Main Content

South Asia :: Bangladesh Print
Page last updated on October 07, 2019
  • Introduction :: Bangladesh
  • Background field listing

    The huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires centered on the Gangetic plain for much of the first millennium A.D. Muslim conversions and settlement in the region began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.

    The post-independence AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1978. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections occurred in 1991. The BNP and AL have alternated in power since 1991, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. In January 2014, the incumbent AL won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the BNP boycotted, extending HASINA's term as prime minister. In December 2018, HASINA secured a third consecutive term (fourth overall) with the Awami League coalition securing 96% of available seats, amid widespread claims of election irregularities. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6% over the last two decades and the country reached World Bank lower-middle income status in 2014.

  • Geography :: Bangladesh
  • Location field listing
    Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    24 00 N, 90 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 148,460 sq km
    land: 130,170 sq km
    water: 18,290 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined; slightly smaller than Iowa
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 4,413 km
    border countries (2): Burma 271 km, India 4142 km
    Coastline field listing
    580 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 18 nm
    continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continental margin
    Climate field listing
    tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
    Terrain field listing
    mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 85 m
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
    Natural resources field listing
    natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 70.1% (2016 est.)
    arable land: 59% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 6.5% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 4.6% (2016 est.)
    forest: 11.1% (2016 est.)
    other: 18.8% (2016 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    53,000 sq km (2012)
    Natural hazards field listing
    droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
    Environment - current issues field listing
    many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; destruction of wetlands; severe overpopulation with noise pollution
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
  • People and Society :: Bangladesh
  • Population field listing
    159,453,001 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Bangladeshi(s)
    adjective: Bangladeshi
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Bengali at least 98%, indigenous ethnic groups 1.1% (2011 est.)

    note: Bangladesh's government recognizes 27 indigenous ethnic groups under the 2010 Cultural Institution for Small Anthropological Groups Act; other sources estimate there are about 75 ethnic groups; critics of the 2011 census claim that it underestimates the size of Bangladesh's ethnic population

    Languages field listing
    Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 89.1%, Hindu 10%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist, Christian) (2013 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 27.29% (male 22,135,349 /female 21,373,470)
    15-24 years: 19.14% (male 15,313,674 /female 15,200,861)
    25-54 years: 40.07% (male 30,626,005 /female 33,267,339)
    55-64 years: 7.09% (male 5,582,450 /female 5,716,763)
    65 years and over: 6.42% (male 4,844,612 /female 5,392,478) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 52.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 44.9 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 27.1 years
    male: 26.3 years
    female: 27.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.02% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Birth rate field listing
    18.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Death rate field listing
    5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Net migration rate field listing
    -3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 37.4% of total population (2019)
    rate of urbanization: 3.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    20.284 million DHAKA (capital), 4.915 million Chittagong, 963,000 Khulna, 893,000 Rajshahi, 814,000 Sylhet (2019)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    18.5 years (2014 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    173 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 30.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 73.7 years
    male: 71.5 years
    female: 75.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2.15 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    62.3% (2014)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 86.5% of population
    rural: 87% of population
    total: 86.9% of population
    unimproved: urban: 13.5% of population
    rural: 13% of population
    total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    2.6% (2015)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.53 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 57.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 62.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 60.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 37.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 39.4% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    14,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <1000 (2018 est.)
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: high (2019)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2019)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations (2019)
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis (2019)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2019)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    3.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    32.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Education expenditures field listing
    1.5% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2017 est.)
    total population: 72.9%
    male: 75.7%
    female: 70.1% (2017 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 12 years (2017)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 12.8%
    male: 10.8%
    female: 16.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
  • Government :: Bangladesh
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
    conventional short form: Bangladesh
    local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
    local short form: Bangladesh
    former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
    etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words "Bangla" (Bengal) and "desh" (country) - means "Country of Bengal"
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Dhaka
    geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the origins of the name are unclear, but some sources state that the city's site was originally called "dhakka," meaning "watchtower," and that the area served as a watch-station for Bengal rulers
    Administrative divisions field listing
    8 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
    Independence field listing
    16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (preindependence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986
    amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the House membership and assent to by the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2018 (2019)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013
    head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)
    cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held by 2023); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament
    election results: President Abdul HAMID (AL) reelected by the National Parliament unopposed for a second term; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party following parliamentary elections in 2018
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority popular vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 30 December 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AL 289, BNP 7, other 3; composition - men 279, women 72, percent of women 20.6%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67
    subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
    Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [Abdul Kalam AZADI]
    Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]
    Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
    Jamaat-i-Islami Bangladesh or JIB (Makbul AHMAD)
    Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
    Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
    National Socialist Party or JSD [KHALEQUZZAMAN]
    Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Mohammad ZIAUDDIN (since 18 September 2014)
    chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Robert MILLER (since 29 November 2018)
    telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000
    embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
    mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
    FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2915
    Flag description field listing
    green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
    National symbol(s) field listing
    Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)
    lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

    note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem

  • Economy :: Bangladesh
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Bangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 2005 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product.


