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Africa :: MADAGASCAR
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MADAGASCAR
  • Introduction :: MADAGASCAR

  • Madagascar was one of the last major landmasses on earth to be colonized by humans. The earliest settlers from present-day Indonesia arrived between A.D. 350 and 550. The island attracted Arab and Persian traders as early as the 7th century, and migrants from Africa arrived around A.D. 1000. Madagascar was a pirate stronghold during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and served as a slave trading center into the 19th century. From the 16th to the late 19th century, a native Merina Kingdom dominated much of Madagascar. The island was conquered by the French in 1896 who made it a colony; independence was regained in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA won a second term in 2006 but, following protests in 2009, handed over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Following a lengthy mediation process led by the Southern African Development Community, Madagascar held UN-supported presidential and parliamentary elections in 2013. Former de facto finance minister Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA won a runoff election in December 2013 and was inaugurated in January 2014.
  • Geography :: MADAGASCAR

  • Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
    20 00 S, 47 00 E
    Africa
    total: 587,041 sq km
    land: 581,540 sq km
    water: 5,501 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 48
    almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
    Area comparison map:
    0 km
    4,828 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
    tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
    narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
    mean elevation: 615 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
    graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
    agricultural land: 71.1%
    arable land 6%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 64.1%
    forest: 21.5%
    other: 7.4% (2011 est.)
    10,860 sq km (2012)
    most of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline
    periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation
    volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times
    soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel; despite Madagascar’s close proximity to the African continent, ocean currents isolate the island resulting in high rates of endemic plant and animal species; approximately 90% of the flora and fauna on the island are found nowhere else
  • People and Society :: MADAGASCAR

  • 25,054,161 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
    adjective: Malagasy
    Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
    French (official), Malagasy (official), English
    Christian, indigenous religionist, Muslim
    Madagascar’s youthful population – just over 60% are under the age of 25 – and high total fertility rate of more than 4 children per women ensures that the Malagasy population will continue its rapid growth trajectory for the foreseeable future. The population is predominantly rural and poor; chronic malnutrition is prevalent, and large families are the norm. Many young Malagasy girls are withdrawn from school, marry early (often pressured to do so by their parents), and soon begin having children. Early childbearing, coupled with Madagascar’s widespread poverty and lack of access to skilled health care providers during delivery, increases the risk of death and serious health problems for young mothers and their babies.
    Child marriage perpetuates gender inequality and is prevalent among the poor, the uneducated, and rural households – as of 2013, of Malagasy women aged 20 to 24, more than 40% were married and more than a third had given birth by the age of 18. Although the legal age for marriage is 18, parental consent is often given for earlier marriages or the law is flouted, especially in rural areas that make up nearly 65% of the country. Forms of arranged marriage whereby young girls are married to older men in exchange for oxen or money are traditional. If a union does not work out, a girl can be placed in another marriage, but the dowry paid to her family diminishes with each unsuccessful marriage.
    Madagascar’s population consists of 18 main ethnic groups, all of whom speak the same Malagasy language. Most Malagasy are multi-ethnic, however, reflecting the island’s diversity of settlers and historical contacts (see Background). Madagascar’s legacy of hierarchical societies practicing domestic slavery (most notably the Merina Kingdom of the 16th to the 19th century) is evident today in persistent class tension, with some ethnic groups maintaining a caste system. Slave descendants are vulnerable to unequal access to education and jobs, despite Madagascar’s constitutional guarantee of free compulsory primary education and its being party to several international conventions on human rights. Historical distinctions also remain between central highlanders and coastal people.
    0-14 years: 39.87% (male 5,035,160/female 4,952,909)
    15-24 years: 20.34% (male 2,556,130/female 2,538,644)
    25-54 years: 32.12% (male 4,022,698/female 4,025,038)
    55-64 years: 4.38% (male 535,300/female 560,932)
    65 years and over: 3.3% (male 374,770/female 452,580) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 80.1
    youth dependency ratio: 75
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
    potential support ratio: 19.6 (2015 est.)
    total: 19.7 years
    male: 19.5 years
    female: 19.9 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    2.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    31.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    most of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline
    urban population: 37.2% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.48% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    ANTANANARIVO (capital) 3.058 million (2018)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    19.5 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008/09 est.)
    353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    total: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 45 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 37.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    total population: 66.3 years
    male: 64.7 years
    female: 67.8 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    4.03 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    39.8% (2012/13)
    3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 81.6% of population
    rural: 35.3% of population
    total: 51.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 18.4% of population
    rural: 64.7% of population
    total: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 18% of population
    rural: 8.7% of population
    total: 12% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 82% of population
    rural: 91.3% of population
    total: 88% of population (2015 est.)
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    35,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    1,600 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    5.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    2.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 64.7%
    male: 66.7%
    female: 62.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 10 years (2014)
    total: 1%
    male: 1%
    female: 1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
  • Government :: MADAGASCAR

  • conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
    conventional short form: Madagascar
    local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
    local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
    former: Malagasy Republic
    etymology: the name "Madageiscar" was first used by the 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco POLO, as a corrupted transliteration of Mogadishu, the Somali port with which POLO confused the island
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Antananarivo
    geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
    26 June 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
    history: previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic in consultation with the cabinet or supported by a least two-thirds of both the Senate and National Assembly membership; passage requires at least three-fourths approval of both the Senate and National Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles including the form and powers of government, the sovereignty of the state, and the autonomy of Madagascar’s collectivities cannot be amended (2017)
    civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Madagascar; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA Rakotoarimana (since 25 January 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Christian NTSAY (since 6 June 2018)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October and 20 December 2013 (next to be held on 7 November and 19 December 2018); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president
    election results: Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA (HVM) 53.5%, Jean Louis ROBINSON (AVANA) 46.5%
    note: on 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc RAVALOMANANA stepped down, handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader and Antananarivo mayor Andry RAJOELINA; a power-sharing agreement established a 15-month transition period to conclude with a general election in 2010, which failed to occur; a subsequent agreement aimed for an early 2013 election - the first round was held on 25 October 2013 and the second on 20 December 2013
    description: bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of:
    Senate or Antenimieran-Doholona (dissolved following the 2009 coup and reestablished in December 2015) (63 seats; 42 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of municipal, communal, regional, and provincial leaders and 21 appointed by the president of the republic; members serve 6-year terms)
    National Assembly or Antenimierampirenena (151 seats; 87 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 64 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held 29 December 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
    National Assembly - last held on 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 3, MAPAR 2, LEADER-Fanilo 1, independent 2, appointed by the president 21
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party - MAPAR 17.3%, MR 10.8%, VPM MMM 8.2%, PHI 3.8%, AMHM 3.5%, LEADER-Fanilo 2.8%, FFF 1.6%, AIM 1.%, SFN 0.3%, independent and other 50.6%; seats by party - MAPAR 49, MR 20, VPM MMM 13, PHI 5, AMHM 2, LEADER-Fanilo 5, FFF 2, AIM 2, SFN 2, other 22, independent 25, seats with delayed elections 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members); note - the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials including the president
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve single-renewable, 3-year terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 6-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; provincial and city tribunals
    + AVANA [Jean-Louis ROBINSON]
    Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER-Fanilo [Manasse ESOAVELOMANDROSO]
    Green Party/Parti Vert or AMHM [Sarah Georget RABEHARISOA]
    I Love Madagascar (Tiako I Madagasikara) or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]
    Liberal Democrat Party (Parti Liberal Democrate) or PLD [Sarah RABEHARISOA]
    Malagasy Awaken Party (Malagasy Tonga Saina) or MTS [Roland RATSIRAKA]
    Malagasy Starting Together Party (Malagasy Miara-Miainga) or MMM [Hajo ANDRIANAINARIVELO]
    National Unity, Freedom, and Development or FFF [Benjamin RADAVIDSON Andriamparany]
    New Forces for Madagascar (Hery Vaovao ho an'i Madagasikara) or HVM [Rivo RAKOTOVAO]
    Parti Hiaraka Isika or PHI [Albert Camille VITAL]
    Pillar for the Renovation of Madagscar Party (Avant-garde pour la Renovation de Madagascar) or AREMA [Didier RATSIRAKA]
    Pillar of Madagascar or AIM [Andry RAKOTOVAO]
    Ravalomanana Movement or MR
    Sambo Fiaran'i Noe or SFN
    Union Party or Tambatra [Pety RAKOTONIAINA]
    Vondrona Politika Miara dia Malagasy Miara Miainga or VPM MMM [Milavonjy ANDRIASY]
    With the President Andry RAJOELIN Party (Miaraka amin'i Andry RAJOELINA) or MAPAR [Andry RAJOELINA]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eric ANDRIAMIHAJAMANANIRINA Robson (since 28 March 2018)
    chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stuart R. WILSON (since 2 April 2018)
    embassy: Lot 207A, Point Liberty, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivo
    mailing address: B.P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
    telephone: [261] 20 23 480 00
    FAX: [261] 20 23 480 35 or [261] 33 44 328 17
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side; by tradition, red stands for sovereignty, green for hope, white for purity
    traveller's palm, zebu; national colors: red, green, white
    name: "Ry Tanindraza nay malala o" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOA
    note: adopted 1959
  • Economy :: MADAGASCAR

