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Australia - Oceania :: Kiribati Print
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KIRIBATI
  • Introduction :: Kiribati
  • Background field listing
    The Gilbert Islands became a British protectorate in 1892 and a colony in 1915; they were captured by the Japanese in the Pacific War in 1941. The islands of Makin and Tarawa were the sites of major US amphibious victories over entrenched Japanese garrisons in 1943. The Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in 1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati. The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati.
  • Geography :: Kiribati
  • Location field listing
    Oceania, group of 33 coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the Equator; the capital Tarawa is about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    1 25 N, 173 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Oceania
    Area field listing
    total: 811 sq km
    land: 811 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, and Phoenix Islands - dispersed over about 3.5 million sq km (1.35 million sq mi)

    country comparison to the world: 187
    Area - comparative field listing
    four times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    1,143 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
    Terrain field listing
    mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 2 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Pacific Ocean
    81 highest point: unnamed elevation on Banaba
    Natural resources field listing
    phosphate (production discontinued in 1979), coconuts (copra), fish
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 42% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 2.5% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 39.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 15% (2011 est.)
    other: 43% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    consists of three achipelagos spread out over an area roughly the size of India; the eastern Line Islands and central Phoenix Islands are sparsely populated, but the western Gilbert Islands are some of the most densely settled places on earth, with the main island of South Tarawa boasting a population density similar to Tokyo or Hong Kong
    Natural hazards field listing
    typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level
    Environment - current issues field listing
    heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to overcrowding mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk; potential for water shortages, disease; coastal erosion
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru; Kiribati is the only country in the world to fall into all four hemispheres (northern, southern, eastern, and western)
  • People and Society :: Kiribati
  • Population field listing
    109,367 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Nationality field listing
    noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
    adjective: I-Kiribati
    Ethnic groups field listing
    I-Kiribati 96.2%, I-Kiribati/mixed 1.8%, Tuvaluan 0.2%, other 1.8% (2015 est.)
    Languages field listing
    I-Kiribati, English (official)
    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 57.3%, Kiribati Uniting Church 31.3%, Mormon 5.3%, Baha'i 2.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.9%, other 2.1% (2015 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 29.27% (male 16,316 /female 15,693)
    15-24 years: 20.74% (male 11,213 /female 11,466)
    25-54 years: 39.43% (male 20,756 /female 22,363)
    55-64 years: 6.23% (male 3,071 /female 3,747)
    65 years and over: 4.34% (male 1,863 /female 2,879) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 63 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 57 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 16.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 25 years
    male: 24.1 years
    female: 25.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.12% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Birth rate field listing
    21 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Death rate field listing
    7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Net migration rate field listing
    -2.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Population distribution field listing
    consists of three achipelagos spread out over an area roughly the size of India; the eastern Line Islands and central Phoenix Islands are sparsely populated, but the western Gilbert Islands are some of the most densely settled places on earth, with the main island of South Tarawa boasting a population density similar to Tokyo or Hong Kong
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 54.1% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    64,000 TARAWA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    23.1 years (2009 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    90 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 31.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 29.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 66.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 64.3 years (2018 est.)
    female: 69.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2.34 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    22.3% (2009)
    Health expenditures field listing
    10.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Physicians density field listing
    0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    1.9 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 87.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 50.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 66.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 12.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 49.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 33.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 51.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 30.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 39.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 48.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 69.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 60.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    NA
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    46% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    14.9% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 12 years (2008)
    male: 11 years (2008)
    female: 12 years (2008)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 54% (2010 est.)
    male: 47.6% (2010 est.)
    female: 61.8% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
  • Government :: Kiribati
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
    conventional short form: Kiribati
    local long form: Republic of Kiribati
    local short form: Kiribati
    former: Gilbert Islands
    etymology: the name is the local pronounciation of "Gilberts," the former designation of the islands; originally named after explorer Thomas GILBERT, who mapped many of the islands in 1788

    note: pronounced keer-ree-bahss

    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Tarawa
    geographic coordinates: 1 21 N, 173 02 E
    time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

    note: Kiribati has three time zones: the Gilbert Islands group at UTC+12, the Phoenix Islands at UTC+13, and the Line Islands at UTC+14

    Administrative divisions field listing
    3 geographical units: Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions, but there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)
    Independence field listing
    12 July 1979 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
    Constitution field listing
    history: The Gilbert and Ellice Islands Order in Council 1915, The Gilbert Islands Order in Council 1975 (preindependence); latest promulgated 12 July 1979 (at independence) (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the House of Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly membership; passage of amendments affecting the constitutional section on amendment procedures and parts of the constitutional chapter on citizenship requires deferral of the proposal to the next Assembly meeting where approval is required by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership and support of the nominated or elected Banaban member of the Assembly; amendments affecting the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms also requires approval by at least two-thirds majority in a referendum; amended 1995, 2013 (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Kiribati
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Kourabi NENEM (since 17 March 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Kourabi NENEM (since 17 March 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among House of Assembly members
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote following nomination of candidates from among House of Assembly members; term is 4 years (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 9 March 2016 (next to be held in 2020); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: Taneti MAAMAU elected president; percent of vote - Taneti MAAMAU 60%, Rimeta BENIAMINA (BTK) 38.6%, Taneti IOANE (BTK) 1.4%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral House of Assembly or Maneaba Ni Maungatabu (46 seats; 44 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two-rounds if needed; 1 member appointed by the Rabi Council of Leaders - representing Banaba Island, and 1 ex officio member - the attorney general; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: legislative elections were held in two rounds - the first on 30 December 2015 and the second on 7 January 2016 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - BTK 26, KTK and MKP 19, other 2 (includes attorney general)
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: High Court (consists of a chief justice and other judges as prescribed by the president); note - the High Court has jurisdiction on constitutional issues
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president on the advice of the cabinet in consultation with the Public Service Commission (PSC); other judges appointed by the president on the advice of the chief justice along with the PSC
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; magistrates' courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK or Pillars of Truth [Anote TONG]
    Kamaeuraoan Te I-Kiribati Party or KTK [Tetaua TAITAI]
    Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP [Rimeta BENIAMINA]
    Tobwaan Kiribati Party or TKP [Taneti MAAMAU]

