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Australia-Oceania :: FIJI
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FIJI
  • Introduction :: FIJI

  • Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a civilian-led coup in 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government led by Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE. Reelected in May 2006, QARASE was ousted in a December 2006 military coup led by Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA, who initially appointed himself acting president but in January 2007 became interim prime minister. Following years of political turmoil, long-delayed legislative elections were held in September 2014 that were deemed "credible" by international observers and that resulted in BAINIMARAMA being reelected.
  • Geography :: FIJI

  • Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
    18 00 S, 175 00 E
    Oceania
    total: 18,274 sq km
    land: 18,274 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 157
    slightly smaller than New Jersey
    0 km
    1,129 km
    measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
    mostly mountains of volcanic origin
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m
    timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower
    agricultural land: 23.3%
    arable land 9%; permanent crops 4.7%; permanent pasture 9.6%
    forest: 55.7%
    other: 21% (2011 est.)
    40 sq km (2012)
    cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
    deforestation; soil erosion
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited
  • People and Society :: FIJI

  • 920,938 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    noun: Fijian(s)
    adjective: Fijian
    iTaukei 56.8% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 37.5%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 4.5% (European, part European, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese)
    note: a 2010 law replaces 'Fijian' with 'iTuakei' when referring to the original and native settlers of Fiji (2007 est.)
    English (official), Fijian (official), Hindustani
    Protestant 45% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, and Anglican 0.8%), Hindu 27.9%, other Christian 10.4%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other 0.3%, none 0.8% (2007 est.)
    0-14 years: 27.7% (male 130,394/female 124,734)
    15-24 years: 16.13% (male 75,803/female 72,774)
    25-54 years: 41.08% (male 193,700/female 184,629)
    55-64 years: 8.53% (male 39,853/female 38,748)
    65 years and over: 6.55% (male 27,714/female 32,589) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 52.8
    youth dependency ratio: 43.9
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.9
    potential support ratio: 11.2 (2015 est.)
    total: 28.6 years
    male: 28.4 years
    female: 28.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    18.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    -6.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    urban population: 54.5% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 1.18% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    SUVA (capital) 176,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    30 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    total population: 72.7 years
    male: 70 years
    female: 75.5 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    2.41 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    4.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    0.44 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    improved:
    urban: 99.5% of population
    rural: 91.2% of population
    total: 95.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.5% of population
    rural: 8.8% of population
    total: 4.3% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 93.4% of population
    rural: 88.4% of population
    total: 91.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 6.6% of population
    rural: 11.6% of population
    total: 8.9% of population (2015 est.)
    0.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    <1000 (2016 est.)
    <100 (2016 est.)
    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
    35.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    3.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    total: 18.7%
    male: 14.8%
    female: 25.4% (2007 est.)
  • Government :: FIJI

  • conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
    conventional short form: Fiji
    local long form: Republic of Fiji/Matanitu ko Viti
    local short form: Fiji/Viti
    etymology: the Fijians called their home Viti, but the neighboring Tongans called it Fisi, and in the Anglicized spelling of the Tongan pronunciation - promulgated by explorer Captain James COOK - the designation became Fiji
    parliamentary republic
    name: Suva (on Viti Levu)
    geographic coordinates: 18 08 S, 178 25 E
    time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in November; ends second Sunday in January
    14 provinces and 1 dependency*; Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Kadavu, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Nadroga and Navosa, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ra, Rewa, Rotuma*, Serua, Tailevu
    10 October 1970 (from the UK)
    Fiji (Independence) Day, 10 October (1970)
    several previous; latest signed into law September 2013 (2016)
    common law system based on the English model
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Fiji
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Jioji Konousi KONROTE (since 12 November 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Voreqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA (since 22 September 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
    elections/appointments: president elected by Parliament for a 3-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 October 2015 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Jioji Konousi KONROTE elected president; Parliament vote - Jioji Konousi KONROTE (Fiji First) 31, Ratu Epeli GANILAU (opposition) 14
    description: unicameral Parliament (50 seats - 51 beginning in 2018; members directly elected in a nationwide, multi-seat constituency by open-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 17 September 2014 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - FijiFirst 59.2%, SODELPA 28.2%, NFP 5.5%, other 7.1%; seats by party - FijiFirst 32, SODELPA 15, NFP 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, all justices of the Court of Appeal, and judges appointed specifically as Supreme Court judges); Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, all puisne judges of the High Court, and judges specifically appointed to the Court of Appeal); High Court (chaired by the chief justice and includes a minimum of 10 puisne judges; High Court organized into civil, criminal, family, employment, and tax divisions)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition; judges of the Supreme Court, the president of the Court of Appeal, the justices of the Court of Appeal, and puisne judges of the High Court appointed by the president of Fiji upon the nomination of the Judicial Service Commission after consulting with the cabinet minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice, Supreme Court judges and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70 but may be waived for one or more sessions of the court; puisne judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years with mandatory retirement at age 65
    subordinate courts: Magistrates' Court (organized into civil, criminal, juvenile, and small claims divisions)
    FijiFirst [Frank BAINIMARAMA]
    Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]
    Fiji United Freedon Party or FUFP [Jagath KARUNARATNE]
    National Federation Party or NFP [Biman PRASAD] (primarily Indian)
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Lynda TABUYA]
    Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Sitiveni RABUKA]
    Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (suports restoration of a democratic government)
    Viti Landowners Association
    ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca (suspended), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Solo MARA (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 2000 M Street NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 466-8320
    FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325
    chief of mission: Ambassador Judith CEFKIN (since 3 February 2015); note - also accredited to Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu
    embassy: 158 Princes Rd, Tamavua
    mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
    telephone: [679] 331-4466
    FAX: [679] 330-8685
    light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the blue symbolizes the Pacific ocean and the Union Jack reflects the links with Great Britain; the shield - taken from Fiji's coat of arms - depicts a yellow lion, holding a coconut pod between its paws, above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George; the four quarters depict stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, a banana bunch, and a white dove of peace
    Fijian canoe; national color: light blue
    name: "God Bless Fiji"
    lyrics/music: Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT/C. Austin MILES (adapted by Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT)
    note: adopted 1970; known in Fijian as "Meda Dau Doka" (Let Us Show Pride); adapted from the hymn, "Dwelling in Beulah Land," the anthem's English lyrics are generally sung, although they differ in meaning from the official Fijian lyrics
  • Economy :: FIJI

  • Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed and connected of the Pacific island economies. Earnings from the tourism industry, with an estimated 792,300 tourists visiting in 2016, and remittances from Fijian’s working abroad are the country’s largest foreign exchange earners.
    Fiji's sugar sector remains a significant industry and a major export, but crops and one of the sugar mills suffered damage during Cyclone Winston in 2016. The sector also faces the complete withdrawal of European Union preferential prices in 2017. Fiji’s trade imbalance continues to widen with increased imports and sluggish performance of domestic exports.
    The return to parliamentary democracy and successful elections in September 2014 improved investor confidence, but increasing bureaucratic regulation, new taxes and lack of consultation with relevant stakeholders brought four consecutive years of decline for Fiji on the World Bank Ease of Doing Business index. Private sector investment in 2016 exceeded 20% of GDP, compared to 13% in 2013.
    $8.298 billion (2016 est.)
    $8.137 billion (2015 est.)
    $7.857 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 161
    $4.64 billion (2016 est.)
    2% (2016 est.)
    3.6% (2015 est.)
    5.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $9,300 (2016 est.)
    $9,100 (2015 est.)
    $8,900 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 141
    12.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    8.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    household consumption: 72.5%
    government consumption: 11%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.5%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 50.4%
    imports of goods and services: -54.4% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 10.6%
    industry: 18.4%
    services: 71% (2016 est.)
    sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish
    tourism, sugar processing, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
    1.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    350.1 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 232
    agriculture: 70%
    industry and services: 30% (2001 est.)
    8.8% (2014 est.)
    8.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    31% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 34.9% (2009 est.)
    revenues: $1.232 billion
    expenditures: $1.469 billion (2016 est.)
    27% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    -5.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    50.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    48.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    calendar year
    3.9% (2016 est.)
    1.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    1.75% (31 December 2010)
    3% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    5.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
    5.79% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $2.083 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.931 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $3.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $3.325 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    $3.365 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $3.068 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $452.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $392.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $418.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    -$139 million (2016 est.)
    -$67 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $986.3 million (2016 est.)
    $1.233 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil, mineral water
    US 21.8%, Australia 18.1%, NZ 8.5%, China 6.2%, Tonga 5.1%, Vanuatu 5.1%, UK 4.5%, Kiribati 4.1% (2016)
    $2.397 billion (2016 est.)
    $2.283 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals
    NZ 17.1%, Australia 17%, Singapore 15.1%, China 15%, Japan 6.7% (2016)
    $884 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $918.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $833.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $820.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    $4.347 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $4.047 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    $192.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $189.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar -
    2.11 (2016 est.)
    2.1 (2015 est.)
    2.1 (2014 est.)
    1.89 (2013 est.)
    1.79 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: FIJI

  • population without electricity: 375,274
    electrification - total population: 59%
    electrification - urban areas: 72%
    electrification - rural areas: 45% (2012)
    900 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    800 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    300,000 kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    46.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    48.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    5.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    16,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    15,970 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    1.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
  • Communications :: FIJI

  • total subscriptions: 74,182
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    total: 927,793
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center; subject to occasional devastating cyclones
    domestic: telephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada, as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2016)
    Fiji TV, a publicly traded company, operates a free-to-air channel, as well as Sky Fiji and Sky Pacific multi-channel pay-TV services; state-owned commercial company, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Ltd, operates 6 radio stations - 2 public broadcasters and 4 commercial broadcasters with multiple repeaters; 5 radio stations with repeaters operated by Communications Fiji, Ltd; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2009)
    .fj
    total: 425,680
    percent of population: 46.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
  • Transportation :: FIJI

  • number of registered air carriers: 2
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,336,976
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 83,686,504 mt-km (2015)
    DQ (2016)
    28 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    total: 4
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
    total: 24
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 19 (2013)
    total: 597 km
    narrow gauge: 597 km 0.600-m gauge
    note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during the harvest season, which runs from May to December (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    total: 3,440 km
    paved: 1,686 km
    unpaved: 1,754 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    203 km (122 km are navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    total: 11
    by type: passenger 4, passenger/cargo 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 2 (Australia 2) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    major seaport(s): Lautoka, Levuka, Suva
  • Military and Security :: FIJI

  • 0.98% of GDP (2016)
    1.07% of GDP (2015)
    1.03% of GDP (2014)
    1.39% of GDP (2013)
    1.49% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF): Land Forces, Naval Forces (2011)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: FIJI

  • none