    Garments, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports in FY 2016-17. The industrial sector continues to grow, despite the need for improvements in factory safety conditions. Steady export growth in the garment sector, combined with $13 billion in remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, contributed to Bangladesh's rising foreign exchange reserves in FY 2016-17. Recent improvements to energy infrastructure, including the start of liquefied natural gas imports in 2018, represent a major step forward in resolving a key growth bottleneck.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $690.3 billion (2017 est.)
    $642.7 billion (2016 est.)
    $599.5 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 33
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $261.5 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    7.4% (2017 est.)
    7.2% (2016 est.)
    6.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $4,200 (2017 est.)
    $4,000 (2016 est.)
    $3,800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 176
    Gross national saving field listing
    30.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    30.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 30.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 15% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -20.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 14.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 29.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
    Industries field listing
    jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    10.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Labor force field listing
    66.64 million (2017 est.)

    note: extensive migration of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia

    country comparison to the world: 7
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 42.7%
    industry: 20.5%
    services: 36.9% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    4.4% (2017 est.)
    4.4% (2016 est.)

    note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many persons counted as employed work only a few hours a week and at low wages

    country comparison to the world: 58
    Population below poverty line field listing
    24.3% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 4%
    highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    32.1 (2010)
    33.2 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 25.1 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 33.5 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    9.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Public debt field listing
    33.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    33.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 July - 30 June
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    5.6% (2017 est.)
    5.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    5% (11 December 2017)
    5% (30 October 2015)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    9.54% (31 December 2017 est.)
    10.41% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $28.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $28.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $152.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $135.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $92.33 billion (30 September 2017 est.)
    $77.99 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $71.73 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Current account balance field listing
    -$5.322 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.391 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Exports field listing
    $35.3 billion (2017 est.)
    $34.14 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 12.9%, US 12.2%, UK 8.7%, Spain 5.3%, France 5.1%, Italy 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
    Imports field listing
    $47.56 billion (2017 est.)
    $40.28 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Imports - commodities field listing
    cotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 21.9%, India 15.3%, Singapore 5.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $33.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $32.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Debt - external field listing
    $50.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $14.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $13.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $369.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $228.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Exchange rates field listing
    taka (BDT) per US dollar -
    80.69 (2017 est.)
    78.468 (2016 est.)
    78.468 (2015 est.)
    77.947 (2014 est.)
    77.614 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bangladesh
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 60.3 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 75.9% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 94% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 68.9% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    60.51 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    53.65 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    11.9 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    97% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Crude oil - production field listing
    3,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    21,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    28 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    26,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    106,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    901 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    81,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Natural gas - production field listing
    29.53 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    29.53 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    185.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    79.97 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
  • Communications :: Bangladesh
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 710,189
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 145,113,669
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities; fixed broadband penetration in Bangladesh remains very low mainly due to the dominance of the mobile platform; in July 2018  first test run of 5G technology in Bangladesh took place in Dhaka (2018)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 92 telephones per 100 persons; slow to moderate mobile subscriber growth is anticipated over the next five years to 2023; strong local competition (2018)
    international: country code - 880; landing points for the SeaMeWe-4 and SeaMeWe-5 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2019)
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) broadcasts throughout the country. Some channels, such as BTV World, operate via satellite. The government also owns a medium wave radio channel and some private FM radio broadcast news channels. Of the 41 Bangladesh approved TV stations, 26 are currently being used to broadcast. Of those, 23 operate under private management via cable distribution. Collectively, TV channels can reach more than 50 million people across the country.
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 28,499,324
    percent of population: 18.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 7.296 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
  • Transportation :: Bangladesh
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,906,799 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 182,692,553 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    S2 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    18 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 16 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 5 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 2 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    3 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    2950 km gas (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 2,460 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    broad gauge: 659 km 1.676-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Roadways field listing
    total: 369,105 km (2018)
    paved: 110,311 km (2018)
    unpaved: 258,794 km (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Waterways field listing
    8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 329
    by type: bulk carrier 33, container ship 4, general cargo 77, oil tanker 122, other 93 (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Chittagong
    container port(s) (TEUs): Chittagong (2,566,597) (2017)
    river port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
  • Military and Security :: Bangladesh
  • Military expenditures field listing
    1.37% of GDP (2018)
    1.38% of GDP (2017)
    1.44% of GDP (2016)
    1.46% of GDP (2015)
    1.36% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Military branches field listing
    Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force (2019)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    16-21 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi nationality and 10th grade education required; officers: 17-21 years of age, Bangladeshi nationality, and 12th grade education required (2018)
    Maritime threats field listing
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh remain a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2018, the number of attacks against commercial vessels increased to 12 over the 11 such incidents in 2017
  • Terrorism :: Bangladesh
  • Terrorist groups - home based field listing
    Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B):
    aim(s): install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
    area(s) of operation: headquartered in Bangladesh and mostly active in the southeast; maintains a network of madrassas in Bangladesh (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) networks in Bangladesh:
    aim(s): replace the Bangladesh Government with an Islamic state and implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; ISIS operates in Bangladesh under the name Islamic State in Bangladesh (ISB)
    area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Dhaka
    note: targets foreigners, foreign aid workers, university professors, students, and secular bloggers for assassination; core ISIS refers to its Bangladesh branch as Bengal (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    al-Qa'ida (AQ):
    aim(s): overthrow the Bangladesh Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation:
    operates in collaboration with its al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent affiliate (April 2018)
    al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS):
    aim(s): protect Muslims in Bangladesh from perceived injustices and, ultimately, establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
    area(s) of operation:
    active throughout the country, targeting primarily military and security personnel and US interests (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Bangladesh
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 912,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Rakhine State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 914,998 (Burma) (2019) (includes an estimated 744,400 Rohingya refugees who have fled conflict since 25 August 2017)
    IDPs: 426,000 (conflict, development, human rights violations, religious persecution, natural disasters) (2018)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries