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South America :: CHILE
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CHILE
  • Introduction :: CHILE

  • Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while an indigenous people, the Mapuche, inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, it did not achieve decisive victory over the Spanish until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia to win its present northern regions. In the 1880s, the Chilean central government gained control over the central and southern regions inhabited by the Mapuche. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a democratically-elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.
  • Geography :: CHILE

  • Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
    30 00 S, 71 00 W
    South America
    total: 756,102 sq km
    land: 743,812 sq km
    water: 12,290 sq km
    note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez
    country comparison to the world: 39
    slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
    Area comparison map:
    total: 7,801 km
    border countries (3): Argentina 6,691 km, Bolivia 942 km, Peru 168 km
    6,435 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200/350 nm
    temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
    low coastal mountains, fertile central valley, rugged Andes in east
    mean elevation: 1,871 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
    copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
    agricultural land: 21.1%
    arable land 1.7%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%
    forest: 21.9%
    other: 57% (2011 est.)
    11,100 sq km (2012)
    90% of the population is located in the middle third of the country around the capital of Santiago; the far north (anchored by the Atacama Desert) and the extreme south are relatively underpopulated
    severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
    volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica; see note 2 under "Geography - note"
    air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; noise pollution; improper garbage disposal; soil degradation; widespread deforestation and mining threaten the environment
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    note 1: the longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 39 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)
    note 2: Chile is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
    note 3: the Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country; the small crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world's highest lake (at 6,390 m)
  • People and Society :: CHILE

  • 17,789,267 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    noun: Chilean(s)
    adjective: Chilean
    white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)
    Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%
    note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)
    Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, other 3.4%, none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.)
    Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.
    Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.
    0-14 years: 20.11% (male 1,825,254/female 1,751,735)
    15-24 years: 15.04% (male 1,364,831/female 1,311,216)
    25-54 years: 43.08% (male 3,830,538/female 3,832,989)
    55-64 years: 10.96% (male 918,559/female 1,031,153)
    65 years and over: 10.81% (male 805,880/female 1,117,112) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 45.5
    youth dependency ratio: 30.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 15.2
    potential support ratio: 6.6 (2015 est.)
    total: 34.4 years
    male: 33.2 years
    female: 35.6 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    0.77% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    13.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    90% of the population is located in the middle third of the country around the capital of Santiago; the far north (anchored by the Atacama Desert) and the extreme south are relatively underpopulated
    urban population: 87.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    SANTIAGO (capital) 6.68 million; Valparaiso 967,000; Concepcion 857,000 (2018)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    22 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    total: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    total population: 78.9 years
    male: 75.9 years
    female: 82.1 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    1.8 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    76.3% (2015/16)
    7.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    1.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    2.2 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    improved:
    urban: 99.7% of population
    rural: 93.3% of population
    total: 99% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.3% of population
    rural: 6.7% of population
    total: 1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 90.9% of population
    total: 99.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 9.1% of population
    total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    61,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    NA
    28% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    0.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    4.9% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.5%
    male: 97.6%
    female: 97.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2015)
    total: 17.2%
    male: 16.1%
    female: 18.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
  • Government :: CHILE

