A Town Hall on the central square of Tallinn was first built at the beginning of the 13th century; the current structure is a reconstructed version dating to 1404. The building functioned as the city's administrative center for some 500 years; today it serves as a reception hall for visiting dignitaries and as a tourist destination site.
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After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates

59 00 N, 26 00 E


total: 45,228 sq km

land: 42,388 sq km

water: 2,840 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

country comparison to the world: 132

Area - comparative

about twice the size of New Jersey

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 657 km

border countries (2): Latvia 333 km; Russia 324 km


3,794 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: limits as agreed to by Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Sweden, and Russia


maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers


marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south


highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 61 m

Natural resources

oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud

Land use

agricultural land: 22.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 14.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 7.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 52.1% (2018 est.)

other: 25.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

20 sq km (2016)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Natural hazards

sometimes flooding occurs in the spring

Geography - note

the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

People and Society


noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups

Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6% (2011 est.)


Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)


Orthodox 16.2%, Lutheran 9.9%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.22% (male 102,191/female 97,116)

15-24 years: 8.86% (male 56,484/female 52,378)

25-54 years: 40.34% (male 252,273/female 243,382)

55-64 years: 13.58% (male 76,251/female 90,576)

65 years and over: 21% (male 89,211/female 168,762) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.3

youth dependency ratio: 26.1

elderly dependency ratio: 32.3

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 43.7 years

male: 40.4 years

female: 47 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Birth rate

8.75 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 208

Death rate

13.1 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 8

Net migration rate

-2.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations


urban population: 69.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.03% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

454,000 TALLINN (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.42 male(s)/female

total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.2 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

9 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.42 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.29 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.88 years

male: 73.25 years

female: 82.73 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 99.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.7% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

3.47 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.6 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.65 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.92 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.6 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 1.13 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Tobacco use

total: 29.7% (2020 est.)

male: 36.3% (2020 est.)

female: 23% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 32


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 16.7%

male: 18.4%

female: 15% (2021 est.)


Environment - current issues

air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amounts of pollutants emitted into the air have fallen dramatically and the pollution load of wastewater at purification plants has decreased substantially due to improved technology and environmental monitoring; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 6.74 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 16.59 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.99 megatons (2020 est.)


maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Land use

agricultural land: 22.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 14.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 7.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 52.1% (2018 est.)

other: 25.7% (2018 est.)


urban population: 69.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.03% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 473,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 117,020 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 24.7% (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 59.4 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 1.721 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 4.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

12.806 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (while occupied by the USSR)

etymology: the country name may derive from the Aesti, an ancient people who lived along the eastern Baltic Sea in the first centuries A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Tallinn

geographic coordinates: 59 26 N, 24 43 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the Estonian name is generally believed to be derived from "Taani-linn" (originally meaning "Danish castle", now "Danish town") after a stronghold built in the area by the Danes; it could also have come from "tali-linn" ("winter castle" or "winter town") or "talu-linn" ("home castle" or "home town")

Administrative divisions

15 urban municipalities (linnad, singular - linn), 64 rural municipalities (vallad, singular vald)

urban municipalities: Haapsalu, Keila, Kohtla-Jarve, Loksa, Maardu, Narva, Narva-Joesuu, Paide, Parnu, Rakvere, Sillamae, Tallinn, Tartu, Viljandi, Voru

rural municipalities: Alutaguse, Anija, Antsla, Elva, Haademeeste, Haljala, Harku, Hiiumaa, Jarva, Joelahtme, Jogeva, Johvi, Kadrina, Kambja, Kanepi, Kastre, Kehtna, Kihnu, Kiili, Kohila, Kose, Kuusalu, Laane-Harju, Laane-Nigula, Laaneranna, Luganuse, Luunja, Marjamaa, Muhu, Mulgi, Mustvee, Noo, Otepaa, Peipsiaare, Pohja-Parnumaa, Pohja-Sakala, Poltsamaa, Polva, Raasiku, Rae, Rakvere, Räpina, Rapla, Rouge, Ruhnu, Saarde, Saaremaa, Saku, Saue, Setomaa, Tapa, Tartu, Toila, Tori, Torva, Turi, Vaike-Maarja, Valga, Viimsi, Viljandi, Vinni, Viru-Nigula, Vormsi, Voru


24 February 1918 (from Soviet Russia); 20 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 20 August 1991 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union restoring its statehood


history: several previous; latest adopted 28 June 1992, entered into force 3 July 1992

amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of Parliament members or by the president of the republic; passage requires three readings of the proposed amendment and a simple majority vote in two successive memberships of Parliament; passage of amendments to the "General Provisions" and "Amendment of the Constitution" chapters requires at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament to conduct a referendum and majority vote in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2015

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Estonia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal; age 16 for local elections

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alar KARIS (since 11 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Kaja KALLAS (since 26 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament


president indirectly elected by Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of balloting, then an electoral college consisting of Parliament members and local council members elects the president, choosing between the 2 candidates with the highest number of votes; election last held on 30-31 August 2021 (next to be held in 2026); in a first round of voting on 30 August, parliament failed to elect a president; in a second round on 31 August, the sole candidate, Alar KARIS, received 72 votes of 101 votes (there were 8 blank votes and 21 electors not present); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results:

2021: Alar KARIS elected president; parliamentary vote Alar KARIS (independent) 72 of 101 votes;  KALLAS is Estonia's first female prime minister

2016: Kersti KALJULAID is indirectly elected president with 81 of 98 votes in parliament (17 ballots blank). She is sworn in on October 10 as the first female head of state of Estonia.

