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Central America :: Jamaica Print
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JAMAICA
  • Introduction :: Jamaica
  • Background field listing
    The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in the 16th century. The native Taino, who had inhabited Jamaica for centuries, were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island in 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and coffee. The abolition of slavery in 1834 freed a quarter million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually increased its independence from Britain. In 1958 it joined other British Caribbean colonies in forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica withdrew from the Federation in 1961 and gained full independence in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated with the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless, many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.
    JAMAICA SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Jamaica
  • Location field listing
    Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    18 15 N, 77 30 W
    Map references field listing
    Central America and the Caribbean
    Area field listing
    total: 10,991 sq km
    land: 10,831 sq km
    water: 160 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Area - comparative field listing
    about half the size of New Jersey; slightly smaller than Connecticut
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    1,022 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
    measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
    Climate field listing
    tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
    Terrain field listing
    mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 18 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Caribbean Sea
    2256 highest point: Blue Mountain Peak
    Natural resources field listing
    bauxite, gypsum, limestone
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 41.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 11.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 9.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 21.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 31.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 27.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    250 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    population density is high throughout, but increases in and around Kingston, Montego Bay, and Port Esquivel
    Natural hazards field listing
    hurricanes (especially July to November)
    Environment - current issues field listing
    heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston from vehicle emissions; land erosion
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    third largest island in the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola); strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal
  • People and Society :: Jamaica
  • Population field listing
    2,812,090 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Jamaican(s)
    adjective: Jamaican
    Ethnic groups field listing
    black 92.1%, mixed 6.1%, East Indian 0.8%, other 0.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    English, English patois
    Religions field listing
    Protestant 64.8% (includes Seventh Day Adventist 12.0%, Pentecostal 11.0%, Other Church of God 9.2%, New Testament Church of God 7.2%, Baptist 6.7%, Church of God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.5%, Anglican 2.8%, United Church 2.1%, Methodist 1.6%, Revived 1.4%, Brethren 0.9%, and Moravian 0.7%), Roman Catholic 2.2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.9%, Rastafarian 1.1%, other 6.5%, none 21.3%, unspecified 2.3% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 26.01% (male 372,158 /female 359,388)
    15-24 years: 18.36% (male 261,012 /female 255,223)
    25-54 years: 38.03% (male 518,984 /female 550,412)
    55-64 years: 8.89% (male 123,769 /female 126,350)
    65 years and over: 8.71% (male 115,573 /female 129,221) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 48.7 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 34.9 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 13.8 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 7.2 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 28.6 years
    male: 27.8 years
    female: 29.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.05% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Birth rate field listing
    16.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Death rate field listing
    7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Net migration rate field listing
    -4.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Population distribution field listing
    population density is high throughout, but increases in and around Kingston, Montego Bay, and Port Esquivel
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 55.7% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.82% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    589,000 KINGSTON (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    21.2 years (2008 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    89 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 13.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 74.5 years (2018 est.)
    male: 72.7 years (2018 est.)
    female: 76.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2.09 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    72.5% (2008/09)
    Health expenditures field listing
    5.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Physicians density field listing
    0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    1.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 97.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 89.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 93.8% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 10.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 79.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 84.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 81.8% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 20.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 15.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 18.2% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    1.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    34,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    1,500 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Major infectious diseases field listing

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    24.7% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    2.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Education expenditures field listing
    5.4% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school (2015 est.)
    total population: 88.7% (2015 est.)
    male: 84% (2015 est.)
    female: 93.1% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 28.3% (2017 est.)
    male: 23.2% (2017 est.)
    female: 34.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
  • Government :: Jamaica
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Jamaica
    etymology: from the native Taino word "haymaca" meaning "Land of Wood and Water" or possibly "Land of Springs"
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
    Capital field listing
    name: Kingston
    geographic coordinates: 18 00 N, 76 48 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland

    note: for local government purposes, Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated in 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew Corporation

