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Europe :: Slovakia Print
Page last updated on July 31, 2020
  • Introduction :: Slovakia
  • Background field listing
    Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. After the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, backlash to language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) encouraged the strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who fell administratively under the Austrian half of the empire. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. The new state was envisioned as a nation with Czech and Slovak branches. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state created by and allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of Czechoslovakia's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.
  • Geography :: Slovakia
  • Location field listing
    Central Europe, south of Poland
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    48 40 N, 19 30 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 49,035 sq km
    land: 48,105 sq km
    water: 930 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Area - comparative field listing
    about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 1,611 km
    border countries (5): Austria 105 km, Czech Republic 241 km, Hungary 627 km, Poland 541 km, Ukraine 97 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
    Terrain field listing
    rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 458 m
    lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
    highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
    Natural resources field listing
    lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 40.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 28.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 10.8% (2011 est.)
    forest: 40.2% (2011 est.)
    other: 19.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    869 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border
    Natural hazards field listing
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution and acid rain present human health risks and damage forests; land erosion caused by agricultural and mining practices; water pollution
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
  • People and Society :: Slovakia
  • Population field listing
    5,440,602 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Slovak(s)
    adjective: Slovak
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Slovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Romani 2%, other 1.8% (includes Czech, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Polish), unspecified 7% (2011 est.)

    note: data represent population by nationality; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7–11% of Slovakia's population

    Languages field listing
    Slovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Ruthenian 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 15.13% (male 423,180/female 400,128)
    15-24 years: 10.06% (male 280,284/female 266,838)
    25-54 years: 44.61% (male 1,228,462/female 1,198,747)
    55-64 years: 13.15% (male 342,124/female 373,452)
    65 years and over: 17.05% (male 366,267/female 561,120) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 47.6
    youth dependency ratio: 23
    elderly dependency ratio: 24.6
    potential support ratio: 4.1 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 41.8 years
    male: 40.1 years
    female: 43.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.05% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Birth rate field listing
    9.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Death rate field listing
    10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Net migration rate field listing
    0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 53.8% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    435,000 BRATISLAVA (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    27.6 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 77.8 years
    male: 74.3 years
    female: 81.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.44 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    6.7% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    3.42 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    5.8 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 99.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 98.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 98.8% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 1.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 1.2% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    1,200 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    20.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.9% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 15 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 16 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 14.9%
    male: 14.3%
    female: 16.1% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
  • Government :: Slovakia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Slovak Republic
    conventional short form: Slovakia
    local long form: Slovenska republika
    local short form: Slovensko
    etymology: may derive from the medieval Latin word "Slavus" (Slav), which had the local form "Sloven", used since the 13th century to refer to the territory of Slovakia and its inhabitants
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Bratislava
    geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the name was adopted in 1919 after Czechoslovakia gained its independence and may derive from later transliterations of the 9th century military commander, Braslav, or the 11th century Bohemian Duke Bretislav I; alternatively, the name may derive from the Slovak words "brat" (brother) and "slava" (glory)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
    Independence field listing
    1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
    National holiday field listing
    Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992
    amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2017
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Peter PELLIGRINI (since 22 March 2018); Deputy Prime Ministers Richard RASI (since 22 March 2018), Laszlo SOLYMOS (since 22 March 2018), Gabriela MATECNA (since 29 November 2017)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March and 30 March 2019 (next to be held March 2024); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council
    election results: Zuzana CAPUTOVA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single- and multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 29 February 2020 (next to be held March 2024)
    election results: percent of vote by party - OLaNO-NOVA 25%, Smer-SD 18.3%, Sme-Rodina 8.2%, LSNS 8%, PS-SPOLU 7%, SaS 6.2%, Za Ludi 5.8%, other 21.5%; seats by party - OLaNO-NOVA 53, Smer-SD 38, Sme-Rodina 17, LSNS 17, SaS 13, Za Ludi 12, PS-SPOLU 0; composition - men 120, women 30, percent of women 20%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 80 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 13 judges organized into 3-judge panels)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates nominated by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member self-governing body that includes the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president serve for life subject to removal by the president at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges serve 12-year terms
    subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Special Criminal Court; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit;
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Alojz HLINA]
    Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR]
    Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
    For the People or Za Ludi [Andrej KISKA]
    Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
    Kotleba-People's Party Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]
    Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
    Party of the Hungarian Community or SMK [Jozsef MENYHART]
    Progressive Slovakia or PS [Michal TRUBAN]
    Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
    Together or SPOLU [Miroslav BEBLAVY]
    We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR]
    International organization participation field listing
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Ivan KORCOK (since 17 September 2018)
    chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
    FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Bridget A. BRINK (since 20 August 2019)
    telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
    embassy: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
    mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
    FAX: [421] (2) 5441-5148
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

    note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

    National symbol(s) field listing
    double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Lightning Over the Tatras)
    lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional

    note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku"

  • Economy :: Slovakia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Slovakia’s economy suffered from a slow start in the first years after its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993, due to the country’s authoritarian leadership and high levels of corruption, but economic reforms implemented after 1998 have placed Slovakia on a path of strong growth. With a population of 5.4 million, the Slovak Republic has a small, open economy driven mainly by automobile and electronics exports, which account for more than 80% of GDP. Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the euro zone in 2009. The country’s banking sector is sound and predominantly foreign owned.

