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East & Southeast Asia :: JAPAN
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  • Introduction :: JAPAN

  • In 1603, after decades of civil warfare, the Tokugawa shogunate (a military-led, dynastic government) ushered in a long period of relative political stability and isolation from foreign influence. For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japan to enjoy a flowering of its indigenous culture. Japan opened its ports after signing the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854 and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia. It occupied Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1931-32 Japan occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and an ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, elected politicians hold actual decision-making power. Following three decades of unprecedented growth, Japan's economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s, but the country remains an economic power. In March 2011, Japan's strongest-ever earthquake, and an accompanying tsunami, devastated the northeast part of Honshu island, killed thousands, and damaged several nuclear power plants. The catastrophe hobbled the country's economy and its energy infrastructure, and tested its ability to deal with humanitarian disasters. Prime Minister Shinzo ABE was reelected to office in December 2012, and has since embarked on ambitious economic and security reforms to improve Japan's economy and bolster the country's international standing.
  • Geography :: JAPAN

  • Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula
    36 00 N, 138 00 E
    Asia
    total: 377,915 sq km
    land: 364,485 sq km
    water: 13,430 sq km
    note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    slightly smaller than California
    Area comparison map:
    0 km
    29,751 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm; between 3 nm and 12 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
    mostly rugged and mountainous
    mean elevation: 438 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m
    highest point: Mount Fuji 3,776 m
    negligible mineral resources, fish
    note: with virtually no natural energy resources, Japan is the world's largest importer of coal and liquefied natural gas, as well as the second largest importer of oil
    agricultural land: 12.5%
    arable land 11.7%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 68.5%
    other: 19% (2011 est.)
    24,690 sq km (2012)
    all primary and secondary regions of high population density lie on the coast; one-third of the population resides in and around Tokyo on the central plain (Kanto Plain)
    many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors but occasional severe earthquakes) every year; tsunamis; typhoons
    volcanism: both Unzen (1,500 m) and Sakura-jima (1,117 m), which lies near the densely populated city of Kagoshima, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Asama, Honshu Island's most active volcano, Aso, Bandai, Fuji, Iwo-Jima, Kikai, Kirishima, Komaga-take, Oshima, Suwanosejima, Tokachi, Yake-dake, and Usu
    0air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere; following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Japan originally planned to phase out nuclear power, but it has now implemented a new policy of seeking to restart nuclear power plants that meet strict new safety standards; waste management is an ongoing isue; Japanese municipal facilities used to burn high volumes of trash, but air pollution issues forced the government to adopt an aggressive recycling policy
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location in northeast Asia; composed of four main islands - from north: Hokkaido, Honshu (the largest and most populous), Shikoku, and Kyushu (the "Home Islands") - and 6,848 smaller islands and islets
  • People and Society :: JAPAN

  • 126,451,398 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    noun: Japanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Japanese
    Japanese 98.5%, Korean 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6%
    note: up to 230,000 Brazilians of Japanese origin migrated to Japan in the 1990s to work in industries; some have returned to Brazil (2004 est.)
    Japanese
    Shintoism 79.2%, Buddhism 66.8%, Christianity 1.5%, other 7.1%
    note: total adherents exceeds 100% because many people practice both Shintoism and Buddhism (2012 est.)
    0-14 years: 12.84% (male 8,361,611/female 7,875,045)
    15-24 years: 9.64% (male 6,417,085/female 5,778,904)
    25-54 years: 37.5% (male 23,435,323/female 23,980,781)
    55-64 years: 12.15% (male 7,692,424/female 7,665,157)
    65 years and over: 27.87% (male 15,397,309/female 19,847,759) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 64
    youth dependency ratio: 21.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 42.7
    potential support ratio: 2.3 (2015 est.)
    total: 47.3 years
    male: 46 years
    female: 48.7 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    -0.21% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    7.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    all primary and secondary regions of high population density lie on the coast; one-third of the population resides in and around Tokyo on the central plain (Kanto Plain)
    urban population: 91.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: -0.14% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    TOKYO (capital) 37.468 million; Osaka 19.281 million; Nagoya 9.507 million; Kitakyushu-Fukuoka 5.551 million; Shizuoka-Hamamatsu 2.899 million; Sapporo 2.665 million; Niigata 809,000; Sendai 2.306 million (2018)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    30.7 years (2015 est.)
    5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    total: 2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    total population: 85.3 years
    male: 81.9 years
    female: 88.8 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    1.41 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    40.4%
    note: percent of women aged 20-49 (2015)
    10.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    2.37 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    13.4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    4.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    3.4% (2010)
    3.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2014)
    total: 5.1%
    male: 5.7%
    female: 4.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
  • Government :: JAPAN