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open- list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 3 March 2019 (next to be held in March 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - RE 28.9%, K 23.1%, EKRE 17.8%, Pro Patria 11.4%, SDE 9.8%, other 9%; seats by party - RE 34, K 26, EKRE 19, Pro Patria 12, SDE 10; composition - men 75, women 26, percent of women 25.7%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 19 justices, including the chief justice, and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional review chambers)

judge selection and term of office: the chief justice is proposed by the president of the republic and appointed by the Riigikogu; other justices proposed by the chief justice and appointed by the Riigikogu; justices appointed for life

subordinate courts: circuit (appellate) courts; administrative, county, city, and specialized courts

Political parties and leaders

Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) or K [Juri RATAS]
Estonia 200 [Kristina KALLAS]
Estonian Conservative People's Party (Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond) or EKRE [Martin HELME]
Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) or RE [Kaja KALLAS]
Pro Patria (Isamaa) [Helir-Valdor SEEDER]
Social Democratic Party or SDE [Lauri LAANEMETS]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kristjan PRIKK (since 7 July 2021)

chancery: 1990 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brian RORAFF (since July 2019)

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: 4530 Tallinn Place, Washington DC  20521-4530

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8265

email address and website:


Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white; various interpretations are linked to the flag colors; blue represents faith, loyalty, and devotion, while also reminiscent of the sky, sea, and lakes of the country; black symbolizes the soil of the country and the dark past and suffering endured by the Estonian people; white refers to the striving towards enlightenment and virtue, and is the color of birch bark and snow, as well as summer nights illuminated by the midnight sun

National symbol(s)

barn swallow, cornflower; national colors: blue, black, white

National anthem

name: "Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room" (My Native Land, My Pride and Joy)

lyrics/music: Johann Voldemar JANNSEN/Fredrik PACIUS

note: adopted 1920, though banned between 1940 and 1990 under Soviet occupation; the anthem, used in Estonia since 1869, shares the same melody as Finland's but has different lyrics

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Center (Old Town) of Tallinn; Struve Geodetic Arc


Economic overview

Estonia, a member of the EU since 2004 and the euro zone since 2011, has a modern market-based economy and one of the higher per capita income levels in Central Europe and the Baltic region, but its economy is highly dependent on trade, leaving it vulnerable to external shocks. Estonia's successive governments have pursued a free market, pro-business economic agenda, and sound fiscal policies that have resulted in balanced budgets and the lowest debt-to-GDP ratio in the EU.


The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties with Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Russia. The economy’s 4.9% GDP growth in 2017 was the fastest in the past six years, leaving the Estonian economy in its best position since the financial crisis 10 years ago. For the first time in many years, labor productivity increased faster than labor costs in 2017. Inflation also rose in 2017 to 3.5% alongside increased global prices for food and energy, which make up a large share of Estonia’s consumption.


Estonia is challenged by a shortage of labor, both skilled and unskilled, although the government has amended its immigration law to allow easier hiring of highly qualified foreign workers, and wage growth that outpaces productivity gains. The government is also pursuing efforts to boost productivity growth with a focus on innovations that emphasize technology start-ups and e-commerce.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$47.44 billion (2020 est.)

$48.87 billion (2019 est.)

$46.54 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 112

Real GDP growth rate

5% (2019 est.)

4.36% (2018 est.)

5.51% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Real GDP per capita

$35,600 (2020 est.)

$36,800 (2019 est.)

$35,200 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 54

GDP (official exchange rate)

$31.461 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.2% (2019 est.)

3.4% (2018 est.)

3.4% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA- (2018)

Moody's rating: A1 (2002)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2011)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 29.2% (2017 est.)

services: 68.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 50.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 77.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -74% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, barley, rapeseed, rye, oats, peas, potatoes, pork, triticale


food, engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.7%

industry: 20.5%

services: 76.8% (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 25.6% (2015)


revenues: 10.37 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 10.44 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

9% of GDP (2017 est.)

9.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

country comparison to the world: 199

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$616 million (2019 est.)

$280 million (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53


$21.69 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$22.94 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$22.69 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 78

Exports - partners

Finland 13%, Sweden 9%, Latvia 8%, Russia 8%, United States 7%, Lithuania 6%, Germany 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, coal tar oil, cars, prefabricated buildings (2019)


$21.73 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$21.68 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$21.89 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 79

Imports - partners

Russia 12%, Germany 10%, Finland 9%, Lithuania 7%, Latvia 7%, Sweden 6%, Poland 6%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, coal tar oil, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$345 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$352.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Debt - external

$23.944 billion (2019 est.)