    Slovakia has been a regional FDI champion for several years, attractive due to a relatively low-cost yet skilled labor force, and a favorable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe. Exports and investment have been key drivers of Slovakia’s robust growth in recent years. The unemployment rate fell to historical lows in 2017, and rising wages fueled increased consumption, which played a more prominent role in 2017 GDP growth. A favorable outlook for the Eurozone suggests continued strong growth prospects for Slovakia during the next few years, although inflation is also expected to pick up.

    Among the most pressing domestic issues potentially threatening the attractiveness of the Slovak market are shortages in the qualified labor force, persistent corruption issues, and an inadequate judiciary, as well as a slow transition to an innovation-based economy. The energy sector in particular is characterized by unpredictable regulatory oversight and high costs, in part driven by government interference in regulated tariffs. Moreover, the government’s attempts to maintain low household energy prices could harm the profitability of domestic energy firms while undercutting energy efficiency initiatives.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $179.7 billion (2017 est.)
    $173.8 billion (2016 est.)
    $168.2 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 69
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $95.96 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    3.4% (2017 est.)
    3.3% (2016 est.)
    3.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $33,100 (2017 est.)
    $32,000 (2016 est.)
    $31,000 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 61
    Gross national saving field listing
    20.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    22.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 54.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 96.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -92.9% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 3.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 35% (2017 est.)
    services: 61.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
    Industries field listing
    automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    2.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Labor force field listing
    2.758 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 3.9%
    industry: 22.7%
    services: 73.4% (2015)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    8.1% (2017 est.)
    9.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Population below poverty line field listing
    12.3% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 37.79 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 38.79 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    39.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Public debt field listing
    50.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    51.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general Government Gross Debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central, state, local government, and social security funds

    country comparison to the world: 98
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.3% (2017 est.)
    -0.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Current account balance field listing
    -$2.005 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.309 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Exports field listing
    $80.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $75.53 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 20.7%, Czech Republic 11.6%, Poland 7.7%, France 6.3%, Italy 6.1%, UK 6%, Hungary 6%, Austria 6% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    vehicles and related parts 27%, machinery and electrical equipment 20%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, iron and steel 4%, mineral oils and fuels 5% (2015 est.)
    Imports field listing
    $80.07 billion (2017 est.)
    $72.51 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and electrical equipment 20%, vehicles and related parts 14%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, fuel and mineral oils 9% (2015 est.)
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 19.1%, Czech Republic 16.3%, Austria 10.3%, Poland 6.5%, Hungary 6.4%, South Korea 4.5%, Russia 4.5%, France 4.3%, China 4.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $3.622 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.892 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Debt - external field listing
    $75.04 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $74.19 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Exchange rates field listing
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Slovakia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    25.32 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    26.64 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Electricity - exports field listing
    10.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Electricity - imports field listing
    13.25 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    7.644 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    36% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    27% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    24% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    13% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Crude oil - production field listing
    200 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    1,022 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    111,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    9 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    131,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    85,880 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    81,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    38,340 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Natural gas - production field listing
    104.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    4.672 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    4.984 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    34.86 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
  • Communications :: Slovakia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 722,704
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 7,241,702
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: a modern telecommunications system; near monopoly of fixed-line market; competition in mobile and fixed broadband market; broadband growth in recent years; competition among DSL, cable and fiber platforms; FttP growth in cities; mid-2019 launched 1G cable broadband service in 3 cities and 200,000 premises; EU funds development and improvement of e-govt. and online services; regulator prepares groundwork for 5G services (2020)
    domestic: four companies have a license to operate cellular networks and provide nationwide cellular services (cellular operators); a few other companies provide services but do not have their own networks; fixed-line 13 per 100 and mobile-cellular 133 per 100 teledensity (2018)
    international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services; connects to DREAM cable (2017)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 4,382,558
    percent of population: 80.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 1,507,998
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
  • Military and Security :: Slovakia
  • Military expenditures field listing
    1.74% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.22% of GDP (2018)
    1.1% of GDP (2017)
    1.12% of GDP (2016)
    1.12% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Military and security forces field listing
    Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, and a Joint Training and Support Command (2019)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2012)
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic have approximately 15,500 active duty personnel (6,000 Land Forces; 4,000 Air and Air Defense; 5,500 other, including central staff, support, and training duties) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the inventory of the Slovakian military consists mostly of Soviet-era platforms; since 2010, it has imported limited quantities of equipment from China, Czechia, Italy, Russia, and the US (2019 est.)
    Military deployments field listing
    240 Cyprus (UNFICYP); up to 150 Latvia (NATO) (March 2020)
  • Transportation :: Slovakia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 23 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,100 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    OM (2016)
    Airports field listing
    35 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 19 (2019)
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 9
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 15 (2019)
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m: 5
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2019)
    Pipelines field listing
    2270 km gas transmission pipelines, 6278 km high-pressure gas distribution pipelines, 27023 km mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines (2016), 510 km oil (2015)
    Railways field listing
    total: 3,580 km (2016)
    standard gauge: 3,435 km 1.435-m gauge (1,587 km electrified) (2016)
    narrow gauge: 46 km 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge (2016)
    broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Roadways field listing
    total: 56,926 km (includes local roads, national roads, and 464 km of highways) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Waterways field listing
    172 km (on Danube River) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Ports and terminals field listing
    river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)
  • Transnational Issues :: Slovakia
  • Disputes - international field listing

    bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented strict Schengen border rules

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 1,523 (2018)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy