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South Asia :: INDIA
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INDIA
  • Introduction :: INDIA

  • The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.
    By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.
  • Geography :: INDIA

  • Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
    20 00 N, 77 00 E
    Asia
    total: 3,287,263 sq km
    land: 2,973,193 sq km
    water: 314,070 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 8
    slightly more than one-third the size of the US
    Area comparison map:
    total: 13,888 km
    border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
    7,000 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
    upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
    mean elevation: 160 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,586 m
    coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
    agricultural land: 60.5%
    arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%
    forest: 23.1%
    other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
    667,000 sq km (2012)
    with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations
    droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
    volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
    deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
  • People and Society :: INDIA

  • 1,281,935,911 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    noun: Indian(s)
    adjective: Indian
    Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
    Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
    note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
    Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
    0-14 years: 27.34% (male 186,087,665/female 164,398,204)
    15-24 years: 17.9% (male 121,879,786/female 107,583,437)
    25-54 years: 41.08% (male 271,744,709/female 254,834,569)
    55-64 years: 7.45% (male 47,846,122/female 47,632,532)
    65 years and over: 6.24% (male 37,837,801/female 42,091,086) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 52.2
    youth dependency ratio: 43.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
    potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
    total: 27.6 years
    male: 26.9 years
    female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    19 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations
    urban population: 33.5% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 2.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    NEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    total: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    total population: 68.5 years
    male: 67.3 years
    female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    2.43 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    54.8% (2007/08)
    4.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    0.73 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 97.1% of population
    rural: 92.6% of population
    total: 94.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.9% of population
    rural: 7.4% of population
    total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 62.6% of population
    rural: 28.5% of population
    total: 39.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 37.4% of population
    rural: 71.5% of population
    total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
    0.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    2.1 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    62,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
    water contact disease: leptospirosis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    4.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    3.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 71.2%
    male: 81.3%
    female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 12 years (2014)
    total: 10.7%
    male: 10.4%
    female: 11.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
  • Government :: INDIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of India
    conventional short form: India
    local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
    local short form: India/Bharat
    etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
    federal parliamentary republic
    name: New Delhi
    geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
    time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
    note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi
    15 August 1947 (from the UK)
    Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
    history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
    amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one-half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2016 (2017)
    common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
    cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party
    election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; Mohammad Hamid ANSARI reelected vice president (2012 election); electoral college vote - Mohammad Hamid ANSARI 490, Jaswant SINGH 238
    description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote, and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) and the House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: House of the People - last held April-May 2014 in 10 phases; (next to be held by May 2019)
    election results: House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.0%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3.0%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
    note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases
    Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [V.K.SASIKALA]
    All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
    Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
    Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
    Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
    Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]
    Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]
    Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
    Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
    Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
    Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]
    Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
    Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
    Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
    Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
    YSR Congress or YSRC [Jagan Mohan REDDY]
    note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties
    All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
    Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization)
    Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)
    Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
    Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization)
    other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
    ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Navtej Singh SARNA (since 18 January 2017)
    chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone: [1](202) 939-7000
    telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MaryKay L. Carlson (since 20 January 2017)
    embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
    FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
    consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
    three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
    note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band
    the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
    name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
    lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
    note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
  • Economy :: INDIA

