Main Content

Africa :: Ghana Print
Page last updated on May 20, 2020
  • Introduction :: Ghana
  • Background field listing
    Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first Sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR of the opposition New Patriotic Party (NPP) succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS of the National Democratic Congress won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state. MILLS died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election. In 2016, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO of the NPP defeated MAHAMA, marking the third time that Ghana’s presidency has changed parties since the return to democracy.
  • Geography :: Ghana
  • Location field listing
    Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    8 00 N, 2 00 W
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 238,533 sq km
    land: 227,533 sq km
    water: 11,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than Oregon
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,420 km
    border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1098 km
    Coastline field listing
    539 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
    Terrain field listing
    mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 190 m
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m
    Natural resources field listing
    gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 69.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 20.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 11.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 36.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 21.2% (2011 est.)
    other: 9.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    340 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    population is concentrated in the southern half of the country, with the highest concentrations being on or near the Atlantic coast
    Natural hazards field listing
    dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
    Environment - current issues field listing
    recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threaten wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note field listing
    Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers
  • People and Society :: Ghana
  • Population field listing
    29,340,248 (July 2020 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 49
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Ghanaian(s)
    adjective: Ghanaian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2% (2010 est.)

    note: English is the official language

    Religions field listing
    Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)
    Demographic profile field listing

    Ghana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.

    Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.

    During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 37.44% (male 5,524,932/female 5,460,943)
    15-24 years: 18.64% (male 2,717,481/female 2,752,601)
    25-54 years: 34.27% (male 4,875,985/female 5,177,959)
    55-64 years: 5.21% (male 743,757/female 784,517)
    65 years and over: 4.44% (male 598,387/female 703,686) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 67.4
    youth dependency ratio: 62.2
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
    potential support ratio: 17.1 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 21.4 years
    male: 21 years
    female: 21.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.15% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Birth rate field listing
    29.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Death rate field listing
    6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Net migration rate field listing
    -1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Population distribution field listing
    population is concentrated in the southern half of the country, with the highest concentrations being on or near the Atlantic coast
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 57.3% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 3.34% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    3.348 million Kumasi, 2.514 million ACCRA (capital), 946,000 Sekondi Takoradi (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    22.3 years (2017 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    308 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 28.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 68.2 years
    male: 65.6 years
    female: 70.8 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Total fertility rate field listing
    3.9 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    30.8% (2017)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 92.6% of population
    rural: 84% of population
    total: 88.7% of population
    unimproved: urban: 7.4% of population
    rural: 16% of population
    total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    4.4% (2016)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.18 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 20.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 14.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 79.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 91.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    1.7% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    330,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    14,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
    animal contact diseases: rabies
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    10.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    11.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.6% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 76.6%
    male: 82%
    female: 71.4% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 11 years (2017)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 9.1%
    male: 9.4%
    female: 8.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
  • Government :: Ghana
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
    conventional short form: Ghana
    former: Gold Coast
    etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name but whose location was actually further north than the modern country
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Accra
    geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the name derives from the Akan word "nkran" meaning "ants," and refers to the numerous anthills in the area around the capital
    Administrative divisions field listing
    16 regions; Ahafo, Ashanti, Bono, Bono East, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, North East, Northern, Oti, Savannah, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western, Western North
    Independence field listing
    6 March 1957 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993
    amendments: proposed by Parliament; consideration requires prior referral to the Council of State, a body of prominent citizens who advise the president of the republic; passage of amendments to "entrenched" constitutional articles (including those on national sovereignty, fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and authorities of the branches of government, and amendment procedures) requires approval in a referendum by at least 40% participation of eligible voters and at least 75% of votes cast, followed by at least two-thirds majority vote in Parliament, and assent of the president; amendments to non-entrenched articles do not require referenda; amended 1996 (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
    election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 53.7%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.5%, other 1.8%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NPP 54%, NDC 44%, other 2%; seats by party - NPP 171, NDC 104; composition - men 240, women 35, percent of women 12.7%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 13 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals
    Political parties and leaders field listing

    note: Ghana has more than 20 registered parties; included are 5 of the more popular parties as of May 2017

    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Barfour ADJEI-BARWUAH (since 21 July 2017)
    chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
    FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Stephanie S. SULLIVAN (since 30 November 2018)
    telephone: [233] 030-274-1000
    embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra
    P.O. Box GP2288, Accra
    mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra
    FAX: [233] 030-274-1389
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom

    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

    National symbol(s) field listing
    black star, golden eagle; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
    National anthem field listing
    name: God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
    lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO

    note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup

  • Economy :: Ghana
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is endowed with natural resources. Ghana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency.

    Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. Gold, oil, and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the fall in oil prices since 2015 reduced by half Ghana’s oil revenue. Production at Jubilee, Ghana's first commercial offshore oilfield, began in mid-December 2010. Production from two more fields, TEN and Sankofa, started in 2016 and 2017 respectively. The country’s first gas processing plant at Atuabo is also producing natural gas from the Jubilee field, providing power to several of Ghana’s thermal power plants.

