Field Listing

Disputes - international

257 Results
Filter
All

This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan-China: none identified

Afghanistan-Iran:
 Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought

Afghanistan-Pakistan: Pakistan has built fences in some portions of its border with Afghanistan which remains open in some areas to terrorist and other illegal activities; their alignments may not always be in conformance with the Durand Line and original surveyed definitions of the boundary; Pakistan demarcates the Durand Line differently from Afghanistan, and thus portions of the Pakistani fence may lie within what Afghanistan (and most of the international community, including the US) would consider Afghan territory; successive governments in Afghanistan, including the Taliban, have not accepted the 1947 demarcation line

Afghanistan-Tajikistan: none identified

Afghanistan-Turkmenistan: none identified

Afghanistan-Uzbekistan: none identified; boundary follows Amu Darya River as delimited in the Afghan-Soviet treaties and not by the river's current course; the boundary was delimited and possibly demarcated during Soviet times (pre-1991); no current negotiations between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan to redelimit the boundary have been identified 

Albania

none identified

Algeria

Algeria-Morocco: the Algerian-Moroccan land border remains closed; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco remain a dormant dispute

Algeria-Libya: dormant dispute includes Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria

Algeria-Mali: none identified

Algeria-Mauritania: none identified

Algeria-Niger: none identified

Algeria-Tunisia: none identified

American Samoa

none identified

Andorra

Andorra-France: none identified

Andorra-Spain: none identified

Angola

Angola-Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): has had disputes over land and maritime borders with the DRC; maritime disputes have largely been about offshore oil claims

Angola-Namibia: none identified

Angola-Republic of Congo: (Kabinda Exclave) none identified

Angola-Zambia: because the straight-line segments along the left bank (Zambian side) of the Cuando/Kwando River do not conform with the physical alignment of the unstable shoreline, Zambian residents in some areas have settled illegally on sections of shoreline that fall on the Angolan side of the boundary

Anguilla

none identified

Antarctica

the Antarctic Treaty freezes, and most states do not recognize, the land and maritime territorial claims made by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK (some overlapping) for three-fourths of the continent; the US and Russia reserve the right to make claims

Antigua and Barbuda

none identified

Arctic Ocean

record summer melting of sea ice in the Arctic has renewed interest in maritime shipping lanes and sea floor exploration

Canada-US:
dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf

Canada-Denmark (Greenland)-Norway: have made submissions to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS)

Norway-Russia: signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; Russia has augmented its 2001 CLCS submission

Argentina

Argentina-Bolivia: contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia

Argentina-Brazil: uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question

Argentina-Chile: the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); Chile in 2021 renewed a claim to 5,000 square kilometers (1,930 square miles) of continental shelf in the Drake Sea between Chile's Cape Horn, its mainland and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica; the piece of undersea territory is known as Medialuna, and the claim includes the water above it; the two countries came close to war in the late 1970s in a dispute--known as the Beagle Conflict--over the possession of Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and the scope of the maritime jurisdiction associated with those islands, which are strategically located off the south edge of Tierra del Fuego and at the east end of the Beagle Channel; the Beagle Channel, the Straits of Magellan, and the Drake Passage are the only three waterways between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean in the southern hemisphere

Argentina-Paraguay: none identified

Argentina-Uruguay: in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime. Isla de Martín Garcia situated in the Rio de la Plata estuary is wholly within Uruguayan territorial waters but up to its low tide mark, the island is Argentinian territory; the island is accorded unrestricted access rights

Argentina-United Kingdom: Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks

Armenia

local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders

Armenia-Azerbaijan: tensions existed for years over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan; Azerbaijan seized part of the enclave during six weeks of fighting in 2020 and the remainder in a short conflict in September 2023; in October 2023, Baku and Yerevan began preliminary discussions on a peace treaty, the demarcation of borders, and full normalization of relations; nevertheless, concerns persist in Armenia that Azerbaijan could invade in order to force the establishment of a transit corridor to the exclave of Naxicvan (Nakhichevan) 

Armenia-Georgia: Georgians restrict Armenian access into Samtse-Javakheti ethnic Armenian areas; Armenia has made no claims to the region

Armenia-Iran: none identified

Armenia-Turkey: as of 2023, Turkey and Armenia were discussing normalizing relations

Aruba

none identified

Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Australia-Indonesia:  Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef

Atlantic Ocean

some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Australia

Australia-Indonesia: Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef 

Austria

none identified

Azerbaijan

Armenia-Azerbaijan: tensions existed for years over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan; Azerbaijan seized part of the enclave during six weeks of fighting in 2020 and the remainder in a short conflict in September 2023; in October 2023, Baku and Yerevan began preliminary discussions on a peace treaty, the demarcation of borders, and full normalization of relations; nevertheless, concerns persist in Armenia that Azerbaijan could invade in order to force the establishment of a transit corridor to the exclave of Naxicvan (Nakhichevan)

Azerbaijan-Georgia: a joint boundary commission agrees on most of the alignment, leaving only small areas at certain crossing points in dispute; consequently, the two states have yet to agree on a delimitation or demarcation of their common boundary; one area of contention is where the international boundary should run through the 6th-13th Century David-Gareja monastery complex

Azerbaijan-Iran: in recent years, tensions between Azerbajian and Iran have risen in part because of warming ties between Azerbaijan and Israel, and Baku's claims that Tehran has backed Armenia over the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh enclave

Azerbaijan-Russia: Russia has complained of cross-border smuggling

Azerbaijan-Turkey: none identified; as of 2023, Turkey and Armenia were discussing normalizing relations

Caspian Sea (Maritime Boundary): Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian

local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders

Bahamas, The

The Bahamas-US: in declaring its archipelagic waters and 200 nm EEZ in 1993 legislation, The Bahamas did not delimit the outer limits of the EEZ; but in areas where EEZs overlap with neighbors, The Bahamas agreed to equidistance as a line of separation; however, The Bahamas has yet to define maritime boundaries with any of its neighbors, including the US, whose Florida coast lays about 70 nm from Grand Bahama Island

Bahrain

none identified

Bangladesh

Bangladesh-Burma: the border area has historically been an area of conflict and instability; militants, particularly ethnic armed groups (EAGs) from Burma, continue to operate in the border region and conduct illegal crossings, and both countries maintain considerable numbers of security personnel along the border; Burmese military forces actively conduct operations against EAGs; in 2022, Burmese artillery struck Bangladesh territory several times during military operations against Arakan Army rebels inside Rakhine; as of 2017, Burmese border authorities had constructed about 130 miles of border fencing and had planned to fence off the remainder of the border

Bangladesh-India: Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over un-demarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented

Barbados

Barbados-Venezuela (Maritime Boundary): Barbados joins other Caribbean states and the United Kingdom to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island, a large sandbar with some vegetation, sustains human habitation or economic life, the criteria under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Article 121, which would permit Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; the dispute hampers hydrocarbon prospecting and creation of exploration blocks 

Barbados-Trinidad and Tobago (Maritime Boundary): Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone

Belarus

Belarus-Latvia: boundary demarcated with Latvia

Belarus-Lithuania: boundary demarcated with Lithuania.

Belarus-Poland: as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its border with Belarus.

Belgium

none identified

Belize

Belize-Guatemala: demarcated but insecure boundary due to Guatemala’s claims to more than half of Belizean territory; Line of Adjacency operates in lieu of an international boundary; an Organization of American States (OAS) mission at the Line of Adjacency assists in implementing Line of Adjacency “confidence building measures,” including periodic coordination between Belizean and Guatemalan security forces, agreed to in 2003; smuggling, narcotics trafficking, small-scale coca production, and human trafficking are all problems near the line; Belize lacks resources to detect and extradite Guatemalans who have established informal settlements, farms, and cattle operations in Belizean rain forests in the remote border areas on the Belizean side of the Line of Adjacency; Belize and Honduras 12-nautical mile territorial sea claims close off Guatemalan access to Caribbean in the Bahia de Amatique; maritime boundary remains unresolved pending further negotiation

Belize-Honduras: Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum

 

Benin

Benin-Burkina Faso: Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso near the town of Koualau/Kourou

Benin-Togo:
talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjarala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River

Benin-Niger: the location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

Bermuda

none identified

Bhutan

Bhutan-China: lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China’s Chumbi salient

Bhutan-India: none identified

Bolivia

contraband smuggling, human trafficking, wildlife trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of its border regions with all of its neighbors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru)

Bolivia-Chile: despite tariff-free access to ports in southern Peru and northern Chile, Bolivia persists with its long-standing claims to regain sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean

Bolivia-Peru: despite tariff-free access to ports in southern Peru and northern Chile, Bolivia persists with its long-standing claims to regain sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean; smuggling of archaeological artifacts from Peru to Bolivia, illegal timber, narcotics, and wildlife smuggling, human trafficking, and falsified documents are current issues 

Bolivia-Brazil: the Roboré Accord of March 29, 1958 placed the long-disputed Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-Mirim, a fluvial island on the Río Mamoré, between the two towns of Guajará-Mirim (Brazil) and Guayaramerin (Bolivia), under Bolivian administration but did not resolve the sovereignty dispute

Bolivia-Argentina: contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border 

Bolivia-Paraguay: on April 27, 2009, the president of Argentina hosted the presidents of Bolivia and Paraguay together with representatives of the five other guarantor states -- Brazil, Chile, Peru, the US, and Uruguay -- to the signing for the Final Record of the Boundary Commission in execution of the 1938 Peace Treaty between Bolivia and Paraguay

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina-Serbia: Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute.