  • India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the workforce is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers.
    India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2016. India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee.
    Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016, exceeding 7% each year. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors, but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt in 2015 and 2016, resulting in low credit growth and restrained economic growth.
    The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.
    $8.662 trillion (2016 est.)
    $8.109 trillion (2015 est.)
    $7.513 trillion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 4
    $2.256 trillion (2016 est.)
    6.8% (2016 est.)
    7.9% (2015 est.)
    7.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    $6,600 (2016 est.)
    $6,300 (2015 est.)
    $5,900 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 160
    28.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    31.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    31.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    household consumption: 58.7%
    government consumption: 11.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 27.1%
    investment in inventories: 3.9%
    exports of goods and services: 19.2%
    imports of goods and services: -20.7% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 17.4%
    industry: 28.8%
    services: 46.2% (2016 est.)
    rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
    textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
    5.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    510.1 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    agriculture: 47%
    industry: 22%
    services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
    8% (2016 est.)
    8.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    21.9% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.6%
    highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
    35.2 (2011)
    37.8 (1997)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    revenues: $214.3 billion
    expenditures: $293.9 billion (FY 2016 est.)
    9.5% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    -3.5% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    50.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    51.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 97
    1 April - 31 March
    4.9% (2016 est.)
    4.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    6.25% (31 December 2016)
    7.75% (31 December 2014)
    note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate
    country comparison to the world: 69
    9.67% (31 December 2016 est.)
    10.01% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    $294.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $370.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    $1.773 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.704 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    $1.622 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.57 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    $1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    -$12.11 billion (2016 est.)
    -$22.46 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    $268.6 billion (2016 est.)
    $272.4 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
    US 16%, UAE 11.7%, Hong Kong 5.1% (2016)
    $376.1 billion (2016 est.)
    $409.2 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
    China 17%, US 5.8%, UAE 5.4%, Saudi Arabia 5.2%, Switzerland 4.2% (2016)
    $359.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $351.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    $456.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $479.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $318.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $282.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $144.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $139 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
    68.3 (2016 est.)
    64.15 (2015 est.)
    64.15 (2014 est.)
    61.03 (2013 est.)
    53.44 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: INDIA

  • population without electricity: 237,400,000
    electrification - total population: 79%
    electrification - urban areas: 98%
    electrification - rural areas: 70% (2013)
    1.218 trillion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    973 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    200 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    308.8 million kW (30 November 2016 )
    country comparison to the world: 5
    69.3% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
    country comparison to the world: 108
    1.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
    country comparison to the world: 31
    14% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
    country comparison to the world: 107
    14.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
    country comparison to the world: 23
    761,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    3.785 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    5.675 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    4.775 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    3.735 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    1.351 million bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    653,500 bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    30.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    52.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    21.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    1.489 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    1.887 billion Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
  • Communications :: INDIA

  • total subscriptions: 24.404 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    total: 1,127.809 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    general assessment: supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 1 billion in 2015, an overall teledensity of roughly 80%, and subscribership is currently growing at roughly 5 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100%, and rural teledensity has reached 50%
    domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
    international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2015)
    Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2015)
    .in
    total: 374,328,160
    percent of population: 29.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
  • Transportation :: INDIA

  • number of registered air carriers: 20
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 98,927,860
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,833,847,614 mt-km (2015)
    VT (2016)
    346 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    total: 253
    over 3,047 m: 22
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 59
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
    914 to 1,523 m: 82
    under 914 m: 14 (2017)
    total: 93
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 38
    under 914 m: 45 (2013)
    45 (2013)
    condensate/gas 9 km; gas 13,581 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,054 km; oil 8,943 km; oil/gas/water 20 km; refined products 11,069 km (2013)
    total: 68,525 km
    broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified)
    narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge; 622 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    total: 4,699,024 km
    note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    total: 340
    by type: bulk carrier 104, cargo 78, chemical tanker 22, container 14, liquefied gas 11, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 92
    foreign-owned: 10 (China 1, Hong Kong 2, Jersey 2, Malaysia 1, UAE 4)
    registered in other countries: 76 (Cyprus 4, Dominica 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 24, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Singapore 21, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
    container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,571,000), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,492,000) (2015)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
  • Military and Security :: INDIA

  • 2.47% of GDP (2016)
    2.41% of GDP (2015)
    2.5% of GDP (2014)
    2.47% of GDP (2013)
    2.54% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)
    16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and will soon be allowed in all combat roles (2016)
  • Transnational Issues :: INDIA

  • since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue
    Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas)
    India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries
    UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
    refugees (country of origin): 110,098 (Tibet/China); 63,162 (Sri Lanka); 15,561 (Burma); 7,693 (Afghanistan) (2015)
    IDPs: 796,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2016)
    world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production