Ile-à-Vache (Cow Island) is an island commune in the Les Cayes (Baie de Cayes) about 10 km (6 mi) off the coast of Haiti’s southwest peninsula. The island is about 13 km (8 mi) long and 3.2 km (2 mi) wide, with an area of 52 sq km (20 sq mi). The western end of the island has rolling hills and swamps; the eastern side of the island has a lagoon with a large mangrove forests. The island is surrounded by several dangerous shoals, reefs, and rocks that have been the cause of shipwrecks throughout history. The government has plans to develop this area’s tourism in a sustainable manner.
Country Flag
Country Map
Special Country Products
Locator Map



The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Christopher COLUMBUS first landed on it in 1492 - were virtually wiped out by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but relied heavily on the forced labor of enslaved Africans and environmentally degrading practices. In the late 18th century, Toussaint L'OUVERTURE led a revolution of Haiti's nearly half a million slaves that ended France's rule on the island. After a prolonged struggle, and under the leadership of Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, Haiti became the first country in the world led by former slaves after declaring its independence in 1804, but it was forced to pay an indemnity of 100 million francs (equivalent to $21 billion USD in March 2022) to France for more than a century and was shunned by other countries for nearly 40 years. On 12 July 1862, the US officially recognized Haiti, but foreign economic influence and internal political instability induced the US to occupy Haiti from 1915-1934. Subsequently, Francois "Papa Doc" DUVALIER and then his son Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" DUVALIER led repressive and corrupt regimes that ruled Haiti in 1957-1971 and 1971-1986, respectively. President Jovenel MOISE was assassinated on 7 July 2021, leading the country further into an extra-constitutional governance structure and contributing to the country’s growing fragility. President MOISE's five-year term would have ended on 7 February 2022; his assassination plunged Haiti deeper into a political crisis that was not anticipated in its constitution. Thus, on 20 July 2021, the Government of Haiti installed Ariel HENRY - whom President MOISE had nominated - as prime minister. As of March 2022, Haiti had no president, no parliamentary quorum, and a dysfunctional high court due to a lack of judges. Haiti has long been plagued by natural disasters. In January 2010, a major 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. A 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit Haiti’s southern peninsula in August 2021, causing well over 2,000 deaths; an estimated 500,000 required emergency humanitarian aid. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, as well as one of the most unequal in wealth distribution.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km

country comparison to the world: 147

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 376 km

border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km


1,771 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds


mostly rough and mountainous


highest point: Pic la Selle 2,674 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 470 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

800 sq km (2013)

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas

Natural hazards

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Geography - note

shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic); it is the most mountainous nation in the Caribbean

People and Society


noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups

Black 95%, mixed and White 5%


French (official), Creole (official)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:


Catholic 55%, Protestant 29%, Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10% (2018 est.)

note: 50-80% of Haitians incorporate some elements of Vodou culture or practice in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; Vodou was recognized as an official religion in 2003

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.21% (male 1,719,961/female 1,734,566)

15-24 years: 20.71% (male 1,145,113/female 1,146,741)

25-54 years: 38.45% (male 2,110,294/female 2,145,209)

55-64 years: 5.3% (male 280,630/female 305,584)

65 years and over: 4.33% (male 210,451/female 269,228) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.3

youth dependency ratio: 51.2

elderly dependency ratio: 7.1

potential support ratio: 14.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 24.1 years

male: 23.8 years

female: 24.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Birth rate

21.12 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Death rate

7.23 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Net migration rate

-1.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 169

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas


urban population: 59.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.987 million PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.4 years (2016/7 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

480 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Infant mortality rate

total: 40.02 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 45.71 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 34.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 32

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 65.95 years

male: 63.26 years

female: 68.67 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 198

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 91.9% of population

rural: 56.1% of population

total: 76.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 8.1% of population

rural: 43.9% of population

total: 23.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

4.7% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 82.9% of population

rural: 42.6% of population

total: 65.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 17.1% of population

rural: 57.4% of population

total: 34.4% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.55 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118

Tobacco use

total: 7.7% (2020 est.)

male: 12.2% (2020 est.)

female: 3.1% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2.1%

women married by age 18: 14.9%

men married by age 18: 1.6% (2017 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61.7%

male: 65.3%

female: 58.3% (2016)


Environment - current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; overpopulation leads to inadequate supplies of potable water and a lack of sanitation; natural disasters

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.63 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.98 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.12 megatons (2020 est.)