Bosnia and Herzegovina-Croatia: none identified

Bosnia and Herzegovina-Montenegro: none identified

Botswana

none identified

Bouvet Island

none identified

Brazil

Brazil-Bolivia: the Roboré Accord of March 29, 1958 placed the long-disputed Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-Mirim, a fluvial island on the Río Mamoré, between the two towns of Guajará-Mirim (Brazil) and Guayaramerin (Bolivia), under Bolivian administration but did not resolve the sovereignty dispute

Brazil-Colombia:
contraband smuggling (narcotics and arms), illegal migration, trafficking in animals, plants, lumber, illegal exploitation of mineral resources, and incursions by Colombian insurgent/narco-terrorists groups in the area remain problematic issues

Brazil-Uruguay:
the uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Arroyo de la Invernada triangle and sovereignty over Isla Brasilera leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border

Brazil-Venezuela: Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela; more than 500,000 Venezuelan migrants have entered Brazil since March 2018, with more than 16,000 Venezuelans arriving monthly in the latter half of 2023; in 2023, Brazil shifted military resources to northern Roraima state in response to heightened tensions between Venezuela and Guyana over the disputed Essequibo region of Guyana

British Indian Ocean Territory

Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands; negotiations between 1971 and 1982 resulted in the establishment of a trust fund by the British Government as compensation for the displaced islanders, known as Chagossians, who were evicted between 1967-73; in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago were granted UK citizenship and the right of return; in 2006 and 2007, British court rulings invalidated the immigration policies contained in the 2004 British Indian Ocean Territory Constitution Order that had excluded the islanders from the archipelago; in 2008, a House of Lords' decision overturned lower court rulings, once again denying the right of return to Chagossians; in addition, the UK created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein

Brunei

per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef

Burkina Faso

porous borders contribute to illicit cross-border activities, including terrorism and trafficking

Burkina Faso-Benin: the two countries dispute sovereignty over a small area known as Kourou/Koalou near the tripoint with Togo, which has been declared a neutral zone pending settlement of the dispute; in 2009, an agreement to refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice was signed, but no formal application has yet been made to the Court

Burma

over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 912,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Rakhine State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities were constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border with Bangladesh in 2010; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; fencing along the India-Burma international border at Manipur's Moreh town is in progress to check illegal drug trafficking and movement of militants

Burundi

cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region

Burundi-Rwanda:
Burundi's Ngozi province and Rwanda's Butare province dispute the two-kilometer-square hilly farmed area of Sabanerwa in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965 around Kibinga Hill in Rwanda's Butare Province


Cabo Verde

none identified

Cambodia

Cambodia-Laos: Cambodia is concerned that Laos' extensive upstream dam construction will affect Cambodian waters downstream

Cambodia-Thailand: Cambodia and Thailand have agreed to maintain peace along the border regardless of the decision of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) over territorial dispute near Cambodia's Preah Vihear Temple; the ICJ decision of 11 November 2013 determined that Cambodia had sovereignty over the whole territory of the promontory of Preah Vihear; the border disputes do not involve large amounts of territory, and most of the issues were settled by the Nov. 11, 2013 ICJ ruling

Cambodia-Vietnam: issues include casinos built in Cambodia near the border (gambling and prostitution); narcotics (criminals, crime, and abuse); trafficking of women and children, petrol smuggling into Cambodia from Vietnam, illegal logging, and illegal migration

Cameroon

Cameroon-Central African Republic: Cameroon has deployed military troops to the border to counter intrusions from armed militias and bandits
 
Cameroon-Nigeria: Nigeria recognized Cameroon's sovereignty over the Bakassi Peninsula in 2006 and in completed the transfer of administration in 2013, although there are occasional, mostly local disputes in the area; the the majority of the land boundary was demarcated by 2019 with UN assistance, although there are few disagreements on the precise location of the boundary; the porous border is susceptible to crossings by the Boko Haram and Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - West Africa terrorist groups, both of which operate in Northern Nigeria 


Canada

managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Central African Republic

Central African Republic-South Sudan: periodic violent skirmishes persist among related pastoral populations along the border with South Sudan over water and grazing rights

Central African Republic-Sudan: periodic violent skirmishes persist among related pastoral populations along the border with Sudan over water and grazing rights

Chad

over 100,000 refugees have fled the 2023 conflict in Sudan to Chad, adding to the 600,000 mostly Sudanese refugees already in Chad after fleeing previous conflicts, especially in the Darfur region; Chad and Sudan share the same ethnic groups along both sides of their common 1,400-km-long border; in 2010, relations with Sudan were normalized, and the two countries established a joint border monitoring force, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Chile

Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)

China

China-India: continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to a number of boundary disputes across the 2,000 mile shared border; India does not recognize Pakistan's 1964 ceding to China of the Aksai Chin, a territory designated as part of the princely state of Kashmir by the British Survey of India in 1865; China claims most of the Indian state Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas, but the US recognizes the state of Arunachal Pradesh as Indian territory

China-Bhutan: continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China's Chumbi salient

China-North Korea: certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; both countries seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans fleeing privation and oppression

China-Russia: have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement

China-Tajikistan: have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002

Southeast Asia: the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, continues to consider building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests

Maritime: Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol (the so-called “nine-dash line”) off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Sea, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys, and in 2017 China and ASEAN began confidential negotiations for an updated Code of Conduct for the South China Sea designed not to settle territorial disputes but establish rules and norms in the region; this still is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; both China and Vietnam continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys, and in early 2018 China began deploying advanced military systems to disputed Spratly outposts; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan

Christmas Island

none identified

Colombia

Colombia-Nicaragua: in December 2007, the ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under a 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as the maritime boundary

Colombia-Venezuela: managed dispute over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela

Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank

Comoros

claims French-administered Mayotte and challenges France's and Madagascar's claims to Banc du Geyser, a drying reef in the Mozambique Channel

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Republic of the Congo: the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Uganda: Uganda rejects the DRC claim to Margherita Peak in the Rwenzori mountains and considers it a boundary divide; there is tension and violence on Lake Albert over prospective oil reserves at the mouth of the Semliki River; the Ugandan-origin Allied Democratic Forces (ADF; aka Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham in the DRC) operates on both sides of the border

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Zambia: boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Angola: DRC has accused Angola of shifting monuments

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Rwanda: the DRC has accused Rwanda of backing the armed separatist group March 23 Movement (aka M23 or Congolese Revolutionary Army)
 
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Burundi: multiple armed groups originating from Burundi operate in the DRC

Congo, Republic of the

Republic of the Congo-Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC): the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area

Costa Rica

Costa Rica and Nicaragua regularly file border dispute cases over the delimitations of the San Juan River and the northern tip of Calero Island to the International Court of Justice (ICJ); in 2009, the ICJ ruled that Costa Rican vessels carrying out police activities could not use the river, but official Costa Rican vessels providing essential services to riverside inhabitants and Costa Rican tourists could travel freely on the river; in 2011, the ICJ provisionally ruled that both countries must remove personnel from the disputed area; in 2013, the ICJ rejected Nicaragua's 2012 suit to halt Costa Rica's construction of a highway paralleling the river on the grounds of irreparable environmental damage; in 2013, the ICJ, regarding the disputed territory, ordered that Nicaragua should refrain from dredging or canal construction and refill and repair damage caused by trenches connecting the river to the Caribbean and upheld its 2010 ruling that Nicaragua must remove all personnel; in early 2014, Costa Rica brought Nicaragua to the ICJ over offshore oil concessions in the disputed region

Cote d'Ivoire

disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana

Croatia

dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Croatia joined the Schengen Zone on 1 January 2023

Cuba

US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to the US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease

Cyprus

hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the EU still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; has had maritime/economic exclusion zone disputes with Turkey, particularly over energy exploration

Denmark

Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; in 2019, Denmark signed continental shelf delimitation agreements with Iceland and Norway to parts of the continental shelf in the Ægir Basin, which is located north of the Faroe Islands

Djibouti

Djibouti-Somalia: Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia

Djibouti-Eritrea: in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea, sparking a brief conflict; Qatar mediated and provided peacekeepers until 2017; Djibouti accused Eritrea of reoccupying the area in 2017 after Qatari troops were withdrawn; Djibouti and Eritrea agreed to normalize relations in 2018

Djibouti-Ethiopia: the Ethiopia-Djibouti relationship has been relatively harmonious, and there have been no major disputes along their shared border

Dominica

Dominica-Venezuela: is the only Caribbean state to challenge Venezuela's sovereignty claim over Aves Island, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ and continental shelf claims over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea

Dominican Republic

Dominican Republic-Haiti: unauthorized migration and smuggling from impoverished and unstable Haiti has led to occasional border tensions and increased security by the Dominican Republic, including the construction of a fence and the deployment of military troops

Ecuador

organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border

Egypt

Egypt-Gaza Strip: constructed a barrier and established a buffer zone on its border with Gaza to halt the passage of weapons and militants through cross-border smuggling tunnels and pressure the Palestinian HAMAS terrorist group that runs the Gaza Strip

Egypt-Ethiopia: Ethiopia's construction of a large dam (the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) on the Blue Nile in northern Ethiopia since 2011 has become a focal point of relations with Egypt and Sudan; Egypt has described the giant hydroelectric project as an existential threat because of its potential to control the flow of the river that is a key source of water for the country; Ethiopia completed filling the dam in 2023

El Salvador

El Salvador-Honduras: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca

Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea-Cameroon: in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation

Equatorial Guinea-Gabon: dispute over Mbane Island and lesser islands in the Corisco Bay submitted to ICJ in 2016

Eritrea

Eritrea-Ethiopia: both agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement

Eritrea-Sudan: Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups

Eritrea-Djibouti: in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea

Estonia

Russia and Estonia in May 2005 signed a technical border agreement, but Russia in June 2005 recalled its signature after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia often criticizes the Estonian Government over alleged mistreatment of ethnic Russians in Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia implements strict Schengen border rules with Russia

Eswatini

Eswatini has stable relations with South Africa but claims large sections of South African territory based on the historic extent of Swazi control during the early 19th century; despite periodic negotiations, there has been little progress in resolving the dispute 

Ethiopia

Ethiopia-Eritrea: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement

Ethiopia-Somalia: the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden (populated largely by ethnic Somalis) and southern Somalia's Oromo region; the Somalia-based terrorist group al-Shabaab has conducted cross-border assaults into Ethiopia as recently as 2022

Ethiopia-South Sudan: while border clashes continue in the al-Fashqa (Fashaga) area, the US views the 1902 boundary treaty between Ethiopia and Sudan as being in force

Ethiopia-Sudan: Ethiopia's construction of a large dam (the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) on the Blue Nile in northern Ethiopia since 2011 has become a focal point of relations with Egypt and Sudan; Egypt has described the giant hydroelectric project as an existential threat because of its potential to control the flow of the river that is a key source of water for the country; Ethiopia completed filling the dam in 2023

European Union

as a political union, the EU has no border disputes with neighboring countries, but Estonia has no land boundary agreements with Russia, Slovenia disputes its land and maritime boundaries with Croatia, and Spain has territorial and maritime disputes with Morocco and with the UK over Gibraltar; the EU has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 23 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements or "acquis" (1985 and 1990) on the free movement of persons and the harmonization of border controls in Europe; these agreements became incorporated into EU law with the implementation of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 May 1999; in addition, non-EU states Iceland and Norway (as part of the Nordic Union) have been included in the Schengen area since 1996 (full members in 2001), Switzerland since 2008, and Liechtenstein since 2011 bringing the total current membership to 27; the UK (since 2000) and Ireland (since 2002) take part in only some aspects of the Schengen area, especially with respect to police and criminal matters; nine of the 13 new member states that joined the EU since 2004 joined Schengen on 21 December 2007; EU member state Croatia joined on 1 January 2023; of the three remaining EU states, Romania and Bulgaria are obligated to eventually join, while Cyprus' entry is held up by the ongoing Cyprus dispute



note: three of Europe's microstates - Monaco, San Marino, and the Holy See (Vatican City) - maintain open borders for passenger traffic with their neighbors and are thus de facto members of the Schengen Area, since it is impossible to travel to or from them without transiting another Schengen member country

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Argentina, which claims the islands in its constitution and briefly occupied them by force in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks

Faroe Islands

because anticipated offshore hydrocarbon resources have not been realized, earlier Faroese proposals for full independence have been deferred; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim to UNCLOS that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm

Fiji

Fiji-Tonga: Fiji does not recognize Tonga’s 1972 claim to the Minerva Reefs and their surrounding waters; the Minerva Reefs’ 200-mile exclusive economic zone includes valuable fishing grounds

Finland

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

France

Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia

French Polynesia

none identified

French Southern and Antarctic Lands

French claim to "Adelie Land" in Antarctica is not recognized by the US;

Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses): claimed by Madagascar; the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands)

Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): claimed by Mauritius

Gabon

dispute with Equatorial Guinea over Mbane Island and lesser islands in the Corisco Bay submitted to ICJ in 2016

Gambia, The

border issues include attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region, as well as from conflicts in other west African states

Gaza Strip

borders with both Egypt and Israel are sealed with barriers, fences, and walls; Israel completed an underground anti-tunnel barrier in 2021

Georgia

Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Russia maintains military bases and troops in Abkhazia and South Ossetia

Germany

none identified

Ghana

disputed maritime border with Cote d'Ivoire was resolved in 2017 through a decision of a Special Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)

Gibraltar

the status of Gibraltar and how to police the border with Spain has been a point of contention since the UK's 2016 vote to leave the EU; the peninsula was excluded from the exit deal reached between Britain and the EU; informal arrangements are in place while the two sides negotiate over Gibraltar, which overwhelmingly backed remaining in the EU in the Brexit referendum

Greece

Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Greece has a security wall along a portion of its land border with Turkey to deter border crossings by migrants and has announced intentions to extend the wall along the entire border

Greenland

in 2022, Canada and Denmark signed an agreement resolving a managed dispute over uninhabited Tartupaluk/Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland

Grenada

none identified

Guam

none identified

Guatemala

Guatemala-Belize: demarcated but disputed boundary due to Guatemala’s claims to more than half of Belizean territory; line of Adjacency operates in lieu of an international boundary to control influx of Guatemalan squatters onto Belizean territory; smuggling, narcotics trafficking, and human trafficking are also problems; the dispute was referred to the ICJ in 2019 for binding resolution; the 12-nm territorial sea claims of Belize and Honduras close off Guatemalan access to Caribbean in the Bahia de Amatique; maritime boundary remains unresolved pending further negotiation

Guatemala-
Mexico: thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans cross the porous border with Mexico looking for work in Mexico and the US

Guernsey

none identified

Guinea

Guinea-Liberia: the border is not disputed and there is joint border management, although the border is porous and there have been occasional disputes relating to military encroachments and use of the boundary rivers

Guinea-Mali: the border is not disputed, although there have been periodic clashes between border communities over land rights and access to natural resources

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau - Senegal: there are no border disputes and the frontier is relatively stable although some rebels conducting a longstanding low-grade insurgency in the southern Casamance region of Senegal have used Guinea-Bissau as a safe haven

Guyana

Guyana-Venezuela: Venezuela claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River in Guyana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; in 2018, Guyana initiated proceedings against Venezuela with the International Court of Justice (ICJ); Venezuela requested a direct dialogue to settle the dispute; the ICJ ruled that it had jurisdiction to hear the case in December 2020; in December 2023, the Venezuelan Government held a referendum on the disputed Essequibo region and announced measures to exert administrative control over the area 

Guyana-Suriname: Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari Rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne River

Haiti

Haiti-Dominican Republic: the Dominican Republic has increased security along the Haitian border to prevent unauthorized migration and smuggling, including constructing a fence and deploying military troops; some disputes over border limits, particularly along the Massacre River

Haiti-US: Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Honduras

Honduras-El Salvador: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca.

Honduras-Belize:
Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution; in 2022, Belize instituted proceedings against Honduras concerning sovereignty over the Sapodilla Cayes; the dispute is pending resolution in the ICJ

Hong Kong

the Frontier Closed Area was established in 1951 as a buffer zone between Hong Kong and mainland China to prevent illegal migration and the smuggling of goods 

Hungary

none identified

Iceland

in 2019, Denmark signed continental shelf delimitation agreements with Iceland and Norway to parts of the continental shelf in the Ægir Basin, which is located north of the Faroe Islands

India

India-China: India’s relations with China have been fraught for decades; issues include disputed frontiers, as well as China’s support for Pakistan, India’s key rival, and China’s growing influence in India’s periphery, including in the Indian Ocean; in 2020, the two engaged in the worst bilateral border conflict since the Sino-Indian War of 1962; despite ongoing negotiations, including nearly 20 rounds of military-to-military talks as of 2023, tensions at the disputed border, known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC), remain high, and China holds a reported 580 square miles of territory previously patrolled by India; non-lethal clashes involving hundreds of soldiers from each side occured in December 2022; both countries maintain tens of thousands of troops and heavy weaponry at the LAC, and both continue to improve their infrastructure and military capabilities in the disputed border region 

India-Pakistan: India and Pakistan have fought three wars since 1948 over the disputed former princely region of Kashmir, the most recent in 1999; the two sides are separated by a Line of Control (LoC), a provisional military control line established in 1972 that splits Kashmir into two administrative regions; both countries have maintained a fragile cease-fire since 2003, although they regularly exchange fire across the LoC; both sides accuse the other of violating the cease-fire and claim to be shooting in response to attacks; India largely cut off bilateral engagement following an early 2019 terrorist attack in Pulwama, in Indian-held Kashmir, and a subsequent Indian airstrike on a suspected militant camp inside Pakistan India’s government continues to hold Pakistan responsible for supporting cross-border anti-India militancy, while Islamabad highlights India’s alleged repression of the Kashmir Valley’s overwhelmingly Muslim populace 

India-Bangladesh: boundary disputes have been arbitrated

India-Nepal: both sides claim ownership of the Kalapani-Limpiyadhura-Lipulekh tri-junction area, as well as the Susta area, located in the southern part of Nepal’s Nawalparasi district; there have also been sporadic disputes over other borders, such as in the Mechi River and Kali River regions related to issues of encroachment, land use, and cross-border crime 

Indian Ocean

some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Indonesia

Indonesia-Australia: all borders have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

Indonesia-Malaysia: territorial disputes resulting from competing interpretations of colonial era documents have prevented a full demarcation of the land border where there are several areas under dispute; negotiations continue; the two countries have not agreed to any EEZ boundaries; disputed maritime areas includes the Ambalat block in the Celebes Sea

Indonesia-Palau: discussions on reaching an agreement on a partial EEZ boundary line continue 

Indonesia-Papua New Guinea:  Papua New Guinea ratified an agreement governing the border in 2023; migrants and separatists crossing the porous 760-kilometer (472-mile) border have complicated diplomatic relations

Indonesia-Philippines:  have ratified EEZ boundary agreements that were initially signed in 2014

Indonesia-Singapore: continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island

Indonesia-Timor Leste: as of 2023, negotiations were ongoing on remaining two segments of the land border under dispute (Bidjael Sunan-Oben and Noel Besi-Citrana) and the maritime borders from Batugade to Atauro and from Atauro to Jaco 

Indonesia-Vietnam: agreed on a continental shelf boundary agreement with Vietnam in 2003 which produced a border around 250 nautical miles long, but the two countries continue to negotiate an agreement regarding EEZ delimitations in the South China Sea

Iran

Iran-Afghanistan: Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey

Iran-Azerbaijan-Kazakhstan-Russia: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified a Caspian seabed delimitation treaty in 2018 based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea

Iran-Iraq: Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf

Iran-Kuwait: dispute over undemarcated maritime border and al Durra offshore gas field in the Arabian/Persian Gulf; talks continued as of 2023; in 2022, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia signed a joint agreement to develop the field despite objections from Iran, which described the deal as illegal

Iran-UAE: Iran and UAE dispute the Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, and Abu Musa islands, which are occupied by Iran; Iran has conducted military drills on and around the disputed islands

Caspian Sea (Maritime Boundary): Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea

Iraq

Iraq-Iran: Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf

Iraq-Kuwait: undemarcated maritime boundary; Kuwait has called on Iraq to resolve the domestic legal status of the 2012 Kuwait-Iraq Agreement to regulate maritime navigation in Khor Abdullah and ensure that the agreement remains in force 

Iraq-Turkey: Turkey maintains a military presence in northern Iraq to combat the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK) terrorist group; it periodically conducts air strikes and has conducted large military operations involving thousands of troops in 2007, 2011, and 2018, and smaller-scale operations in 2021 and 2022 

Ireland

Ireland-Denmark: Ireland, Iceland, and the UK dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Iceland, Norway, and the Faroe Islands signed an agreement in 2019 extending the Faroe Islands’ northern continental shelf area

Isle of Man

none identified

Israel

Israel-Gaza Strip: Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005

Israel-Syria: Golan Heights is Israeli-controlled (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); in March 2019, the US Government recognized Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region

Israel-West Bank: West Bank is Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; in 2002, Israel began construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; as of mid-2020, plans were to continue barrier construction

Italy

Italy-Austria-Switzerland: borders are shifting because glacier peaks that had served as a natural boundary are melting

Jamaica

none identified

Jan Mayen

none identified

Japan

Japan-China-Taiwan: the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) are also claimed by China and Taiwan; Senkaku-shoto is situated near key shipping lanes, rich fishing grounds, and possibly significant oil and natural gas reserves

Japan-Russia: the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities

Japan-South Korea: Japan and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954

Jersey

none identified

Jordan

Jordan-Iraq: the two countries signed a border agreement in 1984; Jordan has ratified the treaty, but it has not been confirmed that Iraq has ratified it; as of 2010, the agreement had not been registered with the UN

Jordan-Israel: none identified

Jordan-Saudi Arabia: Jordan and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to demarcate their maritime borders in 2007

Jordan-Syria: the two countries signed an agreement in 2005 to settle the border dispute based on a 1931 demarcation accord; the two countries began demarcation in 2006

Jordan-West Bank: none identified

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan-China: in 1998, Kazakhstan and China agreed to split two disputed border areas nearly evenly; demarcation with China completed in 2002

Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan: in January 2019, Kyrgyzstan ratified the 2017 agreement on the demarcation of the Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan border

Kazakhstan-Russia: Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005; field demarcation commenced in 2007 and was expected to be completed by 2013

Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan: Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan signed a treaty on the delimitation and demarcation process in 2001; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005; Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan agreed to their border in the Caspian Sea in 2014

Kazakhstan-Uzbekistan: field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; disputed territory is held by Uzbekistan but the overwhelming majority of residents are ethnic Kazakhs; the two countries agreed on draft final demarcation documents in March 2022 and planned to hold another meeting in April 2022

Kazakhstan-Azerbaijan-Iran-Russia: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified a Caspian seabed delimitation treaty in 2018 based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea 

Kenya

Kenya-Ethiopia: their border was demarcated in the 1950s and approved in 1970; in 2012, Kenya and Ethiopia agreed to redemarcate their boundary following disputes over beacons and cross-border crime

Kenya-Somalia: the Somali-based terrorist group al-Shabaab has infiltrated the border and conducted attacks in Kenya; clan and militia fighting amongst ethnic Somali peoples separated by the Kenya-Somali border has periodically threatened to spread across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; in 2021, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) gave Somalia control over a disputed ocean area where the seabeds are believed to hold vasts oil and gas deposits; the ICJ ruling gave Somalia the rights to several offshore oil exploration blocks previously claimed by Kenya; Kenya did not recognize the court’s decision

Kenya-South Sudan: two thirds of the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty known as the Ilemi Triangle has been unclear since British colonial times; Kenya has administered the area since colonial times; officials from Kenya and South Sudan signed a memorandum of understanding on boundary delimitation and demarcation and agreed to set up a joint committee which launched in 2023

Kenya-Tanzania: maintain good relations and have no border disputes; in 2021 began a joint process to complete a modern, re-demarcation of the border

Kenya-Uganda: Kenya and Uganda began a joint demarcation of the boundary in 2021; Kenya and Uganda have a small, managed dispute over the small Migingo Island in Lake Victoria, although Kenya has had de facto control since 1926; the dispute has centered on the surrounding waters surrounding the island, which are known for fishing

 

Kiribati

none identified

Korea, North

North Korea-China: risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans have crossed the 1,400-km-long border into China to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression; the adjacent areas of northeastern China (the provinces of Jilin, Heilongjiang, and Liaoning) includes a significant Korean minority population of an estimated 2 million people; in the 2020s, North Korea has built hundreds of kilometers of new or upgraded border fences, walls, and guard posts along the border; North Korea and China dispute the sovereignty of certain islands in Yalu and Tumen Rivers 

North Korea-Japan: North Korea supports South Korea in rejecting Japan's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima)

North Korea-Russia: Russian troops guard the border and immediately return escapees they capture to the North Korean Government; in the 2020s, North Korea has built new or upgraded border fences and guard posts along the border

North Korea-South Korea: the Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km-wide, 257-km-long Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents in the Yellow Sea with South Korea which claims the Northern Limit Line as a maritime boundary

Korea, South

South Korea-Japan: South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954

South Korea-North Korea: Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km-wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents with North Korea in the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limit Line, which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary

Kosovo

Kosovo-Albania: none identified

Kosovo-Montenegro: their 2015 demarcation agreement was ratified by Montenegro in December 2015 and by Kosovo in March 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed

Kosovo-North Macedonia: Kosovo and North Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; both countries ratified the demarcation documents on October 17, 2009, after high-level consultations resolved the disputed section of border around Debelde/Tanusevci

Kosovo-Serbia: Serbia has not recognized Kosovo's independence, and Belgrade continues to claim it as its territory; Kosovo’s ethnic Serb minority, most of whom live in the northern regions, view themselves as part of Serbia, and Serbian municipalities along the northern border have challenged the final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; some protests have turned violent 

 

Kuwait

Kuwait-Iraq: no maritime boundary exists with Iraq in the Persian Gulf; Kuwait has called on Iraq to resolve the domestic legal status of the 2012 Kuwait-Iraq Agreement to regulate maritime navigation in Khor Abdullah and ensure that the agreement remains in force  

Kuwait-Saudi Arabia: their maritime boundary was established in 2000 and has a neutral zone but its extension to Iran’s maritime boundary has not been negotiated

 

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan-China: a 2009 treaty settled a border dispute, with Kyrgyzstan receiving the Khan Tengri Peak and Kyrgyzstan ceding to China the Uzengi-Kush area

Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan: in January 2019, Kyrgyzstan ratified the 2017 agreement on the demarcation of the Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan border

Kyrgyzstan-Tajikistan: as the last major Central Asian boundary dispute with lengthy undelimited sections, agreement on the lowland (NE part) of the Kyrgz-Tajik line remains highly sensitive despite recent Kyrgyz-Uzbek agreements on delimiting short sections of their shared border 

Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan: in January 2023, the presidents of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan exchanged instruments of ratification for the treaty delineating their shared border

Laos

Laos-Burma: none identified

Laos-Cambodia: in 2021, the two countries agreed to increase efforts to combat drug trafficking and other transnational crimes and to complete the last 14% of their border demarcation

Laos-Cambodia-Vietnam: Cambodia and Vietnam are concerned about Laos' extensive plans for upstream dam construction and the potential harm it poses to fisheries and farming downstream

Laos-China: concern among Mekong River Commission members that China's construction of eight dams on the Upper Mekong River and construction of more dams on its tributaries will affect water levels, sediment flows, and fisheries

Laos-Thailand: talks continue as of 2018 on completion of demarcation with Thailand but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River

Laos-Vietnam: Laos and Vietnam completed border demarcation in 2016

 

 

Latvia

Latvia-Belarus: Belarus and Latvia signed joint demarcation map in September 2008

Latvia-Estonia: demarcation reportedly completed in 1998

Latvia-Lithuania: boundary demarcation was completed by the end of 1998; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights

Latvia-Russia: tensions with Russia have risen considerably since its invasion of Ukraine in 2022, which Latvia has strongly condemned and has since designated Russia a state sponsor of terrorism and expelled the Russian ambassador; Russia has criticized the Latvian Government over alleged mistreatment of ethnic Russians in Latvia; in March 2007, Latvia and Russia signed a border treaty, which included Latvia withdrawing claims to a district now in Russia that was part of Latvia before World War II; the permanent demarcation of the boundary between Latvia and Russia was completed and came into force in April 2018; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Latvia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules with Russia

Lebanon

Lebanon-Syria: lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; in March 2021, Syria signed a contract with a Russian company for oil and gas exploration in a maritime area Lebanon claims as its own based on a 2011 map sent to the UN

Lebanon-Israel: Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights; the maritime boundary between Israel and Lebanon was established in October 2022

Lesotho

Lesotho-South Africa: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, as well as Mozambique and, Zimbabwe, to assist with controlling cross-border smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

 

Liberia

none identified

Libya

Libya-Algeria: while dormant, Libya has long claimed about 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria south of the Libyan town of Ghat  

Libya-Chad: various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya; Libyan forces clashed with Chadian rebels in September 2021

Libya-Egypt: none identified

Libya-Niger: the boundary is poorly defined but has never been disputed by either country

