Main Content

Middle East :: Bahrain Print
Page last updated on November 15, 2018
View 11 photos of
BAHRAIN
  • Introduction :: Bahrain
  • Background field listing

    In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. A steady decline in oil production and reserves since 1970 prompted Bahrain to take steps to diversify its economy, in the process developing petroleum processing and refining, aluminum production, and hospitality and retail sectors. It has also endeavored to become a leading regional banking center, especially with respect to Islamic finance. Bahrain's small size, central location among Gulf countries, economic dependence on Saudi Arabia, and proximity to Iran require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Its foreign policy activities usually fall in line with Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

    The Sunni royal family has long struggled to manage relations with its large Shia-majority population. In early 2011, amid Arab uprisings elsewhere in the region, the Bahraini Government confronted similar pro-democracy and reform protests at home with police and military action, including deploying Gulf Cooperation Council security forces to Bahrain. Political talks throughout 2014 between the government and opposition and loyalist political groups failed to reach an agreement, prompting opposition political societies to boycott legislative and municipal council elections in late 2014. Ongoing dissatisfaction with the political status quo continues to factor into sporadic clashes between demonstrators and security forces.

  • Geography :: Bahrain
  • Location field listing
    Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    26 00 N, 50 33 E
    Map references field listing
    Middle East
    Area field listing
    total: 760 sq km
    land: 760 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Area - comparative field listing
    3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    161 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
    Climate field listing
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
    Terrain field listing
    mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
    Elevation field listing
    0 m lowest point: Persian Gulf
    135 highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan
    Natural resources field listing
    oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 11.3% (2014 est.)
    arable land: 2.1% (2014 est.) / permanent crops: 3.9% (2014 est.) / permanent pasture: 5.3% (2014 est.)
    forest: 0.7% (2014 est.)
    other: 88% (2014 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    40 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq
    Natural hazards field listing
    periodic droughts; dust storms
    Environment - current issues field listing
    desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs); desalinization provides some 90% of the country's freshwater
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
  • People and Society :: Bahrain
  • Population field listing
    1,442,659 (July 2017 est.) (July 2018 est.)

    note: immigrants make up approximately 48% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)

    country comparison to the world: 154
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Bahraini(s)
    adjective: Bahraini
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arab 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 73.7%, Christian 9.3%, Jewish 0.1%, other 16.9% (2017 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 18.88% (male 138,309 /female 134,067)
    15-24 years: 15.49% (male 126,564 /female 96,834)
    25-54 years: 56.06% (male 527,417 /female 281,391)
    55-64 years: 6.49% (male 59,404 /female 34,284)
    65 years and over: 3.08% (male 22,258 /female 22,131) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 30.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 27.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 3 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 33.1 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 32.5 years
    male: 34 years
    female: 29.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.19% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Birth rate field listing
    13.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Death rate field listing
    2.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    Net migration rate field listing
    12.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Population distribution field listing
    smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 89.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    565,000 MANAMA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.3 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.88 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.81 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.54 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 79.1 years (2018 est.)
    male: 76.9 years (2018 est.)
    female: 81.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.73 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Health expenditures field listing
    5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Physicians density field listing
    0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    <500 (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    29.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.7% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 95.7% (2015 est.)
    male: 96.9% (2015 est.)
    female: 93.5% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 5.3% (2012 est.)
    male: 2.6% (2012 est.)
    female: 12.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
  • Government :: Bahrain
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
    conventional short form: Bahrain
    local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
    local short form: Al Bahrayn
    former: Dilmun, Tylos, Awal, Mishmahig, Bahrayn, State of Bahrain
    etymology: the name means "the two seas" in Arabic and refers to the water bodies surrounding the archipelago
    Government type field listing
    constitutional monarchy
    Capital field listing
    name: Manama
    geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: name derives from the Arabic "al-manama" meaning "place of rest" or "place of dreams"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    4 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Asimah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern)

    note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

    Independence field listing
    15 August 1971 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection
    Constitution field listing
    history: adopted 14 February 2002 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the king or by at least 15 members of either chamber of the National Assembly followed by submission to an Assembly committee for review and, if approved, submitted to the government for restatement as drafts; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both chambers and validation by the king; constitutional articles on the state religion (Islam), state language (Arabic), and the monarchy and “inherited rule” cannot be amended; amended 2012, 2017 (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals
    Suffrage field listing
    20 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
    head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); First Deputy Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al Khalifa (since 11 March 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa (since September 2005), Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 11 December 2006), KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since November 2010)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
    Consultative Council or Majlis al Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
    Council of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)
    elections:
    Consultative Council - last appointments on 7 December 2014 (next NA)
    Council of Representatives - last held in two rounds on 23 and 29 November 2014 (next to be held in late 2018)
    election results:
    Consultative Council - composition - men 31, women 9, percent of women 22.5%
    Council of Representatives - percent of vote by society (Bahrain has societies rather than parties) - NA; seats by society - Islamic Al-Asalah (Sunni Salafi) 2, National Islamic Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 1, independent 37; composition - men 37, women 3, percent of women 7.5%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 15%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the president and 6 members); High Sharia Court of Appeal (court sittings include the president and at least one judge); appeals beyond the High Sharia Court of Appeal are heard by the Supreme Court of Appeal
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure; Constitutional Court president and members appointed by the Higher Judicial Council, a body chaired by the monarch and includes judges from the Court of Cassation, sharia law courts, and Civil High Courts of Appeal; members serve 9-year terms; High Sharia Court of Appeal member appointment and tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Civil High Courts of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; High Sharia Court of Appeal; Senior Sharia Court; Administrative Courts of Appeal; military courts

    note: the judiciary of Bahrain is divided into civil law courts and sharia law courts; sharia courts(involving personal status and family law) are further divided into Sunni Muslim and Shia Muslim