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)


urban population: 59.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced agricultural production, sociopolitical turmoil, natural disasters - about 4.56 million people are estimated to be facing severe acute food insecurity and in need of urgent food assistance between March and June 2022; the high levels of food insecurity are the result of consecutive reduced cereal harvests between 2018 and 2021, and elevated food prices, exacerbated by socio-political turmoil and worsening insecurity; the lack of income-earning opportunities, amid worsening insecurity and difficult macroeconomic conditions, is likely to heighten food insecurity in 2022 (2022)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,309,852 tons (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 190 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 51 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.209 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

14.022 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: Republique d'Haiti (French)/ Repiblik d Ayiti (Haitian Creole)

local short form: Haiti (French)/ Ayiti (Haitian Creole)

etymology: the native Taino name means "Land of High Mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Port-au-Prince

geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: according to tradition, in 1706, a Captain de Saint-Andre named the bay and its surrounding area after his ship Le Prince; the name of the town that grew there means, "the Port of The Prince"

Administrative divisions

10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est


1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1804)


history: many previous; latest adopted 10 March 1987, with substantial revisions in June 2012; note – the constitution is commonly referred to as the “amended 1987 constitution”

amendments: proposed by the executive branch or by either the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies; consideration of proposed amendments requires support by at least two-thirds majority of both houses; passage requires at least two-thirds majority of the membership present and at least two-thirds majority of the votes cast; approved amendments enter into force after installation of the next president of the republic; constitutional articles on the democratic and republican form of government cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2012

Legal system

civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President (vacant); note - Prime Minister Ariel HENRY assumed executive responsibilities, including naming Cabinet members, following the assassination of President MOISE on 7 July 2021; new elections have not yet been scheduled

head of government: Prime Minister Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election had been originally scheduled for 9 October 2016 but was postponed until 20 November 2016 due to Hurricane Matthew

election results:
2016: Jovenel MOISE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%

2011: Michel MARTELLY elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or le Corps legislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
le Sénat de la République or Senate (30 seats; 10 filled as of March 2022); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms (2-term limit) with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
la Chambre des députés or Chamber of Deputies (119 seats; 0 filled as of March 2022; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms; no term limits); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assemblée nationale or the National Assembly and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution

Senate - last held on 20 November 2016 with runoff on 29 January 2017 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019 but postponed until political and civil society actors agree to a consensual process)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with runoff on 25 October 2015 and 20 November 2016 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019 but postponed until political and civil society actors agree to a consensual process)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 10, women 0, percent of women 0%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA

note: the Chamber of Deputies is currently defunct, and the Senate is only one-third filled (not enough seats for a quorum)

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note 1 - the Cour de cassation currently has no chief judge and only 3 sitting members and is not functional; note 2 - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice;  Constitutional Court, called for in the 1987 constitution but not yet established; High Court of Justice, for trying high government officials - currently not functional

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of Haiti's constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrate's courts; land, labor, and children's courts

note: the Superior Council of the Judiciary or Conseil Superieur du Pouvoir Judiciaire is a 9-member body charged with the administration and oversight of the judicial branch of government

