

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah

local short form: Al Jaza'ir

etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers

Government type

presidential republic


name: Algiers

geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the Arabic "al-Jazair" meaning "the islands" and refers to the four islands formerly off the coast but joined to the mainland since 1525

Administrative divisions

58 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Beni Abbes, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Badji Mokhtar, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djanet, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Meghaier, El Meniaa, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, In Guezzam, In Salah, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Ouled Djellal, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Timimoun, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen, Touggourt


5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 5 July (1962); Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)


history: several previous; latest approved by referendum November 2020

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or through the president with the support of three fourths of the members of both houses of Parliament in joint session; passage requires approval by both houses, approval by referendum, and promulgation by the president; the president can forego a referendum if the Constitutional Council determines the proposed amendment does not conflict with basic constitutional principles; articles including the republican form of government, the integrity and unity of the country, and fundamental citizens’ liberties and rights cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2008, 2016; last in 2020

Legal system

mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (since 12 December 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ayman BENABDERRAHMANE (since 7 July 2021)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by the president after consultation with the majority party in Parliament

election results: 2019: Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (FLN) 58.1%, Abdelkader BENGRINA (El-Bina) 17.4%, Ali BENFLIS (Talaie El Hurriyet) 10.6%, Azzedine MIHOUBI (National Democratic Rally, RND) 7.3%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Front El Mustakbal, FM) 6.7%

2014: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Barlaman consists of:
Council of the Nation or Majlis al-Umma (174 seats; two-thirds of members indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local assemblies within each wilaya, and one-third of members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National People's Assembly or al-Majlis al-Sha'abi al-Watani (407 seats including 8 seats for Algerian diaspora); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - in March 2021, President TEBBOUNE ordered the number of Assembly seats be reduced to 407 from 462

Council of the Nation - last held on 5 February 2022 (next election NA)
National People's Assembly - snap election held on 12 June 2021 (next to be held on 12 June 2026)

election results:
Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 54, RND 22, Future Front 7, National Construction Movement 5, FFS 4, other 6, independent 18, appointed 58; composition - NA

National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 98, MSP 65, RND 58, (Future Front) 48, Movement of National Construction 39, other 15, independent 84; composition - men 374, women 33, percent of women 8.1%; note - total Parliament percent of women 7.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Le Cour Suprême, (consists of 150 judges organized into 8 chambers: Civil, Commercial and Maritime, Criminal, House of Offenses and Contraventions, House of Petitions, Land, Personal Status, and Social; Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members including the court chairman and deputy chairman); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]
Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]
Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]
Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Fatma Zohra ZEROUATI]
Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Fethi GHARES]
Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed DAOUI]
El-Bina (Harakat El-Binaa El-Watani) [Abdelkader BENGRINA]
El-Islah [Filali GHOUINI]
Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]
Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]
Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]
Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Mohamed DOUIBI]
Justice and Development Front or FJD [Abdellah DJABALLAH]
Movement for National Reform or Islah [Filali GHOUINI]
Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MAKRI]
National Construction Movement (Harakat Al-bina' Al-watanii) [Abdelkader BENGRINA]
National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Tayeb ZITOUNI]
National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]
National Liberation Front or FLN [Abou El Fadhel BAADJI]
National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Dalila YALAQUI]
National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]
National Republican Alliance or ANR [Belkacem SAHLI]
New Dawn Party (El-Fajr El-Jadid) [Tahar BENBAIBECHE]
New Generation (Jil Jadid) [Soufiane DJILALI]
Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]
Party of Justice and Liberty or PLJ [Djamel Ben ZIADI]
Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]
Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Youcef AOUCHICHE]
Union for Change and Progress or UCP [Zoubida ASSOUL]
Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]
Vanguard of Liberties (Talaie El Hurriyet) [Abdelkader SAADI]
Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]

note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed BOUTACHE (since 26 October 2021)

chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Moore AUBIN (since 9 February 2022)

embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030, Alger

mailing address: 6030 Algiers Place, Washington DC  20521-6030

telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000

FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2299

email address and website:

Flag description

two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness

National symbol(s)

five-pointed star between the extended horns of a crescent moon, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem

name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)

lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI

note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (6 cultural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Beni Hammad Fort (c); Djémila (c); Casbah of Algiers (c); M'zab Valley (c); Tassili n'Ajjer (m); Timgad (c); Tipasa (c)


Economic overview

Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy, pursuing an explicit import substitution policy.


Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 30% of GDP, 60% of budget revenues, and nearly 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world - including the 3rd-largest reserves of shale gas - and is the 6th-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in proven oil reserves. Hydrocarbon exports enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability, amass large foreign currency reserves, and maintain low external debt while global oil prices were high. With lower oil prices since 2014, Algeria’s foreign exchange reserves have declined by more than half and its oil stabilization fund has decreased from about $20 billion at the end of 2013 to about $7 billion in 2017, which is the statutory minimum.


Declining oil prices have also reduced the government’s ability to use state-driven growth to distribute rents and fund generous public subsidies, and the government has been under pressure to reduce spending. Over the past three years, the government has enacted incremental increases in some taxes, resulting in modest increases in prices for gasoline, cigarettes, alcohol, and certain imported goods, but it has refrained from reducing subsidies, particularly for education, healthcare, and housing programs.


Algiers has increased protectionist measures since 2015 to limit its import bill and encourage domestic production of non-oil and gas industries. Since 2015, the government has imposed additional restrictions on access to foreign exchange for imports, and import quotas for specific products, such as cars. In January 2018 the government imposed an indefinite suspension on the importation of roughly 850 products, subject to periodic review.


President BOUTEFLIKA announced in fall 2017 that Algeria intends to develop its non-conventional energy resources. Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. Algeria has not increased non-hydrocarbon exports, and hydrocarbon exports have declined because of field depletion and increased domestic demand.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$468.4 billion (2020 est.)

$495.56 billion (2019 est.)

$491.63 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 41

Real GDP growth rate

1.4% (2017 est.)

3.2% (2016 est.)

3.7% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Real GDP per capita

$10,700 (2020 est.)

$11,500 (2019 est.)

$11,600 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 138

GDP (official exchange rate)

$169.912 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.9% (2019 est.)

4.2% (2018 est.)

5.6% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Credit ratings

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 39.3% (2017 est.)

services: 47.4% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 42.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 38.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 11.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 23.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -35.8% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

potatoes, wheat, milk, watermelons, barley, onions, tomatoes, oranges, dates, vegetables


petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 10.8%

industry: 30.9%

services: 58.4% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)


revenues: 54.15 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 70.2 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

27.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

20.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt

country comparison to the world: 170

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$22.1 billion (2017 est.)

-$26.47 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 198


$38.32 billion (2019 est.)

$44.39 billion (2018 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

country comparison to the world: 67

Exports - partners

Italy 13%, France 13%, Spain 12%, United States 7%, United Kingdom 7%, India 5%, South Korea 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, refined petroleum, fertilizers, ammonia (2019)


$54.26 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$60.05 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 55

Imports - partners

China 18%, France 14%, Italy 8%, Spain 8%, Germany 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, packaged medical supplies, milk, vehicle parts (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$97.89 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$114.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

Debt - external

$5.574 billion (2019 est.)

$5.666 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 129

Exchange rates

Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -

131.085 (2020 est.)

119.775 (2019 est.)

118.4617 (2018 est.)

100.691 (2014 est.)

80.579 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.4% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 99.6% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 97% (2019)


installed generating capacity: 21.694 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 66.646 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 673 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 531 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 9.897 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 98.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 85,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 85,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 59 million metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 1,414,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 450,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 633,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 4,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12.2 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 87,853,976,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 46,945,035,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 42,667,386,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 4,503,900,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

151.633 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 352,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 57.867 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 93.414 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4,784,306 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 45,555,673 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Algeria has a steadily developing telecom infrastructure with growth encouraged by supportive regulatory measures and by government policies aimed at delivering serviceable internet connections across the country; mobile broadband is largely based on 3G and LTE, and the data rates are also low in global terms; LTE is available in all provinces, investment is required from the mobile network operators (MNOs) to improve the quality of service; the state has previously been hesitant to commit to 5G, instead encouraging the MNOs to undertake upgrades to LTE infrastructure before investing in commercial 5G services; in March 2022, the state is in the process of freeing up the requisite spectrum to enable the MNOs to launch 5G services sometime this year; fixed internet speeds remain slow (2022)

domestic: a limited network of fixed-lines with a teledensity of slightly less than 11 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; mobile-cellular teledensity was approximately 104 telephones per 100 persons in 2020 (2020)

international: country code - 213; ALPAL-2 is a submarine telecommunications cable system in the Mediterranean Sea linking Algeria and the Spanish Balearic island of Majorca; ORVAL is a submarine cable to Spain; landing points for the TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/SeaMeWe-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; MED cable connecting Algeria with France; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; Algeria part of the 4,500 Km terrestrial Trans Sahara Backbone network which connects to other fiber networks in the region; Alcomstat-1 satellite offering  telemedicine network (2020)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radio stations