Libya-Sudan: none identified

Libya-Tunisia: none identified

Lithuania

Lithuania-Belarus: as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Lithuania-Lativa: boundary demarcated with Latvia was completed in 1998

Lithuania-Russia: Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; in January 2018, demarcation of the Lithuania-Russia border was completed

Luxembourg

none identified

Macau

none identified

Madagascar

Madagascar-France: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France; talks with France over the claims have occurred in 1990, 2016, and 2019); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claim of France

Madagascar-Comoros: the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claim of the Comoros

Malawi

Malawi-Mozambique: the two countries have held exercises to reaffirm boundaries a number of times

Malawi-Tanzania: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake

Malaysia

Malaysia-Brunei: per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei; in 2009, the media reported that Brunei had dropped its claims to the Limbang corridor, but Brunei responded that the subject had never been discussed during recent talks between the two countries

Malaysia-China-Philippines-Vietnam: the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties, which is currently being negotiated between China and ASEAN member states; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands

Malaysia-Indonesia: land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea

Malaysia-Philippines: Philippines retains a dormant claim to the eastern part of Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo

Malaysia-Singapore: disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, the International Court of Justice awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge

Malaysia-Thailand: in 2008, separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts Malaysia to take measures to close and to monitor the border with Thailand to stem terrorist activities

 

 

Maldives

none identified

Mali

Mali-Burkina Faso: demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso

 

Malta

none identified

Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands-US: claims US territory of Wake Island; the Marshall Islands put its claim on record with the UN in 2016

 

Mauritania

Mauritania-Algeria: none identified

Mauritania-Mali: there are no border disputes, but the border has not been demarcated; talks on demarcation were reportedly being held in February 2022

Mauritania-Morocco: Mauritanian claims to Western Sahara remain dormant; tensions arose in 2016 when Mauritanian soldiers were deployed to Lagouira, a city in the southernmost part of Morocco, and raised their flag

Mauritania-Senegal: none identified

Mauritius

Mauritius-France: Mauritius has claimed French-administered Tromelin Island (part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands) since 1976

Mauritius-UK: Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)

Mexico

Mexico-Belize: Mexico and Belize are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Mexico-Guatemala: Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US

Mexico-US: the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal persons, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico

 

Moldova

Moldova-Romania: none identified

Moldova-Ukraine: Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops

Monaco

none identified

Mongolia

none identified

Montenegro

Montenegro-Bosnia and Herzegovina: the two countries signed a border agreement in August 2015; sovereignty of the disputed Sutorina territory was given to Montenegro

Montenegro-Croatia: the two countries in 2002 reached a temporary agreement designating the Prevlaka Peninsula as part of Croatia, in October 2020, a Montenegrin official resurrected the dormant dispute over the Prevlaka Peninsula by stating that Montenegro had a good chance of winning it through international arbitration

Montenegro-Kosovo: a 2015 border agreement was ratified by Montenegro in 2015 and by Kosovo in 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed

Montenegro-Serbia: the former republic boundary – when the two countries were one and called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – serves as the boundary until a line is formally delimited and demarcated; nearly one-third of Montenegro's people identify as Serbs, and divisions in the country remain deep over relations with Serbia

 

Montserrat

none identified

Morocco

Morocco-Algeria: Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling

Morocco-Mauritania: tensions arose in 2016 when Mauritanian soldiers were deployed to Lagouira, a city in the southernmost part of Morocco, and raised their flag

Morocco-Spain: Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa

Mozambique

Mozambique-Eswatini: none identified

Mozambique-Malawi:  the two countries have held exercises to reaffirm boundaries a number of times

Mozambique-South Africa: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

Mozambique-Tanzania: none identified

Mozambique-Zambia: none identified

Mozambique-Zimbabwe: none identified

Namibia

Namibia-Angola-Botswana: concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border

Namibia-Botswana-Zambia-Zimbabwe: Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; the Kazungula Bridge opened to traffic in May 2021

Namibia-South Africa: the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia claims a median line boundary, while South Africa supports the northern bank of the river

 

Nauru

none identified

Navassa Island

Navassa Island (US)-Haiti: claimed by Haiti and is in Haiti’s constitution; the waters around Navassa island are a source of subsistence for Haitian fishermen

Nepal

Nepal-China: China may have constructed 11 buildings in Nepal’s Humla region in 2021

Nepal-India: joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; the Kalapani issue resurfaced in November 2019 when India issued a new map showing the contested area within India’s borders and then built a new road in the region through Lipulekh pass, an area controlled by India but claimed by Nepal; Nepal countered by amending its constitution and issuing its own map showing the disputed area within its borders; the countries prime ministers briefly discussed the border dispute in April 2022; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities

Netherlands

none identified

New Caledonia

New Caledonia-France-Vanuatu: Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France and Vanuatu

New Zealand

none identified

Nicaragua

Nicaragua-El Salvador-Honduras: the 1992 ICJ ruling for El Salvador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; the court ruled, rather, that the Gulf of Fonseca represents a condominium, with control being shared by El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the decision allowed for the possibility that the three nations could divide the waters at a later date if they wished to do so

Nicaragua-Costa Rica: Nicaragua and Costa Rica regularly file border dispute cases with the ICJ over the delimitations of the San Juan River and the northern tip of Calero Island, virtually uninhabited areas claimed by both countries; there is an ongoing case in the ICJ to determine Pacific and Atlantic ocean maritime borders as well as land borders; in 2009, the ICJ ruled that Costa Rican vessels carrying out police activities could not use the river, but official Costa Rican vessels providing essential services to riverside inhabitants and Costa Rican tourists could travel freely on the river; in 2011, the ICJ provisionally ruled that both countries must remove personnel from the disputed area; in 2013, the ICJ rejected Nicaragua's 2012 suit to halt Costa Rica's construction of a highway paralleling the river on the grounds of irreparable environmental damage; in 2013, the ICJ, regarding the disputed territory, ordered that Nicaragua should refrain from dredging or canal construction and refill and repair damage caused by trenches connecting the river to the Caribbean and upheld its 2010 ruling that Nicaragua must remove all personnel; in early 2014, Costa Rica brought Nicaragua to the ICJ over offshore oil concessions in the disputed region; in 2018, the ICJ ruled that Nicaragua must remove a military base from a contested coastal area near the San Juan River, and that Costa Rica had sovereignty over the northern part of Isla Portillos, including the coast, but excluding Harbour Head Lagoon; additionally, Honduras was required to pay reparations for environmental damage to part of the wetlands at the mouth of the San Juan River

Nicaragua-Colombia: Nicaragua filed a case with the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against Colombia in 2013 over the delimitation of the Continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical miles from the Nicaraguan coast, as well as over the alleged violation by Colombia of Nicaraguan maritime space in the Caribbean Sea, which contains rich oil and fish resources; as of September 2021, Colombia refuses to abide by the ICJ ruling

 

Niger

Niger-Benin-Nigeria: location of Niger-Benin-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

Niger-Burkina Faso: the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2010; the ICJ ruled in 2013 that 786 sq km should go to Burkina Faso and 277 sq km to Niger; the ruling was implemented in 2015 and 2016, with Burkina Faso gaining 14 towns and Niger 4

Niger-Cameroon-Nigeria: only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Niger-Libya: Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tummo region

Nigeria

Nigeria-Benin: none identified

Nigeria-Cameroon: Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; demarcation of the Bakassi Peninsula and adjoining border areas should be finalized in 2022; as Lake Chad’s evaporation exposed dry land, only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Nigeria-Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea: the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation

Nigeria-Niger: none identified

Niue

none identified

Norfolk Island

none identified

North Macedonia

North Macedonia-Albania: none identified

North Macedonia-Bulgaria: Bulgaria vetoed North Macedonia's EU accession and disputes the legitimacy of Macedonian identity and language

North Macedonia-Greece: none identified

North Macedonia-Kosovo: North Macedonia and Kosovo completed demarcation of their boundary in October 2009

North Macedonia-Serbia: none identified

Norway

Norway-Antarctica: Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf)

Norway-Russia: Russia amended its 2001 CLCS submission in 2015 and 2021, each time delineating the outer limits of its continental shelf further into the Arctic Ocean; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010, ending a dispute over an area of the Barents Sea by dividing the territory equally

Norway-Sweden: none identified

 

 

Oman

Oman-Saudi Arabia: none identified

Oman-UAE: boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public; Oman and UAE signed the final demarcation of their land border in 2008

Oman-Yemen: Oman and Yemen signed a border agreement in 1992; demarcation of their border was completed in 1995

 

Pacific Ocean

some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Pakistan

Pakistan-Afghanistan: since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated about 5.3 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.74-3 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; in February 2022, amid skirmishes between Taliban and Pakistani forces, Pakistan announced its intent to finish constructing the barbed wire fence along the Durand Line and bring nearby areas under its control; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps

Pakistan-China: none identified

Pakistan-India: Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; the Siachen glacier is claimed by both countries and militarily occupied by India: Pakistan opposed India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control (completed in 2004) and the construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River (opened in 2008) in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh in India's Gujarat State as part of Pakistan

 

 

Palau

discussions on reaching agreements with Indonesia and the Philippiness on a partial EEZ boundary line continue 

Panama

Panama-Colombia: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea-Indonesia: Papua New Guinea ratified an agreement governing their mutual border in 2023; migrants and separatists crossing the porous 760-kilometer (472-mile) border have complicated diplomatic relations

Paracel Islands

Paracel Islands-China-Taiwan-Vietnam: occupied by China, also claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam

Paraguay

Paraguay-Argentina-Brazil: unruly region at convergence of Paraguay-Argentina-Brazil borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for violent extremist organizations

Peru

Peru-Bolivia: Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Peru-Chile: Bolivia continues to press for a sovereign corridor to the Pacific Ocean; any concession Chile makes to Bolivia to grant them a sovereign corridor requires approval by Peru under the terms of their treaty; in January 2018, the International Court of Justice ruled that Chile is not legally obligated to negotiate a sovereign corridor to the Pacific Ocean with Bolivia