Political parties and leaders

Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Emancipation (Ligue Alternative pour le Progres et l’Emancipation Haitienne) or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH or Mochrenha [Luc MESADIEU]
Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Jean Chavannes JEUNE]
Combat of Peasant Workers to Liberate Haiti (Konbit Travaye Peyizan Pou Libere Ayiti) or Kontra Pep La [Jean William JEANTY]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance Party or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition includes KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers' National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Democratic and Popular Sector (Secteur Democratique et Populaire) or SDP [Nenel CASSY, Andre MICHEL, and Marjorie MICHEL]
Democratic Unity Convention (Konvansyon Inite Demokratik) or KID [Enold JOSEPH]
Dessalinian Patriotic and Popular Movement or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Maryse NARCISSE and former President Jean Bertrand ARISTIDE]
Forward (En Avant) [Jerry TARDIEU]
Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats (Fusion Des Sociaux-Démocrates Haïtiens) or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
G18 Policy Platform (Plateforme Politique G18) [Joseph WUILSON]
Haiti in Action (Ayiti An Aksyon Haiti's Action) or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Haitian Tet Kale Party (Parti Haitien Tet Kale) or PHTK [Line Sainphaar BALTHAZAR]
Independent Movement for National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Lod Demokratik [Jean Renel SENATUS]
Love Haiti (Renmen Ayiti) or RA [Jean Henry CEANT]
MTV Ayiti [Reginald BOULOS]
National Consortium of Haitian Political Parties (Consortium National des Partis Politiques Haitiens) or CNPPH [Jeantel JOSEPH]
National Shield Network (Reseau Bouclier National) [Victor PROPHANE and Garry BODEAU]
Organization of the People's Struggle (Oganizasyon Pep Kap Lite) or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]
Patriotic Unity (Inite Patriyotik) or Inite [Sorel YACINTHE and Levaillant Louis JEUNE]
Platform Pitit Desalin (Politik Pitit Dessalines) or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
Political Party for Us All or Bridge (Pont) or Pou Nou Tout [Jean Marie CHERESTAL]
Popular Patriotic Dessalinien Movement (Mouvement Patriotique Populaire Dessalinien) or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Rally of Progressive National Democrats (Rassemblement des Democrates Nationaux Progressistes) or RDNP [Eric JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Respe (Respect) [Charles Henry BAKER]
Women and Families Political Parties (Defile Pati Politik Fanm Ak Fanmi) [Marie Rebecca GUILLAUME]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Bocchit EDMOND (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090

FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Nicole D. THERIOT

embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince

mailing address: 3400 Port-au-Prince Place, Washington, DC 20521-3400

telephone: [011] (509) 2229-8000

FAX: [011] (509) 2229-8027

email address and website:

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes

National symbol(s)

Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red

National anthem

name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)

lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD

note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers


Economic overview

Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, which remains vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population represent some of the most serious impediments to Haiti’s economic growth. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equivalent to more than a quarter of GDP, and nearly double the combined value of Haitian exports and foreign direct investment.


Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with close to 60% of the population living under the national poverty line, Haiti’s GDP growth rose to 5.5% in 2011 as the Haitian economy began recovering from the devastating January 2010 earthquake that destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. However, growth slowed to below 2% in 2015 and 2016 as political uncertainty, drought conditions, decreasing foreign aid, and the depreciation of the national currency took a toll on investment and economic growth. Hurricane Matthew, the fiercest Caribbean storm in nearly a decade, made landfall in Haiti on 4 October 2016, with 140 mile-per-hour winds, creating a new humanitarian emergency. An estimated 2.1 million people were affected by the category 4 storm, which caused extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure across Haiti’s southern peninsula.


US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE II) have contributed to an increase in apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. The Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act of 2010 extended the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020, while the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015 extended trade benefits provided to Haiti in the HOPE and HELP Acts through September 2025. Apparel sector exports in 2016 reached approximately $850 million and account for over 90% of Haitian exports and more than 10% of the GDP.


Investment in Haiti is hampered by the difficulty of doing business and weak infrastructure, including access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to $2.6 billion as of December 2017, the majority of which is owed to Venezuela under the PetroCaribe program. Although the government has increased its revenue collection, it continues to rely on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over 20% of its annual budget coming from foreign aid or direct budget support.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$31.62 billion (2020 est.)

$32.72 billion (2019 est.)

$33.28 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 135

Real GDP growth rate

1.2% (2017 est.)

1.5% (2016 est.)

1.2% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Real GDP per capita

$2,800 (2020 est.)

$2,900 (2019 est.)

$3,000 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 198

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.608 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 22.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)

services: 57.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 99.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 10% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2016 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -60.3% (2017 est.)

note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, mangoes/guavas, plantains, bananas, yams, avocados, maize, rice, vegetables


textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Labor force

4.594 million (2014 est.)

note: shortage of skilled labor; unskilled labor abundant

country comparison to the world: 84

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 38.1%

industry: 11.5%

services: 50.4% (2010)

Unemployment rate

40.6% (2010 est.)

note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

country comparison to the world: 216

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)


revenues: 1.567 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.65 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

31.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

33.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Current account balance

-$348 million (2017 est.)