Internet users

total: 27,626,157 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 63% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,790,459 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 87

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,442,442 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 28.28 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 67

over 3,047 m: 14

2,438 to 3,047 m: 27

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 2 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 82

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 36

under 914 m: 28 (2021)


4 (2022)


2,600 km condensate, 16,415 km gas, 3,447 km liquid petroleum gas, 7,036 km oil, 144 km refined products (2013)


total: 3,973 km (2014)

standard gauge: 2,888 km (2014) 1.432-m gauge (283 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,085 km (2014) 1.055-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 50


total: 104,000 km (2015)

paved: 71,656 km (2015)

unpaved: 32,344 km (2015)

country comparison to the world: 45

Merchant marine

total: 114

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 2, general cargo 11, oil tanker 11, other 89 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 84

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Algerian People's National Army (ANP): Land Forces, Naval Forces (includes Coast Guard), Air Forces, Territorial Air Defense Forces, Republican Guard (under ANP but responsible to the President), National Gendarmerie; Ministry of Interior: General Directorate of National Security (national police) (2022)

Military expenditures

5.6% of GDP (2021 est.)

6.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

6% of GDP (2019) (approximately $19.2 billion)

5.5% of GDP (2018) (approximately $17.9 billion)

5.9% of GDP (2017) (approximately $18.8 billion)

country comparison to the world: 6

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 140,000 ANP personnel (120,000 Army; 6,000 Navy; 14,000 Air Force); approximately 130,000 National Gendarmerie; approximately 200,000 General Directorate of National Security (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the ANP's inventory includes mostly Russian-sourced equipment; since 2010, Algeria has received arms from a variety of countries, with Russia as the leading supplier (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service for men and women; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service for men (all Algerian men must register at age 17); conscript service obligation reduced from 18 to 12 months in 2014 (2022)

note: as of 2020, conscripts comprised an estimated 70% of the military

Military - note

the ANP has played a large role in the country’s politics since independence in 1962, including coups in 1965 and 1991; it was a key backer of BOUTEFLIKA’s election in 1999 and remained a center of power during his 20-year rule; the military was instrumental in BOUTEFLIKA’s resignation in 2019 when it withdrew support and called for him to be removed from office

the ANP traditionally has focused on internal stability and on Morocco where relations as of 2022 remained tense over Western Sahara and Algerian accusations that Morocco supports the Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylie (MAK), a separatist group in Algeria’s Kabylie region; however, following the Arab Spring events of 2011 and a series of cross-border terrorist attacks emanating from Mali in 2012-2013, particularly the 2013 attack on a commercial gas plant by al-Qa’ida-linked terrorists that resulted in the deaths of 35 hostages and 29 jihadists, it has made a concerted effort to beef up security along its other borders and promote regional security cooperation; since 2013, additional Army and paramilitary forces were deployed to the borders with Tunisia, Libya, Niger, and Mali to interdict and deter cross-border attacks by Islamic militant groups; in addition, Algeria has provided security assistance to some neighboring countries, particularly Tunisia, and conducted joint military/counter-terrorism operations (2022)


Terrorist group(s)

al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM); Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) – Algeria; al-Mulathamun Battalion (al-Mourabitoun)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Algeria-Morocco: the Algerian-Moroccan land border remains closed; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco remain a dormant dispute

Algeria-Libya: dormant dispute includes Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria

Algeria-Mali: none identified

Algeria-Mauritania: none identified

Algeria-Niger: none identified

Algeria-Tunisia: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): more than 100,000 (Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf) (2018); 6,750 (Syria) (mid-year 2021)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Algeria does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government made key achievements during the reporting period, therefore Algeria was upgraded to Tier 2 Watch List; authorities identified more trafficking victims, increased investigations and prosecutions, while continuing to convict traffickers; Algeria partnered with international organizations to train officials and conduct public awareness campaigns; however, government identification of and services for victims remained insufficient; authorities continued to punish some potential victims for unlawful acts traffickers compelled them to commit (2022)

trafficking profile:

human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims; Algerian women and girls are vulnerable to sex trafficking due to financial problems or after running away from home; undocumented sub-Saharan migrants are vulnerable to labor and sex trafficking and are exploited in restaurants, houses, and informal worksites; sub-Saharan men and women needing more funds for their onward journey to Europe work illegally in construction and commercial sex and are vulnerable to sex trafficking and debt bondage; foreign women and girls, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa, are subject to sex trafficking in bars and informal brothels; criminal begging rings that exploit sub-Saharan African migrant children are common and reportedly increasing (2022)