Peru-Chile-Ecuador: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines out to 200 nautical miles, which would give Peru 37,900 square kilometers of water

Peru-Colombia: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; problems also include cross border illegal migration, human trafficking, and contraband smuggling

Peru-Ecuador: in 1999, Tiwinza memorial park was created on lands that remains sovereign Peruvian territory, but Ecuador has the right to maintain and administer it in perpetuity

Philippines

Philippines-Taiwan-China-Malaysia-Vietnam: Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef (also claimed by China together with Taiwan) and over certain parts of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the claimants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands

Philippines-Malaysia: Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; the disagreement resurfaced in September 2020 , when Malaysia’s submission to the UN about extending its continental shelf was sharply countered by the Philippines because it included the disputed territory

Philippines-Palau: maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau, as of March 2022

Pitcairn Islands

none identified

Poland

Poland-Belarus-Ukraine: as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine

Portugal

Portugal-Spain: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Puerto Rico

migrants from the Dominican Republic and Haiti attempt to cross the treacherous 148-km-wide (92 mile) Mona Passage to Puerto Rico each year looking for work

Qatar

none identified

Romania

Romania-Bulgaria: none identified

Romania-Hungary: none identified

Romania-Moldova: none identified

Romania-Serbia: none identified

Romania-Ukraine: the International Court of Justice ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; in 2007, Romania opposed Ukraine's construction of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea, arguing that it runs through a unique ecological area, the Danube Delta

Russia

Russia-China: Russia and China have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes

Russia-Denmark-Norway: Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS), and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

Russia and Estonia: Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; negotiations were reopened in 2012, and a treaty was signed in 2014 without the disputed preamble, but neither country has ratified it as of 2020

Russia-Finland: various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Russia-Georgia: Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; in 2011, Russia began to put up fences and barbed wire to fortify South Ossetia, physically dividing villages in the process; Russia continues to move the South Ossetia border fences further into Georgian territory

Russia-Japan: the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities

Russia-Kazakhstan: Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005; field demarcation commenced in 2007 and was expected to be completed by 2013

Russia-Lithuania: Russia and Lithuania committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; border demarcation was completed in 2018; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply

Russia-North Korea: none identified

Russia-Norway: Russia and Norway signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010, opening the disputed territory for oil and natural gas exploration; a visa-free travel agreement for persons living near the border went into effect in May 2012

Russia-Ukraine: Russia remains involved in the conflict in eastern Ukraine while also occupying Ukraine’s territory of Crimea; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia

Russia-US: Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; the southwesterly "Western Limit" places about 70% of the Bering Sea under U.S. maritime jurisdiction

Russia-various: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea

 

Rwanda

Rwanda-Burundi: Burundi's Ngozi province and Rwanda's Butare province dispute the two-kilometer-square hilly farmed area of Sabanerwa in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965 around Kibinga Hill in Rwanda's Butare Province

Rwanda-Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):
the 2005 DRC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place

Rwanda-Uganda:
 a joint technical committee established in 2007 to demarcate sections of the border


Saint Barthelemy

none identified

Saint Kitts and Nevis

none identified

Saint Lucia

none identified

Saint Martin

none identified

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines-Venezuela: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea

Samoa

none identified

San Marino

none identified

Sao Tome and Principe

none identified

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia-Bahrain: none identified

Saudi Arabia-Iraq:  Saudi Arabia has been building a fence along its border with Iraq to keep out militants and smugglers

Saudi Arabia-Jordan: Jordan and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to demarcate their maritime borders in 2007

Saudi Arabia-Kuwait: Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran; in December 2019, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait signed an agreement to demarcate land in a neutral zone and to restart oil production in shared fields, which had been suspended since 2014 because of disagreements

Saudi Arabia-Oman: none identified

Saudi Arabia-Qatar: none identified

Saudi Arabia-UAE: Saudi Arabia and UAE have disputed the Shaybah oilfield, which Saudi Arabia controls

Saudi Arabia-Yemen: the two countries signed the Treaty of Jeddah in 2000, which specified the coordinates of their land and maritime border and made provisions for grazing, the placement of armed forces, and future resource exploitation; in 2010, Saudi Arabia reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal crossborder activities

Senegal

Senegal-Guinea-Bissau: rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau

Serbia

Serbia-Bosnia and Herzegovina: Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Serbia-Bulgaria: none identified

Serbia-Croatia: Serbia and Croatia dispute their border along the Danube; Serbia claims the border is the median between the current Danube shorelines, with the land to the eastern side of the median belonging to Serbia; Croatia contends that the boundary is demarcated according to historic maps, despite the river having meandered since then

Serbia-Hungary: none identified

Serbia-Kosovo: Serbia with several other states protested the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; since 1999, NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) authority have continued to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority; in October 2021, NATO-led KFOR increased patrols along the border with Serbia to deescalate hostilities caused by a dispute over license plates

Serbia-Montenegro: the former republic boundary serves as the boundary until a line is formally delimited and demarcated

Serbia-North Macedonia: none identified

Serbia-Romania: none identified

Seychelles

none identified

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone-Guinea: Sierra Leone opposed Guinean troops' continued occupation of Yenga, a small village on the Makona River that serves as a border with Guinea; Guinea's forces came to Yenga in the mid-1990s to help the Sierra Leonean military to suppress rebels and to secure their common border but remained there even after both countries signed a 2005 agreement acknowledging that Yenga belonged to Sierra Leone; in 2012, the two sides signed a declaration to demilitarize the area; in 2019, Sierra Leone’s Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation stated that the dispute over Yenga had been resolved; however, at a 2021 ECOWAS meeting, Sierra Leone’s President BIO called on the bloc to help resolve an incursion of Guinean troops in Yenga

Sierra Leone-Liberia: none identified

Singapore

Singapore-Indonesia: Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; subsequent treaties were signed in 2009 (ratified in 2010) and 2014 (ratified in 2017) settling the two countries’ boundaries in the Singapore Strait

Singapore-Malaysia: disputes with Malaysia over territorial waters, airspace, the price of fresh water delivered to Singapore from Malaysia, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, the International Court of Justice awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge, which is only visible at low tide



 

Sint Maarten

non identified

Slovakia

none identified

Slovenia

Slovenia-Austria: none identified

Slovenia-Croatia: since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piran Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; in June 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a ruling on the border, but Croatia had withdrawn from the proceedings in 2015 and refused to implement it; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia

Slovenia-Hungary: none identified

Slovenia-Italy: none identified

Solomon Islands

none identified

Somalia

Somalia-Djibouti: none identified

Somalia-Ethiopia: Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; the border between the Ogaden region of eastern Ethiopia, which is inhabited by ethnic Somalis, and Somalia is only partially demarcated under colonial rule and has been the source of tension for decades

Somalia-Kenya: Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; in 2015, the Kenyan Government began building a wall along the border to prevent the crossborder movement of militant groups; the boundary separates ethnic Somalis; in October 2021, the Somalia-Kenya Indian Ocean boundary dispute was decided by the International Court of Justice; the ruling adjusted the boundary slightly north of Somalia’s claim giving Somalia the majority of the contested maritime territory, which is believed to contain rich oil and natural gas deposits; while the decision is legally binding, it has no enforcement mechanism, and Kenya has said it will not abide by it

South Africa

South Africa-Botswana: none identified

South Africa-Eswatini: Eswatini seeks to reclaim land it says was stolen by South Africa

South Africa-Lesotho: crossborder livestock thieving, smuggling of drugs and arms, and illegal migration are problematic

South Africa-Mozambique: animal poachers cross the South Africa-Mozambique border to hunt wildlife in South Africa’s Kruger National Park; border fences were removed in some areas to allow animals to roam between nature reserves in the two countries; improved patrols, technology, and crossborder cooperation are reducing the problem

South Africa-Namibia: the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; the location of the border could affect diamond mining rights; South Africa has always claimed that the northern bank of the Orange River is the border between the two countries, while Namibia’s constitution states that the border lies in the middle of the Orange River

South Africa-various: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

South Africa-Zimbabwe: Zimbabweans migrate illegally into South Africa in search of work or smuggle goods to sell at a profit back home

South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (UK)-Argentina: Argentina, which claims the islands in its constitution and briefly occupied them by force in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force

South Sudan

South Sudan- Central African Republic: periodic violent skirmishes persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic over water and grazing rights

South Sudan-Democratic Republic of the Congo: none identified

South Sudan-Ethiopia: the unresolved demarcation of the boundary and lack of clear limitation create substantial room for territorial conflict both locally among the border populations and between the two capitals; besides a large number of indigenous farmers, the border region supports refugees and various rebel groups opposed to the governments in Khartoum and Addis Ababa


South Sudan-Kenya: two thirds of the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty known as the Ilemi Triangle has been unclear since British colonial times; Kenya has administered the area since colonial times; officials from Kenya and South Sudan signed a memorandum of understanding on boundary delimitation and demarcation and agreed to set up a joint committee; as of July 2019, the demarcation process was to begin in 90 days, but was delayed due to a lack of funding

South Sudan-Sudan: present boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, which clearly placed the Kafia Kingi area (adjacent to Central African Republic) within South Sudan as shown on US maps although it is mostly occupied by Sudan; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; the final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; clashes continue in the oil-rich Abyei region; the United Nations interim security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has been deployed since 2011, when South Sudan became independent, Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups

South Sudan-Uganda: none identified

Southern Ocean

Antarctica-various: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctica entry), but Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK assert claims (some overlapping), including the continental shelf in the Southern Ocean; several states have expressed an interest in extending those continental shelf claims under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea to include undersea ridges; the US and most other states do not recognize the land or maritime claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims exist in the waters in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