    Independence field listing
    6 August 1962 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 6 August (1962)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous (preindependence); latest drafted 1961-62, submitted to British Parliament 24 July 1962, entered into force 6 August 1962 (at independence) (2018)
    amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage of amendments to “non-entrenched” constitutional sections such as lowering the voting age, requires majority vote by the Parliament membership; passage of amendments to “entrenched” sections such as fundamental rights and freedoms requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament; passage of amendments to “specially entrenched” sections such as the dissolution of Parliament or the executive authority of the monarch requires two-thirds approval by Parliament and approval in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Dr. Patrick L. ALLEN (since 26 February 2009)
    head of government: Prime Minister Andrew HOLNESS (since 3 March 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate (21 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister and the opposition party leader, 13 seats allocated to the ruling party, and 8 seats allocated to the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms)
    House of Representatives (63 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    House of Representatives - last held on 25 February 2016; byelection for 3 seats and 1 seat held on 30 October 2017 and 5 March 2018, respectively (next to be held no later than February 2021)
    election results:
    percent of vote by party - JLP 50.1%, PNP 49.7%, other 0.2%; seats by party - JLP 32, PNP 31
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of president of the court and a minimum of 4 judges); Supreme Court (40 judges organized in specialized divisions); note - appeals beyond Jamaica's highest courts are referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) rather than to the Caribbean Court of Justice (the appellate court implemented for member states of the Caribbean Community)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice of the Supreme Court and president of the Court of Appeal appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister; other judges of both courts appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; judges of both courts serve till age 70
    subordinate courts: resident magistrate courts, district courts, and petty sessions courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Andrew HOLNESS]
    People's National Party or PNP [Dr. Peter David PHILLIPS]
    National Democratic Movement or NDM [Peter TOWNSEND]
    International organization participation field listing
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Audrey Patrice MARKS (since 18 January 2017) (2017)
    chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660
    FAX: [1] (202) 452-0036
    consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
    consulate(s): Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Concord (MA), Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Richmond (VA), San Francisco, Seattle (2017)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eric KHANT (since 30 June 2017)
    embassy: 142 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6
    mailing address: P.O. Box 541, Kingston 5
    telephone: [1] (876) 702-6000 (2018)
    FAX: [1] (876) 702-6001 (2018)
    Flag description field listing
    diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side); green represents hope, vegetation, and agriculture, black reflects hardships overcome and to be faced, and yellow recalls golden sunshine and the island's natural resources
    National symbol(s) field listing
    green-and-black streamertail (bird), Guaiacum officinale (Guaiacwood); national colors: green, yellow, black
    National anthem field listing
    name: Jamaica, Land We Love
    lyrics/music: Hugh Braham SHERLOCK/Robert Charles LIGHTBOURNE

    note: adopted 1962

  • Economy :: Jamaica
  • Economy - overview field listing

    The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on services, which accounts for more than 70% of GDP. The country derives most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. Earnings from remittances and tourism each account for 14% and 20% of GDP, while bauxite/alumina exports have declined to less than 5% of GDP.

    Jamaica's economy has grown on average less than 1% a year for the last three decades and many impediments remain to growth: a bloated public sector which crowds out spending on important projects; high crime and corruption; red-tape; and a high debt-to-GDP ratio. Jamaica, however, has made steady progress in reducing its debt-to-GDP ratio from a high of almost 150% in 2012 to less than 110% in 2017, in close collaboration with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The current IMF Stand-By Agreement requires Jamaica to produce an annual primary surplus of 7%, in an attempt to reduce its debt burden below 60% by 2025.