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Japan
    local long form: Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku
    local short form: Nihon/Nippon
    etymology: the English word for Japan comes via the Chinese name for the country "Cipangu"; both Nihon and Nippon mean "where the sun originates" and are frequently translated as "Land of the Rising Sun"
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    name: Tokyo
    geographic coordinates: 35 41 N, 139 45 E
    time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gunma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
    3 May 1947 (current constitution adopted as amendment to Meiji Constitution); notable earlier dates: 660 B.C. (traditional date of the founding of the nation by Emperor JIMMU); 29 November 1890 (Meiji Constitution provides for constitutional monarchy)
    Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 December (1933); note - celebrates the birthday of the current emperor
    history: previous 1890; latest approved 6 October 1946, adopted 3 November 1946, effective 3 May 1947
    amendments: proposed by the Diet; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds majority of both houses of the Diet and approval by majority in a referendum; note - the constitution has not been amended since its enactment in 1947 (2017)
    civil law system based on German model; system also reflects Anglo-American influence and Japanese traditions; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Japan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989); note - The Imperial Council ruled on 2 December 2017 that the Emperor will be allowed to abdicate in April 2019
    head of government: Prime Minister Shinzo ABE (since 26 December 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Taro ASO (since 26 December 2012)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister
    description: bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of Councillors or Sangi-in (242 seats; 146 members directly elected in multi-seat districts by simple majority vote and 96 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years) and the House of Representatives or Shugi-in (475 seats; 295 members directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote and 180 directly elected in multi-seat districts by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - Japan's amended electoral law, changed in May 2017, reduced the total number of House seats to 465 - the number of House of Representatives seats in single-seat districts is reduced to 289 and the number of House of Representatives seats in multi-seat districts reduced to 176; the change is effective for the December 2018 House of Representatives election
    note: the Diet in June 2017 redrew Japan's electoral district boundaries and reduced the current 275 seats in the House of Representatives to 265; the law, which cuts 6 seats in single-seat districts and 4 in multi-seat districts, was reportedly intended to reduce voting disparities between densely and sparsely populated voting districts
    elections: House of Councillors - last held on 10 July 2016 (next to be held in July 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 22 October 2017 (next to be held by 21 October 2021)
    election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDP 55, DP 32, Komeito 14, JCP 6, Osaka Ishin no Kai (Initiatives from Osaka) 7, PLPTYF 1, SDP 1, independent 5
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDP 284, CDP 55, Party of Hope 50, Komeito 29, JCP 12, JIP 11, SDP 2, independent 22
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Saiko saibansho (consists of the chief justice and 14 associate justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in constitutional issues
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice designated by the Cabinet and appointed by the monarch; associate justices appointed by the Cabinet and confirmed by the monarch; all justices are reviewed in a popular referendum at the first general election of the House of Representatives following each judge's appointment and every 10 years afterward
    subordinate courts: 8 High Courts (Koto-saiban-sho), each with a Family Court (Katei-saiban-sho); 50 District Courts (Chiho saibansho), with 203 additional branches; 438 Summary Courts (Kani saibansho)
    Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan or CDP [Yukio EDANO]
    Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Kohei OTSUKA]
    Group of Reformists [Sakihito OZAWA]
    Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]
    Japan Innovation Party or JIP [Ichiro MATSUI]
    Party of Hope or Kibo no To [Yuichiro TAMAKI]
    Komeito [Natsuo YAMAGUCHI]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Shinzo ABE]
    Liberal Party [Ichiro OZAWA] (formerly People's Life Party & Taro Yamamoto and Friends or PLPTYF)
    New Renaissance Party [Hiroyuki ARAI]
    Party for Japanese Kokoro or PJK [Masashi NAKANO]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Tadatomo YOSHIDA]
    The Assembly to Energize Japan and the Independents [Kota MATSUDA]
    ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, CPLP (associate), EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Shinsuke SUGIYAMA (since 28 March 2018)
    chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187
    consulate(s) general: Anchorage (AK), Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver (CO), Detroit (MI), Honolulu (HI), Houston, Las Vegas (NV), Los Angeles, Miami, Nashville (TN), New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City (OK), Orlando (FL), Philadelphia (PA), Phoenix (AZ), Portland (OR), San Francisco, Seattle, Saipan (Puerto Rico), Tamuning (Guam)
    chief of mission: Ambassador William F. "Bill" HAGERTY, IV (since 31 August 2017)
    embassy: 1-10-5 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420
    mailing address: Unit 9800, Box 300, APO AP 96303-0300
    telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000
    FAX: [81] (03) 3505-1862
    consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
    consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya
    white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center
    red sun disc, chrysanthemum; national colors: red, white
    name: "Kimigayo" (The Emperor"s Reign)
    lyrics/music: unknown/Hiromori HAYASHI
    note: adopted 1999; unofficial national anthem since 1883; oldest anthem lyrics in the world, dating to the 10th century or earlier; there is some opposition to the anthem because of its association with militarism and worship of the emperor
  • Economy :: JAPAN