-$83 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112


$1.73 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$1.78 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 159

Exports - partners

United States 81%, Canada 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

clothing and apparel, eels, essential oils, perfumes, mangoes, cocoa beans (2019)


$5.21 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$5.67 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 134

Imports - partners

United States 39%, China 22%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, clothing and apparel, palm oil, poultry meats (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.361 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Debt - external

$2.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -

65.21 (2017 est.)

63.34 (2016 est.)

63.34 (2015 est.)

50.71 (2014 est.)

45.22 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 39% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 60% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 12% (2019)


installed generating capacity: 3.453 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 339 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 643 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 85.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 13.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 21,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 3.341 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 3.341 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

3.139 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 3.137 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 2,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148


Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7.319 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Haiti is in desperate need of maintaining effective communication services to enable it to keep going through the countless natural disasters, the country’s telecoms sector is really only surviving on the back of international goodwill to repair and replace the systems destroyed in the latest upheaval; Haiti’s fixed-line infrastructure is now practically non-existent, having been torn apart by Hurricane Matthew in 2016; what aid and additional investment has been forthcoming has been directed towards mobile solutions; over half of the country can afford a mobile handset or the cost of a monthly subscription; and mobile broadband subscriptions is half of that again – an estimated 28% in 2022; international aid continues to flow in to try and help the country’s telecoms sector recover – the World Bank has released a further $120 million to go on top of the $60 million grant provided after the last major 7.2 earthquake in August 2021 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 64 per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 509; landing points for the BDSNi and Fibralink submarine cables to 14 points in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

per 2019 data released by Haitian telecommunications regulator CONATEL (Conseil National des Télécommunications), there are 398 legal sound broadcasting stations on the territory, including about 60 community radio stations, and 7 radio stations on the AM band; the FM band in Haiti is oversaturated by 158 percent; most radio stations broadcast 17 to 19 hours a day; there are 105 television stations operating in Haiti, including 36 TV stations in Port- au- Prince, 41 others in the provinces, and more than 40 radio-television stations; a large number of broadcasting stations operate irregularly and some stations operate with technical parameters that do not comply with established standards, thus causing harmful interference to existing telecommunications systems; VOA Creole Service broadcasts daily on 30 affiliate stations


Internet users

total: 3,990,887 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 35% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 31,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.3 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2021)


total: 4,102 km (2011)

paved: 600 km (2011)

unpaved: 3,502 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 153

Merchant marine

total: 4

by type: general cargo 3, other 1 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 168

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH), disbanded in 1995, began to be reconstituted in 2017 to assist with natural disaster relief, border security, and combating transnational crime; it established an Army command in 2018 (2022)

note: the Haitian National Police (under the Ministry of Justice and Public Security) has a number of specialized units, including a coast guard, a presidential guard, and a paramilitary rapid-response Motorized Intervention Unit or BIM


Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 1,200 active military troops (the force is planned to eventually have around 5,000 personnel); approximately 16,000 National Police (2022)

Military - note

according to the Haitian Government, the mission of the reconstituted armed forces will focus on patrolling the border with the Dominican Republic, combating smuggling, and executing recovery efforts after natural disasters

the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) operated in Haiti from 2004 until 2017; its mission was to help restore stability after President Bertrand ARISTIDE fled the country, including assisting with the political process, strengthening government institutions, and promoting and protecting human rights; following the completion of MINUSTAH’s mandate in 2017, a smaller peacekeeping mission, the UN Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), operated until 2019; its mission was to assist with the further development and strengthening of the national police, as well as Haiti’s justice and prison systems, and to promote and protect human rights; in 2019, the UN established the UN Integrated Office in Haiti (BINUH) with the political mission of advising the Haiti Government in elections, governance, and security; BINUH's current mandate last until July 2023 (2022)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Haiti are a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2021, four attacks against commercial vessels were reported, a slight decrease from the five attacks reported in 2020; most of these occurred in the main port of Port-au-Prince while ships were berthed or at anchor

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 17,000 (violence among armed gangs in the metropolitan area os Port-au-Prince) (2021)

stateless persons: 2,992 (2018); note - individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010

Illicit drugs

a transit point for cocaine from South America and marijuana from Jamaica en route to the United States; not a producer or large consumer of illicit drugs; some cultivation of cannabis for local consumption