Hundreds of Belarusian villages were wiped out during World War II - many were never rebuilt. This is part of the memorial at Khatyn, which commemorates the village that was annihilated on 1 March 1943 during Nazi reprisals against Belarusian partisans.
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After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than have any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place and current negotiations on further integration have been contentious. Since his election in July 1994 as the country's first and only directly elected president, Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian means and a centralized economic system. Government restrictions on political and civil freedoms, freedom of speech and the press, peaceful assembly, and religion have remained in place. Restrictions on political freedoms have grown increasingly strained following the disputed presidential election in August 2020. The election results sparked largescale protests as members of the opposition and civil society criticized the election’s validity. Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA has remained in power as the disputed winner of the presidential election after quelling protests in late 2020.





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Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates

53 00 N, 28 00 E


total: 207,600 sq km

land: 202,900 sq km

water: 4,700 sq km

country comparison to the world: 86

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Kentucky; slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries

total: 3,599 km

border countries (5): Latvia 161 km; Lithuania 640 km; Poland 375 km; Russia 1,312 km; Ukraine 1,111 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime


generally flat with much marshland


highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m

mean elevation: 160 m

Natural resources

timber, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use

agricultural land: 43.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 27.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 15.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 42.7% (2018 est.)

other: 13.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

303 sq km (2020)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dnieper (shared with Russia [s] and Ukraine [m]) - 2,287 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Dnieper (533,966 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Natural hazards

large tracts of marshy land

Geography - note

landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes

People and Society


noun: Belarusian(s)

adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups

Belarusian 83.7%, Russian 8.3%, Polish 3.1%, Ukrainian 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 0.9% (2009 est.)


Russian (official) 70.2%, Belarusian (official) 23.4%, other 3.1% (includes small Polish- and Ukrainian-speaking minorities), unspecified 3.3% (2009 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Книга фактов о мире – незаменимый источник базовой информации. (Russian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Russian audio sample:


Orthodox 48.3%, Catholic 7.1%, other 3.5%, non-believers 41.1% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.09% (male 784,231/female 740,373)

15-24 years: 9.59% (male 467,393/female 441,795)

25-54 years: 43.94% (male 2,058,648/female 2,105,910)

55-64 years: 14.45% (male 605,330/female 763,972)

65 years and over: 15.93% (male 493,055/female 1,017,211) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.8

youth dependency ratio: 25.4

elderly dependency ratio: 25.4

potential support ratio: 3.9 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 40.9 years

male: 38 years

female: 43.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Birth rate

9.08 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200

Death rate

12.88 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

Net migration rate

0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations


urban population: 80.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.28% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.057 million MINSK (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.35 male(s)/female

total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.8 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.27 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.28 years

male: 68.9 years

female: 79.97 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.6% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.4% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.9% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

4.54 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

10.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 98.3% of population

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 1.7% of population

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.57 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.98 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.67 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 2.66 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18

Tobacco use

total: 30.5% (2020 est.)

male: 47.4% (2020 est.)

female: 13.5% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.1%

women married by age 18: 4.7%

men married by age 18: 1.6% (2019 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.9%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.9% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2021)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 12%

male: 13.8%

female: 10.1% (2020 est.)


Environment - current issues

soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 18.06 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 58.28 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 17.19 megatons (2020 est.)


cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime

Land use

agricultural land: 43.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 27.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 15.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 42.7% (2018 est.)

other: 13.6% (2018 est.)


urban population: 80.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.28% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.28 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 684,800 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 16% (2016 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dnieper (shared with Russia [s] and Ukraine [m]) - 2,287 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Dnieper (533,966 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 523 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 443 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 431 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

57.9 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Belarus

conventional short form: Belarus

local long form: Respublika Byelarus' (Belarusian)/ Respublika Belarus' (Russian)

local short form: Byelarus' (Belarusian)/ Belarus' (Russian)

former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: the name is a compound of the Belarusian words "bel" (white) and "Rus" (the Old East Slavic ethnic designation) to form the meaning White Rusian or White Ruthenian