  • Over the past 70 years, government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (slightly less than 1% of GDP) have helped Japan develop an advanced economy. Two notable characteristics of the post-World War II economy were the close interlocking structures of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors, known as keiretsu, and the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features have significantly eroded under the dual pressures of global competition and domestic demographic change.
    Measured on a purchasing power parity basis that adjusts for price differences, Japan in 2017 stood as the fourth-largest economy in the world after first-place China, which surpassed Japan in 2001, and third-place India, which edged out Japan in 2012. For three postwar decades, overall real economic growth was impressive - averaging 10% in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s, and 4% in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the aftereffects of inefficient investment and the collapse of an asset price bubble in the late 1980s, which resulted in several years of economic stagnation as firms sought to reduce excess debt, capital, and labor. Modest economic growth continued after 2000, but the economy has fallen into recession four times since 2008.
    Japan enjoyed an uptick in growth since 2013, supported by Prime Minister Shinzo ABE’s “Three Arrows” economic revitalization agenda - dubbed “Abenomics” - of monetary easing, “flexible” fiscal policy, and structural reform. Led by the Bank of Japan’s aggressive monetary easing, Japan is making modest progress in ending deflation, but demographic decline – a low birthrate and an aging, shrinking population – poses a major long-term challenge for the economy. The government currently faces the quandary of balancing its efforts to stimulate growth and institute economic reforms with the need to address its sizable public debt, which stands at 235% of GDP. To help raise government revenue, Japan adopted legislation in 2012 to gradually raise the consumption tax rate. However, the first such increase, in April 2014, led to a sharp contraction, so Prime Minister ABE has twice postponed the next increase, which is now scheduled for October 2019. Structural reforms to unlock productivity are seen as central to strengthening the economy in the long-run.
    Scarce in critical natural resources, Japan has long been dependent on imported energy and raw materials. After the complete shutdown of Japan’s nuclear reactors following the earthquake and tsunami disaster in 2011, Japan's industrial sector has become even more dependent than before on imported fossil fuels. However, ABE’s government is seeking to restart nuclear power plants that meet strict new safety standards and is emphasizing nuclear energy’s importance as a base-load electricity source. In August 2015, Japan successfully restarted one nuclear reactor at the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant in Kagoshima prefecture, and several other reactors around the country have since resumed operations; however, opposition from local governments has delayed several more restarts that remain pending. Reforms of the electricity and gas sectors, including full liberalization of Japan’s energy market in April 2016 and gas market in April 2017, constitute an important part of Prime Minister Abe’s economic program.
    Under the Abe Administration, Japan’s government sought to open the country’s economy to greater foreign competition and create new export opportunities for Japanese businesses, including by joining 11 trading partners in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Japan became the first country to ratify the TPP in December 2016, but the United States signaled its withdrawal from the agreement in January 2017. In November 2017 the remaining 11 countries agreed on the core elements of a modified agreement, which they renamed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). Japan also reached agreement with the European Union on an Economic Partnership Agreement in July 2017, and is likely seek to ratify both agreements in the Diet this year.
    $5.405 trillion (2017 est.)
    $5.325 trillion (2016 est.)
    $5.27 trillion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $4.884 trillion (2017 est.)
    1.5% (2017 est.)
    1% (2016 est.)
    1.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    $42,700 (2017 est.)
    $41,900 (2016 est.)
    $41,500 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 41
    27% of GDP (2017 est.)
    27.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    27% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    household consumption: 55.9%
    government consumption: 19.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 17.8%
    imports of goods and services: -16.8% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 1%
    industry: 29.7%
    services: 69.3% (2017 est.)
    vegetables, rice, fish, poultry, fruit, dairy products, pork, beef, flowers, potatoes/taros/yams, sugarcane, tea, legumes, wheat and barley
    among world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    67.77 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    agriculture: 2.9%
    industry: 26.2%
    services: 70.9% (February 2015 est)
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    3.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    16.1% (2013 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 24.8% (2008 est.)
    37.9 (2011 est.)
    24.9 (1993 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    revenues: $1.678 trillion
    expenditures: $1.902 trillion (2017 est.)
    34.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    -4.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    223.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    222.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    1 April - 31 March
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    -0.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    0.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
    0.3% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    1.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    1.48% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    $6.426 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.651 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    $8.917 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.023 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    $13.63 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $12.11 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    $4.895 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $4.378 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.543 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    $175 billion (2017 est.)
    $188.1 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    $683.3 billion (2017 est.)
    $634.9 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    motor vehicles 14.9%; iron and steel products 5.4%; semiconductors 5%; auto parts 4.8%; power generating machinery 3.5%; plastic materials 3.3% (2014 est.)
    US 20.2%, China 17.7%, South Korea 7.2%, Hong Kong 5.2%, Thailand 4.3% (2016)
    $625.7 billion (2017 est.)
    $583.5 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    petroleum 16.1%; liquid natural gas 9.1%; clothing 3.8%; semiconductors 3.3%; coal 2.4%; audio and visual apparatus 1.4% (2014 est.)
    China 25.8%, US 11.4%, Australia 5%, South Korea 4.1% (2016)
    $1.217 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.233 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    $3.24 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $2.83 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $268.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $238.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $1.548 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.363 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    yen (JPY) per US dollar -
    111.1 (2017 est.)
    108.76 (2016 est.)
    108.76 (2015 est.)
    121.02 (2014 est.)
    97.44 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: JAPAN

