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Europe :: AUSTRIA
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AUSTRIA
  • Introduction :: AUSTRIA

  • Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
  • Geography :: AUSTRIA

  • Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
    47 20 N, 13 20 E
    Europe
    total: 83,871 sq km
    land: 82,445 sq km
    water: 1,426 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 115
    about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania
    Area comparison map:
    total: 2,524 km
    border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
    mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins
    mean elevation: 910 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
    highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
    oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
    agricultural land: 38.4%
    arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 21.1%
    forest: 47.2%
    other: 14.4% (2014 est.)
    1,170 sq km (2012)
    the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas
    landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
    some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe; water pollution; the Danube, as well as some of Austria’s other rivers and lakes, are threatened by pollution
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
  • People and Society :: AUSTRIA

  • 8,754,413 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    noun: Austrian(s)
    adjective: Austrian
    Austrian 84.2%, German 2.1% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Serbian 1.4%, Turkish 1.3%, Romanian 1.2%, Bosnian or Herzegovinian 1.1%, other 10.8%
    note: data represent population by nationality (2018 est.)
    German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
    Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)
    0-14 years: 14.01% (male 628,205/female 598,519)
    15-24 years: 11.07% (male 494,016/female 475,500)
    25-54 years: 42.42% (male 1,856,532/female 1,856,937)
    55-64 years: 13.23% (male 574,570/female 584,022)
    65 years and over: 19.26% (male 731,126/female 954,986) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 49.2
    youth dependency ratio: 21.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 28.1
    potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
    total: 44 years
    male: 42.8 years
    female: 45.1 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    0.47% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    9.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas
    urban population: 58.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    VIENNA (capital) 1.901 million (2018)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    29 years (2014 est.)
    4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    total population: 81.6 years
    male: 78.9 years
    female: 84.4 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    1.47 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    65.7%
    note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2012/13)
    11.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    5.23 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    7.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    7,400 (2017 est.)
    <100 (2017 est.)
    20.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    5.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 16 years (2015)
    total: 11.3%
    male: 12.1%
    female: 10.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
  • Government :: AUSTRIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Austria
    conventional short form: Austria
    local long form: Republik Oesterreich
    local short form: Oesterreich
    etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" or "eastern march" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and, in fact, of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name
    federal parliamentary republic
    name: Vienna
    geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
    no official date of independence: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 6 January 1453 (Archduchy of Austria acknowledged); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established); 12 November 1918 (First Republic proclaimed); 27 April 1945 (Second Republic proclaimed)
    National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)
    history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934 (authoritarian corporate state), replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945
    amendments: proposed through laws designated “constitutional laws” or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly if one-half of the members are present; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2014 (2016)
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    16 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)
    head of government: Chancellor Sebastian KURZ (since 18 December 2017); Vice Chancellor Heinz-Christian STRACHE (since 18 December 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote) (next election to be held in April 2022); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor
    election results: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbet HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbet HOFER 46.2%
    description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of:
    Federal Council or Bundesrat (61 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms)
    National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: National Council - last held on 29 September 2013 (next to be held on 15 October 2017; an early election was called after the coalition government collapsed)
    election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 31.5%, SPOe 26.9%, FPOe 26%, NEOS 5.3%, PILZ 4.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - OeVP 62, SPOe 52, FPOe 51, NEOS 10, PILZ 8
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts
    Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Sebastian KURZ]
    Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
    Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz-Christian STRACHE]
    The Greens [Werner KOGLER]
    NEOS - The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ]
    Pilz List or PILZ [Bruno ROSSMANN and Wolfgang ZINGGL]
    Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Christian KERN]
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang WALDNER (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
    telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
    FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    consulate(s): Chicago
    chief of mission: Ambassador Trevor TRAINA (since 24 May 2018)
    embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
    mailing address: Boltzmanngasse 16, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
    FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner
    eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white
    name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)
    lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)
    note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012
  • Economy :: AUSTRIA