Government type

presidential republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship


name: Minsk

geographic coordinates: 53 54 N, 27 34 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the origin of the name is disputed; Minsk may originally have been located 16 km to the southwest, on the banks of Menka River; remnants of a 10th-century settlement on the banks of the Menka have been found

Administrative divisions

6 regions (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality* (horad); Brest, Homyel' (Gomel'), Horad Minsk* (Minsk City), Hrodna (Grodno), Mahilyow (Mogilev), Minsk, Vitsyebsk (Vitebsk)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers; Russian spelling provided for reference when different from Belarusian


25 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union


history: several previous; latest drafted between late 1991 and early 1994, signed 15 March 1994

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic through petition to the National Assembly or by petition of least 150,000 eligible voters; approval required by at least two-thirds majority vote in both chambers or by simple majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended 1996, 2004

Legal system

civil law system; note - nearly all major codes (civil, civil procedure, criminal, criminal procedure, family, and labor) were revised and came into force in 1999 and 2000

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Belarus

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (since 20 July 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Raman HALOWCHENKA (since 4 June 2020); First Deputy Prime Minister Mikalay SNAPKOW (since 4 June 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers Uladzimir KUKHARAW, Ihar PETRYSHENKA (since 18 August 2018), Yuryy NAZARAW (since 3 March 2020), Alyaksandr SUBOTSIN (since 4 June 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); first election took place on 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999; however, Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held on 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the President LUKASHENKA to run and win in a third (19 March 2006), fourth (19 December 2010), fifth (11 October 2015), and sixth (9 August 2020); next election to be held in (2025); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly

election results: Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA reelected president (9 August 2022); percent of vote - Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (independent) 80.1%, Svyatlana TSIKHANOWSKAYA (independent) 10.1%, other 9.8%; note - widespread street protests erupted following announcement of the election results amid allegations of voter fraud

Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA president (11 October 2015); percent of vote - Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (independent) 84.1%, Tatsyana KARATKEVICH 4.4%, Sergey GAYDUKEVICH 3.3%, other 8.2%.

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Natsyyalny Skhod consists of:
Council of the Republic or Savet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members indirectly elected by regional and Minsk city councils and 8 members appointed by the president; members serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives or Palata Pradstawnikow (110 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms)

Council of the Republic - indirect election last held on 7 November 2019
House of Representatives - last held on 17 November 2019 (next to be held in 2023); OSCE observers determined that the election was neither free nor impartial and that vote counting was problematic in a number of polling stations; pro-LUKASHENKA candidates won every seat; international observers determined that the previous elections, on 28 September 2008, 23 September 2012, and 11 September 2016 also fell short of democratic standards, with pro-LUKASHENKA candidates winning every, or virtually every, seat

election results:
Council of the Republic - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - KPB 11, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 6, BPP 2, LDP 1, BAP 1, independent 89; composition - men 66, women 44, percent of women 40%

note: the US does not recognize the legitimacy of the National Assembly

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman and deputy chairman and organized into several specialized panels, including economic and military; number of judges set by the president of the republic and the court chairman); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 judges, including a chairman and deputy chairman)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the consent of the Council of the Republic; judges initially appointed for 5 years and evaluated for life appointment; Constitutional Court judges - 6 appointed by the president and 6 elected by the Council of the Republic; the presiding judge directly elected by the president and approved by the Council of the Republic; judges can serve for 11 years with an age limit of 70

subordinate courts: oblast courts; Minsk City Court; town courts; Minsk city and oblast economic courts