$23.607 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 3.03 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 9.172 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 3.722 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 7.367 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 375 million kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 55.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 14.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 27.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 21,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 27,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 417.106 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 417.276 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

4.924 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 44,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 3.979 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 901,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 304,728 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,925,789 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the competitive telecom market continues to progress with a range of regulatory measures which have enabled alternative operators to chip away at the fixed-line market share; fixed-line infrastructure upgrades have been focused on fiber, and the legacy DSL network has gradually been replaced; limited commercial 5G deployments have been made though an expansion of service availability awaits the delayed auction of spectrum in the 3.5GHz band, which is expected to be held later in 2021 (2021)

domestic: just under 23 per 100 for fixed-line subscribership and approximately 145 per 100 for mobile-cellular; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the Internet, a large percentage of the population files income tax returns online, and online voting - in local and parliamentary elections - has climbed steadily since first being introduced in 2005; a large percent of Estonian households have broadband access (2020)

international: country code - 372; landing points for the EE-S-1, EESF-3, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC and EESF-2 fiber-optic submarine cables to other Estonia points, Finland, and Sweden; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

the publicly owned broadcaster, Eesti Rahvusringhaaling (ERR), operates 3 TV channels and 5 radio networks; growing number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting nationally, regionally, and locally; fully transitioned to digital television in 2010; national private TV channels expanding service; a range of channels are aimed at Russian-speaking viewers; in 2016, there were 42 on-demand services available in Estonia, including 19 pay TVOD and SVOD services; roughly 85% of households accessed digital television services

Internet users

total: 1,276,521 (July 2022 est.)

percent of population: 96.1% (July 2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 415,610 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 14

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 31,981 (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 13

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2021)


1 (2021)


2,360 km gas (2016)


total: 2,146 km (2016)

broad gauge: 2,146 km (2016) 1.520-m and 1.524-m gauge (132 km electrified)

note: includes 1,510 km public and 636 km non-public railway

country comparison to the world: 71


total: 58,412 km (2011) (includes urban roads)

paved: 10,427 km (2011) (includes 115 km of expressways)

unpaved: 47,985 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 78


335 km (2011) (320 km are navigable year-round)

country comparison to the world: 99

Merchant marine

total: 68

by type: general cargo 2, oil tanker 4, other 62 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 106

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kuivastu, Kunda, Muuga, Parnu Reid, Sillamae, Tallinn

Transportation - note

Estonia operates two PC 5 or 6 class icebreakers in the Baltic Sea
note - PC indicates a Polar Class vessel: PC 5 - year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 70-120 cm); PC 6 - summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 30-70 cm)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Estonian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Estonian Defense League (Reserves) (2022)

Military expenditures

2.35% of GDP (2022 est.)

2.2% of GDP (2021)

2.4% of GDP (2020)

2% of GDP (2019) (approximately $850 million)

2% of GDP (2018) (approximately $800 million)

country comparison to the world: 47

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 7,000 active duty personnel; approximately 15,000 Defense League (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Estonian military has a limited inventory of Soviet-era and some more recently acquired modern weapons systems, largely from western European countries, particularly France and the Netherlands (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 for compulsory military or governmental service for men; conscript service requirement 8-11 months depending on education; non-commissioned officers, reserve officers, and specialists serve 11 months; women can volunteer, and as of 2018 could serve in any military branch (2022)

note 1: conscripts comprise approximately 3,000-3,300 of the Estonian military's 7,000 active duty personnel and serve in all branches, except for the Air Force, which does not have conscripts; after conscript service, reservists are called up for training every 5 years; Estonia has had conscription since 1991

note 2: the Estonian Defense Forces rely largely on reservists who have completed compulsory conscription in the previous 10 years to fill out its active duty and Territorial Defense units during a crisis; a total of approximately 230,000 Estonians are enrolled in the mobilization registry

note 3: in 2020, women comprised about 10% of the full-time professional military force

Military - note

Estonia became a member of NATO in 2004

since 2017, Estonia has hosted a UK-led multi-national NATO ground force battlegroup as part of the Alliance’s Enhanced Forward Presence initiative; NATO has provided air protection for Estonia since 2004 through its Air Policing mission; NATO member countries that possess air combat capabilities voluntarily contribute to the mission on 4-month rotations; NATO fighter aircraft have been hosted at Estonia’s Ämari Air Base since 2014 (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Russia and Estonia in May 2005 signed a technical border agreement, but Russia in June 2005 recalled its signature after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia implements strict Schengen border rules with Russia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 64,593 (Ukraine) (as of 20 December 2022)

stateless persons: 71,873 (mid-year 2021); note - following independence in 1991, automatic citizenship was restricted to those who were Estonian citizens prior to the 1940 Soviet occupation and their descendants; thousands of ethnic Russians remained stateless when forced to choose between passing Estonian language and citizenship tests or applying for Russian citizenship; one reason for demurring on Estonian citizenship was to retain the right of visa-free travel to Russia; stateless residents can vote in local elections but not general elections; stateless parents who have been lawful residents of Estonia for at least five years can apply for citizenship for their children before they turn 15 years old

Illicit drugs

producer of synthetic drugs; important transshipment zone for cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs since joining the European Union and the Schengen Accord; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds; major use of opiates and ecstasy