    note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures

    International organization participation field listing
    ABEDA, ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    none; the Kiribati Permanent Mission to the UN serves as the Embassy; it is headed by Teburoro TITO (since 13 September 2017); address: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400A, New York, NY 10017; telephone: [1](212)867-3310; FAX: [1](212)867-3320

    note: honorary consulate in Honolulu

    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
    Flag description field listing
    the upper half is red with a yellow frigatebird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the Pacific ocean; the white stripes represent the three island groups - the Gilbert, Line, and Phoenix Islands; the 17 rays of the sun represent the 16 Gilbert Islands and Banaba (formerly Ocean Island); the frigatebird symbolizes authority and freedom
    National symbol(s) field listing
    frigatebird; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Teirake kaini Kiribati" (Stand Up, Kiribati)
    lyrics/music: Urium Tamuera IOTEBA

    note: adopted 1979

  • Economy :: Kiribati
  • Economy - overview field listing

    A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few natural resources and is one of the least developed Pacific Island countries. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted by the time of independence from the United Kingdom in 1979. Earnings from fishing licenses and seafarer remittances are important sources of income. Although the number of seafarers employed declined due to changes in global shipping demands, remittances are expected to improve with more overseas temporary and seasonal work opportunities for Kiribati nationals.

    Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. The public sector dominates economic activity, with ongoing capital projects in infrastructure including road rehabilitation, water and sanitation projects, and renovations to the international airport, spurring some growth. Public debt increased from 23% of GDP at the end of 2015 to 25.8% in 2016.

    Kiribati is dependent on foreign aid, which was estimated to have contributed over 32.7% in 2016 to the government’s finances. The country’s sovereign fund, the Revenue Equalization Reserve Fund (RERF), which is held offshore, had an estimated balance of $855.5 million in late July 2016. The RERF seeks to avoid exchange rate risk by holding investments in more than 20 currencies, including the Australian dollar, US dollar, the Japanese yen, and the Euro. Drawdowns from the RERF helped finance the government’s annual budget.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $227 million (2017 est.)
    $220.2 million (2016 est.)
    $217.7 million (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 219
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $197 million (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    3.1% (2017 est.)
    1.1% (2016 est.)
    10.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $2,000 (2017 est.)
    $2,000 (2016 est.)
    $2,000 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 210
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 23% (2016 est.)
    industry: 7% (2016 est.)
    services: 70% (2016 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    copra, breadfruit, fish
    Industries field listing
    fishing, handicrafts
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    1.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Labor force field listing
    39,000 (2010 est.)

    note: economically active, not including subsistence farmers

    country comparison to the world: 198
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 75% (2010)
    industry: 10% (2010)
    services: 75% (2010)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    30.6% (2010 est.)
    6.1% (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Population below poverty line field listing
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 151.2 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 277.5 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    76.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -64.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    Public debt field listing
    26.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    22.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Fiscal year field listing
    NA
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    1.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing

    NA

    Current account balance field listing
    $18 million (2017 est.)
    $35 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Exports field listing
    $84.75 million (2013 est.)
    $62.31 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Exports - commodities field listing
    fish, coconut products
    Exports - partners field listing
    Philippines 50.8%, Malaysia 17.2%, US 11.4%, Bangladesh 5.8%, Fiji 5.4% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $182.2 million (2013 est.)
    $172.5 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Imports - commodities field listing
    food, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $0 (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.37 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Imports - partners field listing
    Australia 29.3%, Fiji 17.3%, NZ 10.7%, China 5.8%, US 5.8%, Singapore 5.1%, Japan 4.6%, Thailand 4.1% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $40.9 million (2016 est.)
    $32.3 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing

    NA

    Exchange rates field listing
    Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -
    1.31 (2017 est.)
    1.34 (2016 est.)
    1.34 (2015 est.)
    1.33 (2014 est.)
    1.11 (2013 est.)
    note: the Australian dollar circulates as legal tender
  • Energy :: Kiribati
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 43,839 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 59% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 77% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 45% (2012)
    Electricity - production field listing
    24 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    22.32 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    8,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    62.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    37.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    510 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    58,450 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
  • Communications :: Kiribati
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 765 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 46,123 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: generally good quality national and international service (2016)
    domestic: wireline service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; recently formed Amalgamated Telecom Holdings Kiribati Limited is implementing the first phase of improvements with 3G and 4G upgrades on some islands (2016)
    international: country code - 686; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    multi-channel TV packages provide access to Australian and US stations; 1 government-operated radio station broadcasts on AM, FM, and shortwave (2017)
    Internet country code field listing
    .ki
    Internet users field listing
    total: 14,649 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 13.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 76 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
  • Transportation :: Kiribati
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    T3 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    19 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 4 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 15 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2013)
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 670 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Waterways field listing
    5 km (small network of canals in Line Islands) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 133 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 5, general cargo 51, oil tanker 22, other 55 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Betio (Tarawa Atoll), Canton Island, English Harbor
  • Military and Security :: Kiribati
  • Military branches field listing
    no regular military forces (establishment prevented by the constitution); Police Force (2011)
    Military - note field listing
    Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ
  • Transnational Issues :: Kiribati
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none