  • Austria is a well-developed market economy with skilled labor force and high standard of living. It is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's, but also the US’, its third-largest trade partner. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector.
    Austrian economic growth strengthen in 2017, with a 2.9% increase in GDP. Austrian exports, accounting for around 60% of the GDP, were up 8.2% in 2017. Austria’s unemployment rate fell by 0.3% to 5.5%, which is low by European standards, but still at its second highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market.
    Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries. The budget deficit stood at a low 0.7% of GDP in 2017 and public debt declined again to 78.4% of GDP in 2017, after reaching a post-war high 84.6% in 2015. The Austrian government has announced it plans to balance the fiscal budget in 2019. Several external risks, such as Austrian banks' exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, the refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine, eased in 2017, but are still a factor for the Austrian economy. Exposure to the Russian banking sector and a deep energy relationship with Russia present additional risks.
    Austria elected a new pro-business government in October 2017 that campaigned on promises to reduce bureaucracy, improve public sector efficiency, reduce labor market protections, and provide positive investment incentives.
    $439.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $433.3 billion (2016 est.)
    $428.6 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $416.8 billion (2017 est.)
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    1.5% (2016 est.)
    1.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $49,900 (2017 est.)
    $49,600 (2016 est.)
    $49,700 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 30
    27% of GDP (2017 est.)
    26.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    25.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    household consumption: 52.1%
    government consumption: 19.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 23.1%
    investment in inventories: 1.1%
    exports of goods and services: 54.2%
    imports of goods and services: -50.3% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 1.2%
    industry: 28.4%
    services: 70.4% (2017 est.)
    grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber and other forestry products
    construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and paper, electronics, tourism
    3.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    4.26 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    agriculture: 0.7%
    industry: 25.2%
    services: 74.1% (2017 est.)
    5.5% (2017 est.)
    6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    3% (2017 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)
    30.5 (2015)
    30.5 (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    revenues: $194.8 billion
    expenditures: $199.6 billion (2017 est.)
    47.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    -1.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    78.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    83.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices
    country comparison to the world: 37
    calendar year
    2.2% (2017 est.)
    1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    1.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
    1.86% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    $258.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $371.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $326.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $556.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $489.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    $96.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $96.79 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $117.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $8.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.313 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    $161.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $149.5 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, manufactured goods, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
    Germany 29.4%, US 6.3%, Italy 6.2%, Switzerland 5.1%, France 4.8%, Slovakia 4.8% (2017)
    $168.3 billion (2017 est.)
    $154.7 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs
    Germany 41.8%, Italy 5.8%, Switzerland 5.5%, Czech Republic 4.4%, Netherlands 4.2% (2017)
    $20.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $23.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $630.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $679.3 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $174.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $158.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $227.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $214.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.89 (2017 est.)
    0.9 (2016 est.)
    0.92 (2015 est.)
    0.89 (2014 est.)
    0.76 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: AUSTRIA

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    67.88 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    70.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    19.21 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    26.37 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    25.2 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    29% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    56% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    15% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    15,160 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    148,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    43 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    188,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    267,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    49,230 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    132,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    1.124 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    8.288 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    5.407 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    7.175 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    6.994 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    79.7 million Mt (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
  • Communications :: AUSTRIA

  • total subscriptions: 3,567,200
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    total subscriptions: 14.27 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 163 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    general assessment: highly developed and efficient
    domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership is ubiquitous; cable networks are very extensive, the fiber-optic net is being developed; all telephone applications and Internet services are available; broadband is available in all large municipalities
    international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2018)
    worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2018)
    .at
    total: 7,346,055
    percent of population: 84.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
  • Transportation :: AUSTRIA

  • number of registered air carriers: 11
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 130
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 14,718,641
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 351.379 million mt-km (2015)
    OE (2016)
    52 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    total: 24
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 13 (2017)
    total: 28
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 24 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 1,888 km; oil 594 km; refined products 157 km (2017)
    total: 5,800 km (2017)
    standard gauge: 5,300 km 1.435-m gauge (3,826 km electrified) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    total: 138,696 km
    paved: 138,696 km (includes 2,208 km of expressways) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    358 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)
  • Military and Security :: AUSTRIA

  • 0.58% of GDP (2018)
    0.6% of GDP (2017)
    0.68% of GDP (2016)
    0.67% of GDP (2015)
    0.75% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK) (2014)
    registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2015)
  • Transnational Issues :: AUSTRIA

  • none
    refugees (country of origin): 30,958 (Syria); 20,220 (Afghanistan); 13,773 (Russia); 5,555 (Iraq) (2016)
    stateless persons: 1,003 (2017)
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs