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South Asia :: India Print
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INDIA
  • Introduction :: India
  • Background field listing

    The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.

    By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent and India was seen as the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

  • Geography :: India
  • Location field listing
    Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    20 00 N, 77 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Asia
    Area field listing
    total: 3,287,263 sq km
    land: 2,973,193 sq km
    water: 314,070 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly more than one-third the size of the US
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 13,888 km
    border countries (6): Bangladesh 4142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1468 km, China 2659 km, Nepal 1770 km, Pakistan 3190 km
    Coastline field listing
    7,000 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    Climate field listing
    varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
    Terrain field listing
    upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 160 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Indian Ocean
    8586 highest point: Kanchenjunga
    Natural resources field listing
    coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 60.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 52.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 23.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    667,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations
    Natural hazards field listing

    droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

    volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

    Environment - current issues field listing
    deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources; preservation and quality of forests; biodiversity loss
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
  • People and Society :: India
  • Population field listing
    1,296,834,042 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Indian(s)
    adjective: Indian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
    Languages field listing
    Hindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6% (2011 est.)

    note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; there are 22 other officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

    Religions field listing
    Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 26.98% (male 185,736,879 /female 164,194,080)
    15-24 years: 17.79% (male 122,573,662 /female 108,109,968)
    25-54 years: 41.24% (male 276,283,581 /female 258,563,835)
    55-64 years: 7.6% (male 49,334,703 /female 49,197,817)
    65 years and over: 6.39% (male 39,184,523 /female 43,654,994) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 52.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 43.6 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 28.1 years
    male: 27.5 years
    female: 28.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.14% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Birth rate field listing
    18.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Death rate field listing
    7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Net migration rate field listing
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Population distribution field listing
    with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 34% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    28.514 million NEW DELHI (capital), 19.98 million Mumbai, 14.681 million Kolkata, 11.44 million Bangalore, 10.456 million Chennai, 9.482 million Hyderabad (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 37.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 36.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 69.1 years (2018 est.)
    male: 67.8 years (2018 est.)
    female: 70.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2.4 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    53.5% (2015/16)
    Health expenditures field listing
    4.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Physicians density field listing
    0.76 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 97.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 92.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 94.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 7.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 62.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 28.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 39.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 37.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 71.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    2.1 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    69,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016)
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    3.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    35.7% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 71.2% (2015 est.)
    male: 81.3% (2015 est.)
    female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 12 years (2014)
    male: 12 years (2014)
    female: 12 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 10.1% (2012 est.)
    male: 9.5% (2012 est.)
    female: 12% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Government :: India
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of India
    conventional short form: India
    local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
    local short form: India/Bharat
    etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
    Government type field listing
    federal parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: New Delhi
    geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
    time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

    note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi

    Independence field listing
    15 August 1947 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one-half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2016 (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
    cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party
    election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; M. Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; electoral college vote - M. Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 516, Gopalkrishna GANDHI (independent) 244
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of:
    Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms)
    House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Council of States - last held by state and territorial assemblies at various dates in 2018

    House of the People - last held April-May 2014 in 9 phases; (next must be held by May 2019)
    election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 218, women 27, percent of women 11%

    House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3.%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3; composition - men 483, women 62, percent of women 11.4%; note - total Parliament percent of women 11.3%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court

    note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases

    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [Edappadi PALANISWAMY, Occhaathevar PANNEERSELVAM]
    All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
    Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
    Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
    Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
    Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Sitaram YECHURY]
    Indian National Congress or INC [Rahul GANDHI]
    Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
    Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
    Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
    Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV]
    Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
    Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
    Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
    Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
    YSR Congress or YSRC [Jagan Mohan REDDY]

    note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

    International organization participation field listing
    ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Navtej Singh SARNA (since 18 January 2017)
    chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone: [1](202) 939-7000
    telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth I. JUSTER (since 23 November 2017)
    embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
    FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
    consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation

    note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

    National symbol(s) field listing
    the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
    lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

    note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem

  • Economy :: India
  • Economy - overview field listing

    India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the workforce is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. Nevertheless, per capita income remains below the world average. India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2017.

    India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee through 2016.

    The economy slowed again in 2017, due to shocks of "demonetizaton" in 2016 and introduction of GST in 2017. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors, but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes, largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills.

    India has a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and is increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $9.474 trillion (2017 est.)
    $8.88 trillion (2016 est.)
    $8.291 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 3
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $2.602 trillion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    6.7% (2017 est.)
    7.1% (2016 est.)
    8.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $7,200 (2017 est.)
    $6,800 (2016 est.)
    $6,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 156
    Gross national saving field listing
    28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    30.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 28.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3.9% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 19.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 15.4% (2016 est.)
    industry: 23% (2016 est.)
    services: 61.5% (2016 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
    Industries field listing
    textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    5.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Labor force field listing
    521.9 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 47%
    industry: 22%
    services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    8.5% (2017 est.)
    8.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Population below poverty line field listing
    21.9% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
    highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    35.2 (2011)
    37.8 (1997)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 238.2 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 329 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    9.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Public debt field listing
    71.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 47
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.6% (2017 est.)
    4.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    6% (31 December 2017)
    6.25% (31 December 2016)

    note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate

    country comparison to the world: 69
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    9.51% (31 December 2017 est.)
    9.67% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $1.927 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.684 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Current account balance field listing
    -$48.66 billion (2017 est.)
    -$14.35 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Exports field listing
    $304.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $268.6 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Exports - partners field listing
    US 15.6%, UAE 10.2%, Hong Kong 4.9%, China 4.3% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
    Imports field listing
    $452.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $376.1 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Imports - commodities field listing
    crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 16.3%, US 5.5%, UAE 5.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $409.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $359.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Debt - external field listing
    $501.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $456.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $377.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $318.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $155.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $144.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Exchange rates field listing
    Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
    65.17 (2017 est.)
    67.195 (2016 est.)
    67.195 (2015 est.)
    64.152 (2014 est.)
    61.03 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: India
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 237.4 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 79% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 98% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 70% (2013)
    Electricity - production field listing
    1.386 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    1.137 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Electricity - exports field listing
    5.15 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Electricity - imports field listing
    5.617 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    367.8 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Crude oil - production field listing
    733,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    4.057 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    4.495 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    4.897 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    4.521 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    1.305 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    653,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Natural gas - production field listing
    31.54 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    55.43 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    1.29 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    2.383 billion Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
  • Communications :: India
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 23,234,687 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,168,902,277 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: supported by deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 1 billion in 2015, an overall teledensity of roughly 80%, and subscribership is currently growing at roughly 5 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100%, and rural teledensity has reached 50% (2015)
    domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) (2015)
    international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2015)
    Broadcast media field listing
    Doordarshan, India's public TV network, has a monopoly on terrestrial broadcasting and operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2015)
    Internet country code field listing
    .in
    Internet users field listing
    total: 374,328,160 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 29.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 17,856,024 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
  • Transportation :: India
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 20 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 98,927,860 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,833,847,614 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    VT (2016)
    Airports field listing
    346 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 253 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 22 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 59 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 76 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 82 (2017)
    under 914 m: 14 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 93 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 38 (2013)
    under 914 m: 45 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    45 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    9 km condensate/gas, 13581 km gas, 2054 km liquid petroleum gas, 8943 km oil, 20 km oil/gas/water, 11069 km refined products (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 68,525 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified) (2014)
    622 0.762-m gauge
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Roadways field listing
    total: 4,699,024 km (2015)

    note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads

    country comparison to the world: 2
    Waterways field listing
    14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1,674 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 74, container ship 20, general cargo 571, oil tanker 126, other 883 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
    container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,495,000), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,517,587), Mundra (3,320,285) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
  • Military and Security :: India
  • Military expenditures field listing
    2.47% of GDP (2016)
    2.41% of GDP (2015)
    2.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Military branches field listing
    Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and will soon be allowed in all combat roles (2016)
  • Terrorism :: India
  • Terrorist groups - home based field listing
    Hizbul Mujahideen (HM):
    aim(s): annex the state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan
    area(s) of operation: HM is an indigenous Kashmiri militant group that operates in Jammu and Kashmir (April 2018)
    Indian Mujahedeen (IM):
    aim(s): establish Islamic rule in India and, ultimately, convert all non-Muslims to Islam; stated goal is to carry out terrorist attacks against Indians for perceived atrocities against Indian Muslims
    area(s) of operation: formerly based in the western state of Maharashtra, India's third-largest and second-most populous state, and now probably operates mostly outside India (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    al-Qa'ida (AQ):
    aim(s): overthrow the Indian Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence as al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (April 2018)
    al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS):
    aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
    area(s) of operation: targets primarily military and security personnel, especially in the states of Assam, Gujarat, and Jammu and Kashmir; present in large cities, including Delhi (April 2018)
    Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI):
    aim(s): enhance its networks and operational capabilities in India
    area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence, especially in the south, including in Bangalore and Hubli (April 2018)
    Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B):
    aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
    area(s) of operation: maintains a low-profile presence (April 2018)
    Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM):
    aim(s): enhance its networks and paramilitary training in India and, ultimately, annex Kashmir into Pakistan and establish an Islamic state in Kashmir
    area(s) of operation: conducts attacks against Indian troops and civilians in Kashmir (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K):
    aim(s):  spread the ISIS caliphate by eliminating the Indian Government and, ultimately, unite Kashmir with Pakistan
    area(s) of operation:  maintains a recruitment presence in major cities
    Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM):
    aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan
    area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Jammu and Kashmir State (April 2018)
    Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT):
    aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir State to Pakistan and, ultimately, install Islamic rule throughout South Asia
    area(s) of operation: operational throughout India, especially in the north in Jammu and Kashmir State, since at least 1993
    note: continues to be one of the largest and most deadly of the anti-India-focused armed groups (April 2018)
    Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE):
    aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, revive the movement to establish a Tamil homeland
    area(s) of operation: maintains safe havens, transit routes, human trafficking, and an operational presence in an effort to revive the movement and conduct attacks (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: India
  • Disputes - international field listing

    since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue

    Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas)

    India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries

    UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian SeaPakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat StatePrime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implementedBangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the SeaJoint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani RiverIndia maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 110,098 (Tibet/China), 63,162 (Sri Lanka), 15,561 (Burma), 7,693 (Afghanistan) (2015)
    IDPs: 806,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2017)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production