    Political parties and leaders field listing

    note: political parties are prohibited, but political societies were legalized under a July 2005 law

    International organization participation field listing
    ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulla bin Rashid AL KHALIFA (since 21 July 2017)
    chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Justin H. SIBERELL (since November 2017)
    embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama
    mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
    telephone: [973] 1724-2700
    FAX: [973] 1727-2594
    Flag description field listing
    red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

    note: until 2002, the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag

    National symbol(s) field listing
    a red field surmounted by a white serrated band with five white points; national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain)
    lyrics/music: unknown

    note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom

  • Economy :: Bahrain
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Oil and natural gas play a dominant role in Bahrain’s economy. Despite the Government’s past efforts to diversify the economy, oil still comprises 85% of Bahraini budget revenues. In the last few years lower world energy prices have generated sizable budget deficits - about 10% of GDP in 2017 alone. Bahrain has few options for covering these deficits, with low foreign assets and fewer oil resources compared to its GCC neighbors. The three major US credit agencies downgraded Bahrain’s sovereign debt rating to “junk” status in 2016, citing persistently low oil prices and the government’s high debt levels. Nevertheless, Bahrain was able to raise about $4 billion by issuing foreign currency denominated debt in 2017.

    Other major economic activities are production of aluminum - Bahrain's second biggest export after oil and gas –finance, and construction. Bahrain continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. In April 2018 Bahrain announced it had found a significant oil field off the country’s west coast, but is still assessing how much of the oil can be extracted profitably.

    In addition to addressing its current fiscal woes, Bahraini authorities face the long-term challenge of boosting Bahrain’s regional competitiveness — especially regarding industry, finance, and tourism — and reconciling revenue constraints with popular pressure to maintain generous state subsidies and a large public sector. Since 2015, the government lifted subsidies on meat, diesel, kerosene, and gasoline and has begun to phase in higher prices for electricity and water. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. It plans to introduce a Value Added Tax (VAT) by the end of 2018.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $71.17 billion (2017 est.)
    $68.59 billion (2016 est.)
    $66.3 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 100
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $35.33 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    3.8% (2017 est.)
    3.5% (2016 est.)
    2.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $49,000 (2017 est.)
    $48,200 (2016 est.)
    $48,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 33
    Gross national saving field listing
    19.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    22% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 45.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 26.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 80.2% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -67.9% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 39.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 60.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
    Industries field listing
    petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Labor force field listing
    831,600 (2017 est.)

    note: excludes unemployed; 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national

    country comparison to the world: 149
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 67% (2004 est.)
    industry: 32% (2004 est.)
    services: 67% (2004 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    3.6% (2017 est.)
    3.7% (2016 est.)

    note: official estimate; actual rate is higher

    country comparison to the world: 43
    Population below poverty line field listing
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 5.854 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 9.407 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -10.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Public debt field listing
    88.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    81.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    1.75% (18 December 2017)
    0.5% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    5.33% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.18% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $9.185 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.078 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $9.185 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.078 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $29.72 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $29.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $19.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $22.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $18.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Current account balance field listing
    -$1.6 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.493 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Exports field listing
    $15.38 billion (2017 est.)
    $12.78 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Exports - commodities field listing
    petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
    Exports - partners field listing
    UAE 19.6%, Saudi Arabia 11.7%, US 10.8%, Oman 8.1%, China 6.5%, Qatar 5.7%, Japan 4.2% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $16.08 billion (2017 est.)
    $13.59 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Imports - commodities field listing
    crude oil, machinery, chemicals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $2.349 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 8.8%, UAE 7.2%, US 7.1%, Australia 5.3%, Japan 4.8% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $52.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $42.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $22.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $21.56 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $10.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Exchange rates field listing
    Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar -
    0.376 (2017 est.)
    0.376 (2016 est.)
    0.376 (2015 est.)
    0.376 (2014 est.)
    0.376 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bahrain
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 41,317 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 98% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 98% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 93% (2012)
    Electricity - production field listing
    17.07 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    26.09 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Electricity - exports field listing
    213 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Electricity - imports field listing
    205 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    3.928 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    99.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Crude oil - production field listing
    44,240 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    225,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    223,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    124.6 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    267,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    58,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    244,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    13,320 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Natural gas - production field listing
    21.07 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    15.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    37 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
  • Communications :: Bahrain
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 285,318 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 2,364,477 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 168 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: modern system; 20 per 100 fixed-line, 168 per 100 mobile-cellular; well developed LTE networks,  future 5G deployment (2017)
    domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones (2017)
    international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2009)
    Internet country code field listing
    .bh
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,351,326 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 98% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 213,633 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
  • Transportation :: Bahrain
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 42 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,313,756 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 240,107,004 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    A9C (2016)
    Airports field listing
    4 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 4 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    20 km gas, 54 km oil (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 4,122 km (2010)
    paved: 3,392 km (2010)
    unpaved: 730 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 260 (2017)
    by type: container ship 3, general cargo 11, oil tanker 4, other 242 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Mina' Salman, Sitrah
  • Military and Security :: Bahrain
  • Military expenditures field listing
    4.59% of GDP (2015)
    4.42% of GDP (2014)
    4.14% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Military branches field listing
    Bahrain Defense Force (BDF): Royal Bahraini Army (RBA), Royal Bahraini Navy (RBN), Royal Bahraini Air Force (RBAF), Royal Bahraini Air Defense Force (RBADF) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Bahrain
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none