Political parties and leaders

pro-government parties:
Belarusian Agrarian Party or BAP [Mikhail RUSY]
Belarusian Patriotic Party or BPP [Mikalay ULAKHOVICH]
Belarusian Social Sport Party or BSSP [Uladzimir ALEKSANDROVICH]
Communist Party of Belarus or KPB [Alyaksey SOKOL]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Aleh GAYDUKEVICH]
Republican Party [Uladzimir BELAZOR]
Republican Party of Labor and Justice [Alyaksandr STSYAPANAW]
Social Democratic Party of Popular Accord [Syarhey YERMAK]
opposition parties:
Belarusian Christian Democracy Party [Paval SEVYARYNETS, Volha KAVALKOVA, Vital RYMASHEWSKI] (unregistered)
Belarusian Party of the Green [Dzimtry KUCHUK]
Belarusian Party of the Left "Just World" [Syarhey KALYAKIN]
Belarusian Social-Democratic Assembly of BSDH [Syarhey CHERACHEN]
Belarusian Social Democratic Party ("Assembly") or BSDPH [Ihar BARYSAW]
Belarusian Social Democratic Party (People's Assembly) or BSDP [Mikalay STATKEVICH] (unregistered)
Christian Conservative Party or BPF [Zyanon PAZNYAK]
United Civic Party or UCP [Mikalay KAZLOW]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant; recalled by Belarus in 2008); Charge d'Affaires Pavel SHIDLOVSKY (since 9 August 2022)

chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 986-1606

FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805

email address and website:

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Julie FISHER (since 23 December 2020)

embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya Street, Minsk 220002

mailing address: 7010 Minsk Place, Washington DC  20521-7010

telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83/217-73-47/217-73-48

FAX: [375] (17) 334-78-53

email address and website:

Flag description

red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears Belarusian national ornamentation in red; the red band color recalls past struggles from oppression, the green band represents hope and the many forests of the country

National symbol(s)

no clearly defined current national symbol, the mounted knight known as Pahonia (the Chaser) is the traditional Belarusian symbol; national colors: green, red, white

National anthem

name: "My, Bielarusy" (We Belarusians)

lyrics/music: Mikhas KLIMKOVICH and Uladzimir KARYZNA/Nester SAKALOUSKI

note: music adopted 1955, lyrics adopted 2002; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Belarus kept the music of its Soviet-era anthem but adopted new lyrics; also known as "Dziarzauny himn Respubliki Bielarus" (State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (3 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Białowieża Forest (n); Mir Castle Complex (c); Architectural, Residential, and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh (c)


Economic overview

As part of the former Soviet Union, Belarus had a relatively well-developed industrial base, but it is now outdated, inefficient, and dependent on subsidized Russian energy and preferential access to Russian markets. The country’s agricultural base is largely dependent on government subsidies. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, an initial burst of economic reforms included privatization of state enterprises, creation of private property rights, and the acceptance of private entrepreneurship, but by 1994 the reform effort dissipated. About 80% of industry remains in state hands, and foreign investment has virtually disappeared. Several businesses have been renationalized. State-owned entities account for 70-75% of GDP, and state banks make up 75% of the banking sector.


Economic output declined for several years following the break-up of the Soviet Union, but revived in the mid-2000s. Belarus has only small reserves of crude oil and imports crude oil and natural gas from Russia at subsidized, below market, prices. Belarus derives export revenue by refining Russian crude and selling it at market prices. Russia and Belarus have had serious disagreements over prices and quantities for Russian energy. Beginning in early 2016, Russia claimed Belarus began accumulating debt – reaching $740 million by April 2017 – for paying below the agreed price for Russian natural gas and Russia cut back its export of crude oil as a result of the debt. In April 2017, Belarus agreed to pay its gas debt and Russia restored the flow of crude.


New non-Russian foreign investment has been limited in recent years, largely because of an unfavorable financial climate. In 2011, a financial crisis lead to a nearly three-fold devaluation of the Belarusian ruble. The Belarusian economy has continued to struggle under the weight of high external debt servicing payments and a trade deficit. In mid-December 2014, the devaluation of the Russian ruble triggered a near 40% devaluation of the Belarusian ruble.


Belarus’s economy stagnated between 2012 and 2016, widening productivity and income gaps between Belarus and neighboring countries. Budget revenues dropped because of falling global prices on key Belarusian export commodities. Since 2015, the Belarusian government has tightened its macro-economic policies, allowed more flexibility to its exchange rate, taken some steps towards price liberalization, and reduced subsidized government lending to state-owned enterprises. Belarus returned to modest growth in 2017, largely driven by improvement of external conditions and Belarus issued sovereign debt for the first time since 2011, which provided the country with badly-needed liquidity, and issued $600 million worth of Eurobonds in February 2018, predominantly to US and British investors.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$179.97 billion (2020 est.)

$181.61 billion (2019 est.)

$179.1 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 69

Real GDP growth rate

1.22% (2019 est.)

3.17% (2018 est.)

2.53% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Real GDP per capita

$19,100 (2020 est.)

$19,300 (2019 est.)

$18,900 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 90

GDP (official exchange rate)

$63.168 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5.6% (2019 est.)

4.8% (2018 est.)

6% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 189

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B (2018)

Moody's rating: B3 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: B (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 40.8% (2017 est.)

services: 51.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 5.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 67% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat, triticale, barley, maize, rye, rapeseed, poultry


metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, refrigerators, washing machines and other household appliances

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 9.7%

industry: 23.4%

services: 66.8% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate

0.8% (2017 est.)

1% (2016 est.)

note: official registered unemployed; large number of underemployed workers

country comparison to the world: 6

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 21.9% (2008)


revenues: 22.15 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 20.57 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

53.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

53.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 90

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$931 million (2017 est.)

-$1.669 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143


$37.04 billion (2020 est.)

$41.97 billion (2019 est.)

$42.27 billion (2018 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

country comparison to the world: 69

Exports - partners

Russia 42%, Ukraine 13%, United Kingdom 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, fertilizers, cheese, delivery trucks, crude petroleum (2019)


$35.16 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$42.38 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$41.34 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 67

Imports - partners

Russia 57%, China 7%, Poland 5%, Germany 5%, Ukraine 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$7.315 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$4.927 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Debt - external

$39.847 billion (2019 est.)

$39.297 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Exchange rates

Belarusian rubles (BYB/BYR) per US dollar -

1.9 (2017 est.)

2 (2016 est.)

2 (2015 est.)

15,926 (2014 est.)

10,224.1 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 11.36 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 32,665,500,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 4.777 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 4.277 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.711 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 95.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 621,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1.574 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 2.117 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 34,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 134,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 32,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 383,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 198 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 68.951 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 18,639,590,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 18,673,429,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 2.832 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

54.695 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.623 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 16.856 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 36.217 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4,406,560 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 11,704,084 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 124 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 80

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the Government of Belarus has successfully promoted the migration to an all-IP platform as part of a wider effort towards a digital transformation for the economy; the state-supported infrastructure operator beCloud has built an extensive fiber network, which reaches all but the smallest settlements in the country; Belarus has the second-highest fiber subscription rate in Europe, behind only Iceland; LTE coverage is almost universal, while considerable progress has also been made in developing 5G services (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved, approximately 47 per 100 fixed-line; mobile-cellular teledensity now roughly 124 telephones per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 375; Belarus is landlocked and therefore a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations; almost 31,000 base stations in service in 2019 (2020)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

7 state-controlled national TV channels; Polish and Russian TV broadcasts are available in some areas; state-run Belarusian Radio operates 5 national networks and an external service; Russian and Polish radio broadcasts are available (2019)

Internet users

total: 8,027,601 (July 2022 est.)

percent of population: 85% (July 2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,255,552 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,760,168 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1.9 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 33

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 7 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 32

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 28 (2021)


1 (2021)