Spain

Spain-Andorra: none identified

Spain-France: none identified

Spain-Gibraltar (UK): in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain does not recognize British sovereignty beyond the original fortified perimeter of the city and disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the UK chose to leave the EU in a June 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar; UK officials rejected Spain’s joint sovereignty proposal

Spain-Morocco: Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island), which remains unoccupied but was the site of a  military standoff in 2002; Morocco serves as the primary embarkation area for illegal migration into mainland Spain from North Africa

Spain-Portugal: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Spratly Islands

Taiwan-Brunei-China-Malaysia-Philippines-Vietnam: all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China (including Taiwan) and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines; despite no public territorial claim to Louisa Reef, Brunei implicitly lays claim by including it within the natural prolongation of its continental shelf and basis for a seabed median with Vietnam; the islands are strategically located in the South China Sea and are surrounded by rich fishing groups and potential oil and natural gas deposits; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China’s island-building and military presence in the archipelago remain controversial

Sri Lanka

none identified

Sudan

Sudan-Central African Republic: periodic violent skirmishes persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic over water and grazing rights; Sudan closed its border with the Central African Republic in January 2022 due to security concerns

Sudan-Chad: Chad wants to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; however, since the August 2020 Juba Peace Agreement between the Sudanese Government and the Sudanese Revolutionary Front and the termination of the UN’s peacekeeping mission, UNAMID, at the end of 2020, violence continues to break out over land and water access

Sudan-Egypt: Sudan claims, but Egypt de facto administers, security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary

Sudan-Eritrea: none identified

Sudan-Ethiopia: civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia; clashes continue between Sudan and Ethiopia over al-Fashaga, a fertile piece of land inhabited by Ethiopian farmers for years until the Sudanese army expelled them in December 2020, claiming the land belonged to Sudan based on colonial-era maps from over 100 years ago; in February, 2022, the two countries were discussing resuming talks over the border conflict; Ethiopia's construction of a large dam (the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) on the Blue Nile in northern Ethiopia since 2011 has become a focal point of relations with Egypt and Sudan; Sudan is concerned the dam will reduce the flow of water into the country; Ethiopia completed filling the dam in 2023

Sudan-Libya: none identified

Sudan-South Sudan: the two have disagreed over control of the Abyei region since a 2005 peace deal ended decades of civil war between Sudan's north and south; both claim ownership of Abyei, whose status was unresolved after South Sudan became independent from Sudan in 2011; it is under the control of South Sudan; the region's majority Ngok Dinka people favor South Sudan, while the Misseriya nomads who come to Abyei to find pasture for their cattle favor Sudan; an African Union panel proposed a referendum for Abyei but there was disagreement over who could vote 

 

Suriname

Suriname-France (French Guiana): in March 2021, Suriname and France signed an agreement to establish their border along the Maroni River and its tributary the Lawa River and to cooperate in combatting illegal gold mining; however, the area further south between the Litani and Marouini Rivers is still disputed, with Suriname claiming the border is along the Marouini to the east and France arguing it is along the Litani River to the west

Suriname-Guyana: the two countries dispute the territory between two rivers, known as the New River Triangle, with Suriname contending that the New River (also called the Upper Corentyne) to the west marks their common border, while Guyana asserts that the Kutari River to the east forms the border; each side claims that their river is the source of the Corentyne River that forms a border further north between the two countries; the Permanent Court of Arbitration settled the maritime boundary between Suriname and Guyana in 2007 in an area with potentially substantial oil reserves

 

Svalbard

Norway-Russia: after 40 years of on-again, off-again negotiations, the two countries signed an agreement in September 2010, defining their maritime boundaries in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean; the border extends the countries’ land border northward beyond the islands in the Barents Sea and into the Arctic Ocean, but the exact distance northward was not specified; because the area is considered the high seas, the passage of naval and commercial vessels will be unaffected; once their legislatures ratify the agreement, both countries will have the green light for oil and natural gas exploration in their newly defined maritime areas; Russia objects to Norway’s establishment in 1977 of the Fishery Protection Zone around the Svalbard Islands, extending Norwegian sovereignty to the shelf around the archipelago; Svalbard is strategically important – as a gateway from the Berents Sea to the North Atlantic – and its waters provide rich fishing grounds

Sweden

none identified

Switzerland

none identified

Syria

Syria-Iraq: none identified

Syria-Israel: Golan Heights is Israeli-controlled with UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) patrolling a buffer zone since 1974; because of ceasefire violations and increased military activity in the Golan Heights, the UN Security Council continues to extend UNDOF’s mandate; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms in the Golan Heights

Syria-Jordan: the two countries signed an agreement in 2005 to settle the border dispute based on a 1931 demarcation accord; the two countries began demarcation in 2006

Syria-Lebanon: discussions on demarcating the two countries’ maritime borders were held in April 2021, after Syria signed a contract with a Russian company to conduct oil and gas exploration in a disputed maritime area, but the issue was not resolved

Syria-Turkey: none identified

Taiwan

Taiwan-Brunei-China-Malaysia-Philippines-Vietnam: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea that are thought to have large oil and natural gas reserves, as well as being located amidst prime fishing grounds and busy commercial shipping traffic; the Spratly Islands also are in a strategic position for establishing a military presence to monitor activity in the South China Sea; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants

Taiwan-China-Philippines: border dispute over the Scarborough Reef in the South China Sea; Scarborough Reef, like the Spratly Islands, is strategically located and is surrounded by abundant fishing grounds; it may also be ripe for oil and natural gas exploration

Taiwan-China-Vietnam: the Paracel Islands are occupied by China but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam

Taiwan-Japan-China: in 2003, China and Taiwan became more vocal in rejecting both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea where all parties engage in hydrocarbon prospecting; Senkaku-shoto is situated near key shipping lanes, rich fishing grounds, and possibly significant oil and natural gas reserves

Tajikistan

Tajikistan-Afghanistan: none identified

Tajikistan-China: in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; in 2011, Tajikistan and China ratified the 2002 border demarcation agreement whereby Tajikistan ceded approximately 1,100 square kilometers in the Pamirs to China

Tajikistan-Kyrgyzstan: disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan; in May 2021, both countries agreed to a ceasefire following recent clashes at their border

Tajikistan-Uzbekistan: talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and clear minefields; as of January 2020, Uzbekistan reported that it had cleared all mines along its side of the border

Tanzania

Tanzania-Burundi: none identified

Tanzania-Democratic Republic of the Congo: none identified

Tanzania-Kenya: none identified

Tanzania-Malawi: dispute with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake

Tanzania-Mozambique: none identified

Tanzania-Rwanda: none identified

Tanzania-Uganda: none identified

Thailand

Thailand-Burma: in 2016, Thailand expressed its interest in investing in Burma’s Hatgyi Dam project on the Salween River near the Thai-Burma border; the dam has the potential to supply electricity and water during the drought season; approximately 100,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval, and economic stagnation in Burma live in nine remote camps in Thailand near the border

Thailand-Cambodia: Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of their border; in 2011, Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; in 2013, the International Court of Justice ruled that the land with the temple was Cambodian territory but that a nearby hill belonged to Thailand

Thailand-Laos: talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River

Thailand-Malaysia: separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; disputed areas are the Bukit Jeli area at the headwaters of the Golok River and the continental shelf boundary in the Gulf of Thailand

Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste-Australia: Timor-Leste and Australia reached agreement on a treaty delimiting a permanent maritime boundary in March 2018; both countries ratified the treaty in August 2019

Timor-Leste-Indonesia: three stretches of land borders with Indonesia have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Economic Exclusion Zone boundaries have been established between the countries; maritime boundaries with Indonesia remain unresolved; between 2005 and 2015, 500 border landmarks were placed and another 200 were proposed

Togo

Togo-Benin: in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; Benin’s and Togo’s Adjrala hydroelectric dam project on the Mona River, proposed in the 1990s, commenced in 2017 with funding from a Chinese bank

Togo-Burkina Faso: none identified

Togo-Ghana: none identified

Tokelau

Tokelau-American Samoa (US): Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island (Olosega) in its 2006 draft independence constitution; Swains Island has been administered by American Samoa since 1925; the 1980 Treaty of Tokehega delineates the maritime boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau; while not specifically mentioning Swains Island, the treaty notes in its preamble that New Zealand does not claim as part of Tokelau any island administered as part of American Samoa

Tonga

Tonga-Fiji: Fiji does not recognize Tonga’s 1972 claim to the Minerva Reefs and their surrounding waters; the Minerva Reefs’ 200-mile exclusive economic zone includes valuable fishing grounds

 

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago-Barbados: Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's EEZ

Trinidad and Tobago-Barbados-Guyana-Venezuela: in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration, as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may also extend into its waters

Tunisia

none identified

Turkey (Turkiye)

Turkey-Armenia: in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered;  in early 2022, the two countries held talks twice aimed at normalizing relations, which could lead to the opening of their land border, shut since 1993; in 2000, Turkish authorities complained to UNESCO that blasting from quarries in Armenia was damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley

Turkey-Azerbaijan: none identified

Turkey-Bulgaria: none identified

Turkey-Cyprus: status of northern Cyprus question remains

Turkey-Georgia: none identified

Turkey-Greece: complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea, including rights to explore oil and gas reserves in the eastern Mediterranean and illegal migrants transiting from Turkey into Greece; the Aegean Maritime Boundary is complicated by the close proximity of Greek islands to the western shores of the Turkish Anatolian peninsula, representing the primary source of conflict between the two countries

Turkey-Iran: none identified

Turkey-Iraq: Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq

Turkey-Syria: Turkey completed building a wall along its border with Syria in 2018 to prevent illegal border crossings and smuggling

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan-Azerbaijan: in January 2021, the two countries reached a preliminary agreement on the joint exploration of an undersea hydrocarbon field containing oil and natural gas in the Caspian Sea

Turkmenistan-Iran: none identified

Turkmenistan-Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan signed a treaty on the delimitation and demarcation process in 2001; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005; Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan agreed to their border in the Caspian Sea in 2014

Turkmenistan-Kazakhstan-Uzbekistan: in 2017, the three countries signed an agreement of the junction of their borders

Turkmenistan-Uzbekistan: cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; in 2021, the two countries reached an agreement to create a joint intergovernmental commission to oversee water management

Tuvalu

none identified

Uganda

Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders

Uganda-Kenya: Kenya and Uganda began a joint demarcation of the boundary in 2021; Uganda and Kenya both claim Migingo Island, a tiny island in the middle of Lake Victoria, which offers good fishing

Uganda-Rwanda: a joint technical committee established in 2007 to demarcate sections of the border

Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC): Uganda rejects the DROC claim to Margherita Peak in the Rwenzori mountains and considers it a boundary divide; there is tension and violence on Lake Albert over prospective oil reserves at the mouth of the Semliki River; Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert is claimed by both countries

Uganda-South Sudan: Government of South Sudan protests Lord's Resistance Army operations in western Equatorial State, displacing and driving out local populations and stealing grain stores

Uganda-Sudan: none identified

Ukraine

Ukraine-Belarus: in 1997, Ukraine and Belarus signed a boundary delimitation treaty; the instruments of ratification were exchanged in 2013; a joint commission should be established to enable the actual demarcation to begin

Ukraine-Hungary: hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian refugees are crossing the border to Hungary to escape the Russian invasion in their country

Ukraine-Moldova: hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian refugees are crossing the border to Moldova to escape the Russian invasion in their country; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops

Ukraine-Poland: hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian refugees are crossing the border to Poland to escape the Russian invasion in their country

Ukraine-Romania: hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian refugees are crossing the border to Romania to escape the Russian invasion in their country, the ICJ in 2009 ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Ukraine-Russia: the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia

Ukraine-Slovakia: tens of thousands of Ukrainian refugees are crossing the border to Slovakia to escape the Russian invasion of their country

United Arab Emirates

UAE-Oman: boundary agreement was signed and ratified with Oman in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves, but contents of the agreement and detailed maps showing the alignment have not been published

UAE-Iran: Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island near the Strait of Hormuz, which Iran has occupied since 1971

UAE-Saudi Arabia: the UAE has differences with Saudi Arabia over their border and the sharing of a major oilfield there, although the issue is seldom mentioned publically

United Kingdom

UK-Argentina: UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

UK-Argentina-Chile: the UK’s territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim

UK-Denmark: the UK, Iceland, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Iceland, Norway, and the Faroe Islands signed an agreement in 2019 extending the Faroe Islands’ northern continental shelf area

UK (Gibraltar)-Spain: in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insisted on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproved of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; London and Madrid reached a temporary agreement at the end of 2020 that allowed Gibraltar to be part of the passport-free Schengen zone; talks are expected to continue in 2022

UK-Mauritius-Seychelles: Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted UK citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversed the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denied the right of return; in addition, the UK created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos Islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein

United States

US-Antarctica: the US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states

US-Bahamas: the Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; the two countries have met several times to define their maritime boundary

US-Canada: Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; because of the dispute over Machias Seal Island and adjoining North Rock, the terminus of the land boundary beyond Canada's Grand Manon Island and the US state of Maine is not defined

US-Canada-Mexico: the US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders

US-Cuba: the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

US-Haiti: Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; the dispute dates to 1857, when the US claimed the Navassa Island under the 1856 Guano Act; Haiti claims it has had ownership over Navassa Island continuously since its 1801 constitution laid claim to “adjacent lands”

US-Marshall Islands: in May 2016, the Marshall Islands filed a declaration of authority with the UN over Wake Island, which is currently a US territory, reaffirming that it considers Wake Island part of its territory; control over Wake Island would drastically increase the Marshall Islands’ exclusive economic zone; the US State Department is assembling a group of experts from both countries to discuss the maritime boundary

US-Russia: 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification

US-Tokelau: Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution; Swains Island has been administered by American Samoa since 1925; the 1980 Treaty of Tokehega delineates the maritime boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau; while not specifically mentioning Swains Island, the treaty notes in its preamble that New Zealand does not claim as part of Tokelau any island administered as part of American Samoa

Uruguay

Uruguay-Argentina: in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime, which ended the dispute

Uruguay-Brazil: uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan-Afghanistan: none identified

Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan: field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; disputed territory is held by Uzbekistan, but the overwhelming majority of residents are ethnic Kazakhs; the two countries agreed on draft final demarcation documents and ratified the correlating treaties in March 2023

Uzbekistan-Kyrgyzstan: border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas; in 2022, Uzbek and Kyrgyz officials settled on a land swap arrangement, resulting in full demarcation of the border; the deal was finalized and approved in May 2023

Uzbekistan-Tajikistan: none identified

Uzbekistan-Turkmenistan: prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; in 2021, the two countries reached an agreement to create a joint intergovernmental commission to oversee water management

Vanuatu

Vanuatu-France: Matthew and Hunter Islands, two uninhabited islands east of New Caledonia, claimed by Vanuatu and France; in January 2019, a French naval mission landed officers on the islands to reinforce France’s sovereignty; in November 2021, French vessels fishing near the islands raised tensions

Venezuela

Venezuela-Brazil: none identified

Venezuela-Colombia: dispute with Colombia over maritime boundary and Venezuelan administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Venezuela's shared border region; the border between the two countries was closed from March 2020 to October 2021 due to COVID, but goods and people fleeing poverty and violence continued to be smuggled from Venezuela into Colombia, and illegal narcotics and armed men flowed into Venezuela from Colombia; since the FARC disarmed in 2016, some former members have formed armed dissident groups that operate along the border

Venezuela-Guyana: claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River in Guyana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; in 2018, Guyana initiated proceedings against Venezuela with the International Court of Justice (ICJ); Venezuela requested a direct dialogue to settle the dispute; the ICJ ruled that it had jurisdiction to hear the case in December 2020; in December 2023, the Venezuelan Government held a referendum on the disputed Essequibo region and announced measures to exert administrative control over the area 

Venezuela-various:  Venezuela claims Aves Island and thereby an economic exclusion Zone/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Venezuela’s claim to Aves Island is disputed by Dominica and several other countries because the island has rich guano deposits useful in producing fertilizer and gunpowder, as well as large fish stocks and natural gas reserves; contraband smuggling (narcotics and arms), illegal migration, trafficking in animals, plants, lumber, illegal exploitation of mineral resources

Vietnam

Vietnam-Cambodia: Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; issues include casinos built in Cambodia near the border, narcotics trafficking, trafficking of women and children, petrol smuggling, illegal timber trade, and illegal migration; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; in December 2021, leaders from the two countries agreed to fully complete the remaining border demarcation and the upgrading of border checkpoints

Vietnam-Cambodia-Laos: Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities

Vietnam-China: an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; small territorial exchanges were made during the demarcation; cross border trafficking in women and children and illegal wildlife trade are problems along this border; China occupies features in the Spratly and Paracel Islands claimed by Vietnam

Virgin Islands

none identified

Wake Island

US-Marshall Islands: in May 2016, the Marshall Islands filed a declaration of authority with the UN over Wake Island, which is currently a US territory, reaffirming that it considers Wake Island part of its territory (the Marshall Islands refer to Wake as Enen Kio or Eneen Kio, meaning Island of the Kio Flower); control over Wake Island would drastically increase the Marshall Islands’ exclusive economic zone 

Wallis and Futuna

none identified

West Bank

West Bank-Israel: West Bank is Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; in 2002, Israel began construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; as of mid-2020, plans were to continue barrier construction

World

stretching over some 280,000 km, the world's 325 international land boundaries separate 197 independent states and 68 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting in sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; most maritime states have claimed limits that include territorial seas and exclusive economic zones; overlapping limits due to adjacent or opposite coasts create the potential for 430 bilateral maritime boundaries of which 209 have agreements that include contiguous and non-contiguous segments; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary in intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries tend to encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic and cultural clashes continue to be responsible for much of the territorial fragmentation and internal displacement of the estimated 62.5 million people and cross-border displacements of approximately 42.5 million refugees and asylum seekers around the world as of mid-year 2023; approximately 404,000 refugees were repatriated during the first half of 2023; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially hydrocarbon) resources, fisheries, and arable land; armed conflict prevails not so much between the uniformed armed forces of independent states as between stateless armed entities that detract from the sustenance and welfare of local populations, leaving the community of nations to cope with resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, and environmental degradation

Yemen

Yemen-Oman: none identified

Yemen-Saudia Arabia: in 2004, Saudi Arabia reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities, including militants and arms; in 2013 and 2015, Saudi Arabia again erected fences


 

Zambia

Zambia-Angola: because the straight-line segments along the left bank (Zambian side) of the Cuando/Kwando River do not conform with the physical alignment of the unstable shoreline, Zambian residents in some areas have settled illegally on sections of shoreline that fall on the Angolan side of the boundary

Zambia-Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC):
boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto

Zambia-Tanzania: some drug smuggling may take place across the Zambia-Tanzania border; there are no known current territorial issues, as both states have continued to recognize the colonial boundaries last modified in 1937; the boundary in Lake Tanganyika remains undefined.

Zambia-Zimbabwe: in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; in May 2021, Botswana and Zambia agreed in principle to let Zimbabwe be a partner in the bridge project as it enters its lasts phase

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe-Mozambique: none identified

Zimbabwe-South Africa:
South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

Zimbabwe-Zambia:
in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; in May 2021, Botswana and Zambia agreed in principle to let Zimbabwe be a partner in the bridge project as it enters its lasts phase