    As of 2018, key economic concerns facing the government include the lack of affordable electricity, lack of a solid domestic revenue base, and the high debt burden. The AKUFO-ADDO administration has made some progress by committing to fiscal consolidation, but much work is still to be done. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility with the IMF in April 2015 to help it address its growing economic crisis. The IMF fiscal targets require Ghana to reduce the deficit by cutting subsidies, decreasing the bloated public sector wage bill, strengthening revenue administration, boosting tax revenues, and improving the health of Ghana’s banking sector. Priorities for the new administration include rescheduling some of Ghana’s $31 billion debt, stimulating economic growth, reducing inflation, and stabilizing the currency. Prospects for new oil and gas production and follow through on tighter fiscal management are likely to help Ghana’s economy in 2018.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $134 billion (2017 est.)
    $123.6 billion (2016 est.)
    $119.2 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 80
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $47.02 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    8.4% (2017 est.)
    3.7% (2016 est.)
    3.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $4,700 (2017 est.)
    $4,500 (2016 est.)
    $4,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 172
    Gross national saving field listing
    9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    7.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 80.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 8.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 13.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 43% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -46.5% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 18.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 24.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 57.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
    Industries field listing
    mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    16.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Labor force field listing
    12.49 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 44.7%
    industry: 14.4%
    services: 40.9% (2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    11.9% (2015 est.)
    5.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Population below poverty line field listing
    24.2% (2013 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 9.544 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 12.36 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Public debt field listing
    71.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    73.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    12.4% (2017 est.)
    17.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Current account balance field listing
    -$2.131 billion (2017 est.)
    -$2.86 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Exports field listing
    $13.84 billion (2017 est.)
    $11.14 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Exports - partners field listing
    India 23.8%, UAE 13.4%, China 10.8%, Switzerland 10.1%, Vietnam 5.2%, Burkina Faso 4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products
    Imports field listing
    $12.65 billion (2017 est.)
    $12.91 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Imports - commodities field listing
    capital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 16.8%, US 8%, UK 6.2%, Belgium 5.9%, India 4.1% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $7.555 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.162 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Debt - external field listing
    $22.14 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $16.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Exchange rates field listing
    cedis (GHC) per US dollar -
    4.385 (2017 est.)
    3.909 (2016 est.)
    3.909 (2015 est.)
    3.712 (2014 est.)
    2.895 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Ghana
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 5 million (2017)
    electrification - total population: 79.3% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 89.8% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 66.6% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    12.52 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    9.363 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Electricity - exports field listing
    187 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Electricity - imports field listing
    511 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    3.801 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    58% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Crude oil - production field listing
    173,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    104,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    6,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    660 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    2,073 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    90,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    2,654 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    85,110 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Natural gas - production field listing
    914.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    1.232 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    317.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    13.67 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
  • Communications :: Ghana
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 278,379
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 40,934,875
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 146 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: highly competitive Internet market; govt helped fund programs for telecom services nationally; mobile accounts for how people access the Internet; LTE service launched in 2019; the government invested in fiber infrastructure and set up 600 additional towers to provided basic mobile services; m-money inter operability launched; international submarine cables and new terrestrial cables have improved Internet capacity and reduced price for end-users; one of the most active mobile markets in Africa (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 subscriptions; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 146 per 100 persons and rising (2018)
    international: country code - 233; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, MainOne, ACE, WACS and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South and West Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; Ghana-1 satellite launched in 2020 (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 9,328,018
    percent of population: 34.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 62,320
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
  • Military and Security :: Ghana
  • Military expenditures field listing
    0.4% of GDP (2019)
    0.41% of GDP (2018)
    0.4% of GDP (2017)
    0.38% of GDP (2016)
    0.52% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Military and security forces field listing
    Ghana Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2019)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)
    Maritime threats field listing
    West African piracy more than doubled in 2018 to become the most dangerous area in the World; the waters off of Ghana saw a dramatic increase with 10 attacks reported in 2018 compared with only one in 2017; eight ships were boarded, one hijacked, and 47 crew taken hostage or kidnapped
  • Transportation :: Ghana
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 390,457 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 844,630 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    9G (2016)
    Airports field listing
    10 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 7 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    394 km gas, 20 km oil, 361 km refined products (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 947 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Roadways field listing
    total: 109,515 km (2009)
    paved: 13,787 km (2009)
    unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Waterways field listing
    1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 48
    by type: general cargo 6, oil tanker 3, other 39 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema
  • Transnational Issues :: Ghana
  • Disputes - international field listing

    disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 6,358 (Cote d'Ivoire) (flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2020)
    IDPs: 5,000 (land disputes between ethnic communities in the north in 2018) (2018)
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking of Ghanians, particularly children, internally is more common than the trafficking of foreign nationals; Ghanian children are subjected to forced labor in fishing, domestic service, street hawking, begging, portering, mining, quarrying, herding, and agriculture, with girls, and to a lesser extent boys, forced into prostitution; Ghanian women, sometimes lured with legitimate job offers, and girls are sex trafficked in West Africa, the Middle East, and Europe; Ghanian men fraudulently recruited for work in the Middle East are subjected to forced labor or prostitution, and a few Ghanian adults have been identified as victims of false labor in the US; women and girls from Vietnam, China, and neighboring West African countries are sex trafficked in Ghana; the country is also a transit point for sex trafficking from West Africa to Europe
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Ghana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Ghana continued to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses but was unable to ramp up its anti-trafficking efforts in 2014 because the government failed to provide law enforcement or protection agencies with operating budgets; victim protection efforts decreased in 2014, with significantly fewer victims identified; most child victims were referred to NGO-run facilities, but care for adults was lacking because the government did not provide any support to the country’s Human Trafficking Fund for victim services or its two shelters; anti-trafficking prevention measures increased modestly, including reconvening of the Human Trafficking Management Board, public awareness campaigns on child labor and trafficking, and anti-trafficking TV and radio programs (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money-laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use