    Economic growth reached 1.6% in 2016, but declined to 0.9% in 2017 after intense rainfall, demonstrating the vulnerability of the economy to weather-related events. The HOLNESS administration therefore faces the difficult prospect of maintaining fiscal discipline to reduce the debt load while simultaneously implementing growth inducing policies and attacking a serious crime problem. High unemployment exacerbates the crime problem, including gang violence fueled by advanced fee fraud (lottery scamming) and the drug trade.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $26.06 billion (2017 est.)
    $25.89 billion (2016 est.)
    $25.51 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 140
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $14.77 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    0.7% (2017 est.)
    1.5% (2016 est.)
    0.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $9,200 (2017 est.)
    $9,200 (2016 est.)
    $9,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 143
    Gross national saving field listing
    18.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    18% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 81.9% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 13.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 30.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -47.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 21.1% (2017 est.)
    services: 71.9% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    sugar cane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, ackees, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk; shellfish
    Industries field listing
    agriculture, mining, manufacture, construction, financial and insurance services, tourism, telecommunications
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Labor force field listing
    1.348 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 67.9% (2017)
    industry: 16% (2017)
    services: 67.9% (2017)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    12.2% (2017 est.)
    12.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Population below poverty line field listing
    17.1% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 29.3% (2015)
    highest 10%: 29.3% (2015)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    35 (2016)
    38 (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 4.382 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 4.314 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    29.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Public debt field listing
    101% of GDP (2017 est.)
    113.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    4.4% (2017 est.)
    2.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    3.25% (31 December 2017)
    3% (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    14.91% (31 December 2017 est.)
    16.49% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $3.55 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.427 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $3.55 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.427 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $7.326 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.382 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $8.393 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.715 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $5.38 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Current account balance field listing
    -$679 million (2017 est.)
    -$381 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Exports field listing
    $1.296 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.195 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Exports - commodities field listing
    alumina, bauxite, chemicals, coffee, mineral fuels, waste and scrap metals, sugar, yams
    Exports - partners field listing
    US 39.1%, Netherlands 12.3%, Canada 8.4% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $5.151 billion (2017 est.)
    $4.751 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Imports - commodities field listing
    food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $3.781 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.719 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Imports - partners field listing
    US 40.6%, Colombia 6.8%, Japan 5.8%, China 5.8%, Trinidad and Tobago 4.7% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $14.94 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $15.03 billion (2016)
    $10.86 billion (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $604 million (2016)
    $176 million (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Exchange rates field listing
    Jamaican dollars (JMD) per US dollar -
    128.36 (2017 est.)
    125.14 (2016 est.)
    125.126 (2015 est.)
    116.898 (2014 est.)
    110.935 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Jamaica
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 200,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 93% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 98% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 87% (2013)
    Electricity - production field listing
    4.349 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    3.173 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    902,800 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    85.5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    2.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    11.6% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    21,370 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    23,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    57,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    845 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    36,630 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    90,940 cu m (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    90,940 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    13 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
  • Communications :: Jamaica
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 297,027 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 3,091,222 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network (2016)
    domestic: the 1999 agreement to open the market for telecommunications services resulted in rapid growth in mobile-cellular telephone usage while the number of fixed lines in use has declined; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity exceeds 120 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable in the Dominican Republic; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; the ALBA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable links Jamaica, Cuba, and Venezuela; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    3 free-to-air TV stations, subscription cable services, and roughly 30 radio stations (2013)
    Internet country code field listing
    .jm
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,336,653 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 45% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 239,120 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
  • Transportation :: Jamaica
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 92,836 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    6Y (2016)
    Airports field listing
    28 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 11 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
    under 914 m: 5 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 17 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 16 (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 22,121 km (includes 44 km of expressways) (2011)
    paved: 16,148 km (2011)
    unpaved: 5,973 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 41 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 8, general cargo 11, other 19 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Discovery Bay (Port Rhoades), Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio, Port Esquivel, Port Kaiser, Rocky Point
    container port(s) (TEUs): Kingston (1,567,442) (2016)
  • Military and Security :: Jamaica
  • Military expenditures field listing
    0.82% of GDP (2016)
    0.83% of GDP (2015)
    0.87% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Military branches field listing
    Jamaica Defense Force: Ground Forces, Coast Guard, Air Wing (2010)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    17 1/2 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Jamaica
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Jamaica is a source and destination country for children and adults subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; sex trafficking of children and adults occurs on the street, in night clubs, bars, massage parlors, and private homes; child sex tourism is a problem in resort areas; Jamaicans have been subjected to sexual exploitation or forced labor in the Caribbean, Canada, the US, and the UK, while foreigners have endured conditions of forced labor in Jamaica or aboard foreign-flagged fishing vessels operating in Jamaican waters; a high number of Jamaican children are reported missing
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Jamaica does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government made significant efforts to raise public awareness of human trafficking, and named a national trafficking-in-persons rapporteur – the first in the region; authorities initiated more new trafficking investigations than in 2013 and concluded a trafficking case in the Supreme Court, but chronic delays impeded prosecutions and no offenders were convicted for the sixth consecutive year; more adult trafficking victims were identified than in previous years, but only one child victim was identified, which was exceptionally low relative to the number of vulnerable children (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation and consumption of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Jamaica for illicit financial transactions