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Europe :: Jersey Print
Page last updated on October 15, 2020
  • Introduction :: Jersey
  • Background field listing
    Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. The Bailiwick of Jersey is a British Crown dependency, which means that it is not part of the UK but is rather a self-governing possession of the British Crown. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.
  • Geography :: Jersey
  • Location field listing
    Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    49 15 N, 2 10 W
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 116 sq km
    land: 116 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 225
    Area - comparative field listing
    about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    70 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
    Climate field listing
    temperate; mild winters and cool summers
    Terrain field listing
    gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
    Elevation field listing
    lowest point: English Channel 0 m
    highest point: Les Platons 136 m
    Natural resources field listing
    arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 66% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 66% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 34% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    Population distribution field listing
    fairly even distribution; no notable trends
    Natural hazards field listing
    very large tidal variation can be hazardous to navigation
    Environment - current issues field listing
    habitat and species depletion due to human encroachment; water pollution; improper solid waste disposal
    Geography - note field listing
    largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
  • People and Society :: Jersey
  • Population field listing
    101,073 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Channel Islander(s)
    adjective: Channel Islander
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Jersey 46.4%, British 32.7%, Portuguese/Madeiran 8.2%, Polish 3.3%, Irish, French, and other white 7.1%, other 2.4% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing

    English (official) 94.5%, Portuguese 4.6%, other .9% (includes French (official) and Jerriais)

    (2001 est.)
    note: data represent main spoken language; the traditional language of Jersey is Jerriais or Jersey French (a Norman language), which was spoken by fewer than 3,000 people as of 2001;  two-thirds of Jerriais speakers are aged 60 and over 
    Religions field listing
    Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian), Roman Catholic
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 16.63% (male 8,689/female 8,124)
    15-24 years: 12.98% (male 6,764/female 6,354)
    25-54 years: 40.12% (male 20,499/female 20,054)
    55-64 years: 13.22% (male 6,515/female 6,844)
    65 years and over: 17.05% (male 7,324/female 9,906) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 49
    youth dependency ratio: 22.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 26.7
    potential support ratio: 3.7 (2020 est.)

    note: data represent the Guernsey and Jersey

    Median age field listing
    total: 37.5 years
    male: 36 years
    female: 39.5 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.72% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Birth rate field listing
    12.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Death rate field listing
    7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Net migration rate field listing
    2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Population distribution field listing
    fairly even distribution; no notable trends
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 31% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    note: data represent Guernsey and Jersey

    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    34,000 SAINT HELIER (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 82.2 years
    male: 79.7 years
    female: 84.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.67 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: total: 94.2% of population
    unimproved: total: 5.9% of population (2017 est.)
    note: includes data for Guernsey
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: total: 98.5% of population
    unimproved: total: 1.5% of population (2017)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    Education expenditures field listing
  • Government :: Jersey
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
    conventional short form: Jersey
    former: Norman Isles
    etymology: the name is of Old Norse origin, but the meaning of the root "Jer(s)" is uncertain; the "-ey" ending means "island"
    Dependency status field listing
    British crown dependency
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary democracy (Assembly of the States of Jersey)
    Capital field listing
    name: Saint Helier
    geographic coordinates: 49 11 N, 2 06 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: named after Saint Helier, the patron saint of Jersey, who was reputedly martyred on the island in A.D. 555
    Administrative divisions field listing
    none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes; Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, and Trinity
    Independence field listing
    none (British Crown dependency)
    National holiday field listing
    Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
    Constitution field listing
    history: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
    amendments: proposed by a government minister to the Assembly of the States of Jersey, by an Assembly member, or by an elected parish head; passage requires several Assembly readings, a majority vote by the Assembly, review by the UK Ministry of Justice, and approval of the British monarch (Royal Assent)
    Citizenship field listing
    see United Kingdom
    Suffrage field listing
    16 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Stephen DALTON (since 13 March 2017)
    head of government: Chief Minister John LE FONDRE (since 8 June 2018); Bailiff William BAILHACHE (since 29 January 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed individually by the states
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; Council of Ministers, including the chief minister, indirectly elected by the Assembly of States; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (49 elected members; 8 senators to serve 4-year terms, and 29 deputies and 12 connetables, or heads of parishes, to serve 4-year terms; 5 non-voting members appointed by the monarch include the bailiff, lieutenant governor, dean of Jersey, attorney general, and the solicitor general)
    elections: last held on 16 May 2018 (next to be held on 16 May 2022)
    election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 49; composition - men 36, women 13, percent of 26.5%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Jersey Court of Appeal (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, and 12 judges); Royal Court (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, 6 commissioners and lay people referred to as jurats, and is organized into Heritage, Family, Probate, and Samedi Divisions); appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
    judge selection and term of office: Jersey Court of Appeal bailiffs and judges appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; bailiffs and judges appointed for "extent of good behavior;" Royal Court bailiffs appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; commissioners appointed by the bailiff; jurats appointed by the Electoral College; bailiffs and commissioners appointed for "extent of good behavior;" jurats appointed until retirement at age 72
    subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Youth Court; Petty Debts Court; Parish Hall Enquires (a process of preliminary investigation into youth and minor adult offenses to determine need for presentation before a court)
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    one registered party: Reform Jersey [Sam MEZEC]