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    976.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    933.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    322.2 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    59.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    12.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    15% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    3,918 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    3.181 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    44.12 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    3.536 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    4.026 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    381,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    1.141 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    4.453 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    123.6 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    114.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    20.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    1.257 billion Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
  • Communications :: JAPAN

  • total subscriptions: 64,099,179
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 51 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    total: 166,852,753
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
    domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind
    international: country code - 81; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 7 Intelsat (Pacific and Indian Oceans), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), 2 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions), and 8 SkyPerfect JSAT (2012)
    a mixture of public and commercial broadcast TV and radio stations; 6 national terrestrial TV networks including 1 public broadcaster; the large number of radio and TV stations available provide a wide range of choices; satellite and cable services provide access to international channels (2012)
    .jp
    total: 116,565,962
    percent of population: 92.0% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
  • Transportation :: JAPAN

  • number of registered air carriers: 23
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 627
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 113.762 million
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 8,868.745 million mt-km (2015)
    JA (2016)
    175 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    total: 142
    over 3,047 m: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 45
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 38
    914 to 1,523 m: 28
    under 914 m: 25 (2017)
    total: 33
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 28 (2013)
    16 (2013)
    gas 4,456 km; oil 174 km; oil/gas/water 104 km (2013)
    total: 27,311 km
    standard gauge: 4,800 km 1.435-m gauge (4,800 km electrified)
    dual gauge: 132 km 1.435-1.067-m gauge (132 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 124 km 1.372-m gauge (124 km electrified); 22,207 km 1.067-m gauge (15,430 km electrified); 48 km 0.762-m gauge (48 km electrified) (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    total: 1,218,772 km
    paved: 992,835 km (includes 8,428 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 225,937 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    1,770 km (seagoing vessels use inland seas) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    total: 5,289
    by type: bulk carrier 150, container ship 20, general cargo 1,963, oil tanker 714, other 2,442 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    major seaport(s): Chiba, Kawasaki, Kobe, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo, Tomakomai, Yokohama
    container port(s) (TEUs): Kobe (2,707,000), Nagoya (2,631,000), Osaka (1,970,000), Tokyo (4,150,000), Yokohama (2,787,000) (2015)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Chita, Fukwoke, Futtsu, Hachinone, Hakodate, Hatsukaichi, Higashi Ohgishima, Higashi Niigata, Himeiji, Joetsu, Kagoshima, Kawagoe, Kita Kyushu, Mizushima, Nagasaki, Naoetsu, Negishi, Ohgishima, Oita, Sakai, Sakaide, Senboku, Shimizu, Shin Minato, Sodegaura, Tobata, Yanai, Yokkaichi; Okinawa - Nakagusuku
  • Military and Security :: JAPAN

  • 0.93% of GDP (2016)
    0.94% of GDP (2015)
    0.96% of GDP (2014)
    0.95% of GDP (2013)
    0.97% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jieitai, GSDF), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jieitai, MSDF), Air Self-Defense Force (Koukuu Jieitai, ASDF) (2011)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; mandatory retirement at age 53 for senior enlisted personnel and at 62 years for senior service officers (2012)
  • Terrorism :: JAPAN

  • Aum Shinrikyo (AUM):
    aim(s): attract new members seeking religious guidance and exhibiting a willingness to financially support the organization; historically, leaders sought to overthrow the Japanese Government and to spark a nuclear war between Japan and the US to create a global Armageddon, “cleansing” the world so its members could achieve salvation
    area(s) of operation: headquartered in the north in Hokkaido, where AUM opened the largest of its 33 buildings in July 2016
    note(s): the majority of members reside in Russia (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: JAPAN

  • the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Japan and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan
    stateless persons: 585 (2017)