5,386 km gas, 1,589 km oil, 1,730 km refined products (2013)


total: 5,528 km (2014)

standard gauge: 25 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

broad gauge: 5,503 km (2014) 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)

country comparison to the world: 33


2,500 km (2011) (major rivers are the west-flowing Western Dvina and Neman Rivers and the south-flowing Dnepr River and its tributaries, the Berezina, Sozh, and Pripyat Rivers)

country comparison to the world: 37

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Mazyr (Prypyats')

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Belarus Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Force, Special Operations Force, Special Troops (electronic warfare, signals, engineers, biological/chemical/nuclear protection troops, etc); Ministry of Interior: State Border Troops, Militia, Internal Troops (2022)

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $2.11 billion)

1.5% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $2.05 billion)

1.5% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $1.98 billion)

country comparison to the world: 110

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 45,000 active duty troops; information on the individual services varies, but reportedly includes about 25,000 Army, 15,000 Air/Air Defense, and 5,000 Special Operations forces (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Belarus Armed Forces is comprised mostly of Russian/Soviet-origin equipment, and since 2010 Russia has been the leading provider of arms; Belarus's defense industry manufactures some equipment (mostly modernized Soviet designs), including vehicles, guided weapons, and electronic warfare systems (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory military or alternative service; conscript service obligation is 12-18 months, depending on academic qualifications, and 24-36 months for alternative service, also depending on academic qualifications; 17-year-olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2022)

note: conscripts can be assigned to the military, to the Ministry of Interior as internal or border troops, or to the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (alternative service); as of 2020, conscripts comprised an estimated 40% of the military

Military - note

Belarus has close security ties with Russia, including an integrated air and missile defense system, joint training exercises, and the establishment of three joint training centers since 2020 (1 in Belarus, 2 in Russia); Russia has been the principal supplier of arms to Belarus, and Belarusian troops reportedly train on Russian equipment; Russia leases from Belarus a strategic ballistic missile defense site operated by Russian Aerospace Forces and a global communications facility for the Russian Navy; in 2020, the countries signed an agreement allowing for close security cooperation between the Belarusian Ministry of Interior and the Russian National Guard, including protecting public order and key government facilities, and combating extremism and terrorism; in 2022, Belarus allowed Russian military forces to stage on its territory for its invasion of Ukraine

Belarus has been a member of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) since 1994 and contributes an airborne brigade to CSTO's rapid reaction force (KSOR) (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Belarus-Latvia: Boundary demarcated with Latvia.

Belarus-Lithuania: Boundary demarcated with Lithuania.

Belarus-Poland: As a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its border with Belarus.

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 17,787 (Ukraine) (as of 13 December 2022)

stateless persons: 6,104 (mid-year 2021)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 3 — Belarus does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore Belarus was downgraded to Tier 3; despite the lack of significant efforts, the government took some steps to address trafficking, including conducting trafficking-related investigations and prosecutions and identifying and referring to services more trafficking victims; however, the government did not report investigating, prosecuting, or convicting any traffickers under its trafficking statute and did not provide adequate protection services to trafficking victims nor conduct awareness activities; authorities reportedly returned many third-country migrants and asylum seekers to their countries of origin without screening them for trafficking (2022)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims and exploit Belarusians abroad; the majority of trafficking victims are men subjected to forced labor, primarily in Russia; most Belarusian victims are exploited in Belarus and Russia, but also in Poland, Turkey, and other European, Eurasian and Middle Eastern countries; some Belarusian women seeking foreign employment in the adult entertainment and hotel industries are subjected to sex trafficking; the government has identified Belarusian, Moldovan, Russian, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese victims exploited in Belarus; the majority of traffickers are Belarusian citizens, and they increasingly use online methods to coerce victims into forced labor and sex trafficking (2022)

Illicit drugs

limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly regulated financial center; anti-money-laundering legislation does not meet international standards and was weakened further when know-your-customer requirements were curtailed in 2008; few investigations or prosecutions of money-laundering activities