  • conventional long form: Republic of Chile
    conventional short form: Chile
    local long form: Republica de Chile
    local short form: Chile
    etymology: derivation of the name is unclear, but it may come from the Mapuche word "chilli" meaning "limit of the earth" or from the Quechua "chiri" meaning "cold"
    presidential republic
    name: Santiago; note - Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature
    geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W
    time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in August; ends second Sunday in May; note - Punta Arenas observes DST throughout the year
    note: Chile has three time zones: the continental portion at UTC-3; the southern Magallanes region, which does not use daylight savings time and remains at UTC-3 for the summer months; and Easter Island at UTC-5
    16 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aysen, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena (Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica), Maule, Nuble, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
    note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
    18 September 1810 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
    many previous; latest adopted 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended many times, last in 2011; note - in late 2015, the Chilean Government initiated a process to reform its constitution (2016)
    civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Sebastian PINERA Echenique (since 11 March 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Sebastian PINERA Echenique (since 11 March 2018)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 19 November 2017 with a runoff held 17 December 2017 (next to be held in November 2021)
    election results: Sebastian PINERA Echenique elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique (independent) 36.6%; Alejandro GUILLIER (independent) 22.7%; Beatriz SANCHEZ (independent) 20.3%; Jose Antonio KAST (independent) 7.9%; Carolina GOIC (PDC) 5.9%; Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI (PRO) 5.7%; other 0.9%; percent of vote in second round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique 54.6%, Alejandro GUILLIER 45.4%
    description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (43 seats following the 2017 election; to increase to 50 in 2022); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 8-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (155 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by oen party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 19 November 2017 (next to be held in 2021); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 19 November 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority Coalition (formerly known as Concertacion) 19 (PDC 6, PS 6, PPD 6, MAS 1), Let's Go Chile Coalition (formerly known as the Coalition for Change and the Alianza coalition) 15 (RN 6, UDI 8, Amplitude Party 1), independent 4
    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority 68 (PDC 21, PS 16, PPD 14, PC 6, PRSD 6, Citizen Left 1, independent 4), Coalition for Change 47 (UDI 29, RN 14, independent 3, EP 1), Liberal Party 1, independent 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of a court president and 20 members or ministros); Constitutional Court (consists of 10 members); Elections Qualifying Court (consists of 5 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges (ministers) appointed by the president of the republic and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 70; Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 by the Supreme Court, 3 by the president of the republic, 2 by the Chamber of Deputies, and 2 by the Senate; members serve 9-year terms with partial membership replacement every 3 years (the court reviews constitutionality of legislation); Elections Qualifying Court members appointed by lottery - 1 by the former president or vice-president of the Senate and 1 by the former president or vice-president of the Chamber of Deputies, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 1 by the Appellate Court of Valparaiso; members appointed for 4-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; oral criminal tribunals; military tribunals; local police courts; specialized tribunals and courts in matters such as family, labor, customs, taxes, and electoral affairs
    Amplitude (Amplitud) [Lily PEREZ]
    Broad Social Movement or MAS [Cristian TAPIA Ramos]
    Democratic Revolution or RD [Rodrigo ECHECOPAR]
    Let’s Go Chile Coalition (Chile Vamos) (includes Political Evolution or EVOPOLI [Jorge SAINT JEAN], Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Alejandra BRAVO Hidalgo], National Renewal or RN [Cristian MONCKEBERG Bruner], and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Jacqueline VAN RYSSELBERGHE Herrera])
    Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Chile) [Vlado MIROSEVIC]
    New Majority Coalition (Nueva Mayoria) (includes Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Carolina GOIC Boroevic], Communist Party of Chile or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle], Party for Democracy or PPD [Gonzalo NAVARRETE], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Ernesto VELASCO Rodriguez], Socialist Party or PS [Alvaro ELIZALDE Soto]; formerly known as Concertacion)
    Progressive Party or PRO [Patricia MORALES]
    APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Julio FIOL (since 11 March 2018)
    chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
    FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Carol PEREZ (since 14 November 2016)
    embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
    mailing address: APO AA 34033
    telephone: [56] (2) 2330-3000
    FAX: [56] (2) 2330-3710, 2330-3160
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red represents the blood spilled to achieve independence
    note: design influenced by the US flag
    huemul (mountain deer), Andean condor; national colors: red, white, blue
    name: "Himno Nacional de Chile" (National Anthem of Chile)
    lyrics/music: Eusebio LILLO Robles and Bernardo DE VERA y Pintado/Ramon CARNICER y Battle
    note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics adopted 1847; under Augusto PINOCHET"s military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added; however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse; it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990
  • Economy :: CHILE

  • Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some 60% of total exports. Copper is Chile’s top export and provides 20% of government revenue.
    From 2003 through 2013, real growth averaged almost 5% per year, despite a slight contraction in 2009 that resulted from the global financial crisis. Growth slowed to an estimated 1.4% in 2017. A continued drop in copper prices prompted Chile to experience its third consecutive year of slow growth.
    Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, effective 1 January 2004. Chile has 26 trade agreements covering 60 countries including agreements with the EU, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. In May 2010, Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD. In October 2015, Chile signed the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, which was finalized as the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and signed at a ceremony in Chile in March 2018.
    The Chilean Government has generally followed a countercyclical fiscal policy, under which it accumulates surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and generally allows deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. As of 31 October 2016, those sovereign wealth funds - kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves - amounted to more than $23.5 billion. Chile used these funds to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn.
    In 2014, then-President Michelle BACHELET introduced tax reforms aimed at delivering her campaign promise to fight inequality and to provide access to education and health care. The reforms are expected to generate additional tax revenues equal to 3% of Chile’s GDP, mostly by increasing corporate tax rates to OECD averages.
    $451.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $445.4 billion (2016 est.)
    $435.4 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 45
    $277 billion (2017 est.)
    1.5% (2017 est.)
    1.3% (2016 est.)
    2.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    $24,500 (2017 est.)
    $24,500 (2016 est.)
    $24,200 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 83
    20.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    21.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    household consumption: 63.9%
    government consumption: 13.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
    investment in inventories: -0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 28.2%
    imports of goods and services: -27.6% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 4.4%
    industry: 31.4%
    services: 64.3% (2017 est.)
    grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
    copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    8.881 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    agriculture: 9.2%
    industry: 23.7%
    services: 67.1% (2013)
    7% (2017 est.)
    6.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    14.4% (2013)
    lowest 10%: 1.7%
    highest 10%: 41.5% (2013 est.)
    50.5 (2013)
    57.1 (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    revenues: $56.73 billion
    expenditures: $64.89 billion (2017 est.)
    21.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    -3.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    23.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    calendar year
    2.2% (2017 est.)
    3.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    3.35% (31 December 2015)
    3% (31 December 2014)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    4.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.59% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    $51.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $44.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    $174.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $158.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $233.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $211.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    $190.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $233.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $265.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    -$4.092 billion (2017 est.)
    -$3.462 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    $64.51 billion (2017 est.)
    $60.6 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
    China 27.5%, US 14.5%, Japan 9.3%, South Korea 6.2%, Brazil 5% (2017)
    $59.92 billion (2017 est.)
    $55.34 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
    China 23.9%, US 18.1%, Brazil 8.6%, Argentina 4.5%, Germany 4% (2017)
    $39.11 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $40.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    $167.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $158.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    $208.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $199.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $97.59 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $90.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar -
    653.9 (2017 est.)
    676.94 (2016 est.)
    676.94 (2015 est.)
    658.93 (2014 est.)
    570.37 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: CHILE

  • population without electricity: 70,600
    electrification - total population: 99.6%
    electrification - urban areas: 100%
    electrification - rural areas: 98% (2012)
    71.66 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    67.95 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    21.64 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    60.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    30% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    16.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    4,423 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    163,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    150 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    215,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    337,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    4,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    160,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    1.008 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    4.392 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    3.727 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    97.97 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    76 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
  • Communications :: CHILE

  • total subscriptions: 3,375,037
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    total: 23,302,603
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    general assessment: privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
    domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self-financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations (2007)
    .cl
    total: 11,650,840
    percent of population: 66.0% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
  • Transportation :: CHILE

  • number of registered air carriers: 9
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 173
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,006,762
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,392.236 million mt-km (2015)
    CC (2016)
    481 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    total: 90
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
    914 to 1,523 m: 31
    under 914 m: 24 (2017)
    total: 391
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
    914 to 1,523 m: 56
    under 914 m: 319 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 3,160 km; liquid petroleum gas 781 km; oil 985 km; refined products 722 km (2013)
    total: 7,281.5 km
    broad gauge: 3,428 km 1.676-m gauge (1,691 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 3,853.5 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    total: 77,764 km
    paved: 18,119 km (includes 2,387 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 59,645 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    total: 211
    by type: bulk carrier 10, container ship 5, general cargo 54, oil tanker 12, other 130 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    major seaport(s): Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Mejillones, Quintero
  • Military and Security :: CHILE

  • 1.87% of GDP (2016)
    1.91% of GDP (2015)
    1.96% of GDP (2014)
    1.99% of GDP (2013)
    2.05% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Chilean Army, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes Naval Aviation, Marine Corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh) (2015)
    18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment of males 18-45 is retained; service obligation is 12 months for Army and 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2015)
  • Transnational Issues :: CHILE

  • Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
    refugees (country of origin): 86,726 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2018)
    transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe and the region; some money laundering activity, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising, making Chile a significant consumer of cocaine