    note: most senators and deputies sit as independents

    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    none (British Crown dependency)
    none (British Crown dependency)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    none (British Crown dependency)
    none (British Crown dependency)
    Flag description field listing
    white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with three lions in yellow; according to tradition, the ships of Jersey - in an attempt to differentiate themselves from English ships flying the horizontal cross of St. George - rotated the cross to the "X" (saltire) configuration; because this arrangement still resembled the Irish cross of St. Patrick, the yellow Plantagenet crown and Jersey coat of arms were added
    National symbol(s) field listing
    Jersey cow; national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Isle de Siez Nous" (Island Home)
    lyrics/music: Gerard LE FEUVRE

    note: adopted 2008; serves as a local anthem; as a British Crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

  • Economy :: Jersey
  • Economy - overview field listing
    Jersey's economy is based on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. In 2016, the financial services sector accounted for about 41% of the island's output. Agriculture represented about 1% of Jersey’s economy in 2016. Potatoes are an important export crop, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle originated on the island and is known worldwide. The dairy industry remains important to the island with approximately $8.8 million gallons of milk produced in 2015. Tourism accounts for a significant portion of Jersey’s economy, with more than 700,000 total visitors in 2015. Living standards come close to those of the UK. All raw material and energy requirements are imported as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular offshore financial center. Jersey maintains its relationship with the EU through the UK. Therefore, in light of the UK’s decision to leave the EU, Jersey will also need to renegotiate its ties to the EU.
    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $5.569 billion (2016 est.)
    $5.514 billion (2015 est.)
    $4.98 billion (2014)

    note: data are in 2015 US dollars

    country comparison to the world: 175
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $5.004 billion (2015 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    1% (2016 est.)
    10.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $56,600 (2016 est.)
    $49,500 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 2% (2010)
    industry: 2% (2010)
    services: 96% (2010)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products
    Industries field listing
    tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    Labor force field listing
    59,950 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 3%
    industry: 12%
    services: 85% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    4% (2015 est.)
    4.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Population below poverty line field listing
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 829 million (2005)
    expenditures: 851 million (2005)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    16.6% (of GDP) (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -0.4% (of GDP) (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.7% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Exports field listing


    Exports - commodities field listing
    light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles, flowers
    Imports field listing


    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
    Debt - external field listing


    Exchange rates field listing
    Jersey pounds (JEP) per US dollar
    0.7836 (2017 est.)
    0.738 (2016 est.)
    0.738 (2015)
    0.6542 (2012)
    0.6391 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: Jersey
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    NA (2017)
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    630.1 million kWh (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    450,000 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
  • Communications :: Jersey
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 55,938
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 122,668
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: good system with broadband access (2018)
    domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; fixed-line 58 per 100 and mobile-cellular 119 per 100 subscriptions (2018)
    international: country code - 44; landing points for the INGRID, UK-Channel Islands-8, and Guernsey-Jersey-4, submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    multiple UK terrestrial TV broadcasts are received via a transmitter in Jersey; satellite packages available; BBC Radio Jersey and 1 other radio station operating
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 58,000
    percent of population: 59.6% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
  • Military and Security :: Jersey
  • Military - note field listing
    defense is the responsibility of the UK
  • Transportation :: Jersey
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (registered in UK) (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4 (registered in UK)
    Airports field listing
    1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 226
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 1 (2019)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    Roadways field listing
    total: 576 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier
  • Transnational Issues :: Jersey
  • Disputes - international field listing