  • Madagascar is a mostly unregulated economy with many untapped natural resources, but no capital markets, a weak judicial system, poorly enforced contracts, and rampant government corruption. The country faces challenges to improve education, healthcare, and the environment to boost long-term economic growth. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing roughly 80% of the population. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by bushfires, slash-and-burn clearing techniques, and the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns to the agriculture dependent economy.
    After discarding socialist economic policies in the mid-1990s, Madagascar followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization until a 2009 coup d’état led many nations, including the United States, to suspend non-humanitarian aid until a democratically-elected president was inaugurated in 2014. The pre-coup strategy had placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low starting point. Exports of apparel boomed after gaining duty-free access to the US market in 2000 under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA); however, Madagascar's failure to comply with the requirements of the AGOA led to the termination of the country's duty-free access in January 2010, a sharp fall in textile production, a loss of more than 100,000 jobs, and a GDP drop of nearly 11%.
    Madagascar regained AGOA access in January 2015 and ensuing growth has been slow and fragile. Madagascar produces around 80% of the world’s vanilla and its reliance on this commodity for most of its foreign exchange is a significant source of vulnerability. Economic reforms have been modest and the country’s financial sector remains weak, limiting the use of monetary policy to control inflation. An ongoing IMF program aims to strengthen financial and investment management capacity.
    $39.73 billion (2017 est.)
    $38.14 billion (2016 est.)
    $36.99 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $11.46 billion (2017 est.)
    4.1% (2017 est.)
    4.2% (2016 est.)
    3.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    $1,600 (2017 est.)
    $1,500 (2016 est.)
    $1,500 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 218
    12.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    11.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    household consumption: 75.4%
    government consumption: 12%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 32.1%
    imports of goods and services: -36.1% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 23.7%
    industry: 16%
    services: 60.3% (2017 est.)
    coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
    meat processing, seafood, soap, beer, leather, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism, mining
    4.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    13.4 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    2.1% (2017 est.)
    2.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    70.7% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)
    41 (2012)
    42.7 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    revenues: $1.761 billion
    expenditures: $2.012 billion (2017 est.)
    16.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    -2.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    37.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    38.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    calendar year
    8.1% (2017 est.)
    6.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    9.5% (31 Decembre 2017)
    8.3% (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    64% (31 December 2017 est.)
    62% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $1.415 billion (31 Decembre 2017 est.)
    $1.079 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    $3.293 billion (31 Decembre 2017 est.)
    $2.699 billion (31 Decembre 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $1.544 billion (31 Decembre 2017 est.)
    $1.283 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    $NA
    -$390 million (2017 est.)
    $57 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $2.801 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.26 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum products, gems, ilmenite, cobalt, nickel
    France 24.8%, US 16.5%, China 6.7%, Germany 6.5%, Japan 6%, Netherlands 4.7% (2017)
    $3.631 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.967 billion (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
    China 18.7%, India 9.3%, France 6.4%, South Africa 5.6%, UAE 5.3% (2017)
    $1.372 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.076 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $2.725 billion (30 June 2017 est.)
    $3.425 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    $6.461 billion (2014 est.)
    $6.462 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    $NA
    Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar -
    3,116.1 (2017 est.)
    3,176.5 (2016 est.)
    3,176.5 (2015 est.)
    2,933.5 (2014 est.)
    2,414.8 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: MADAGASCAR

  • population without electricity: 19,500,000
    electrification - total population: 15%
    electrification - urban areas: 37%
    electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
    1.651 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    1.108 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    m 668,200 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    73.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    24.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    1.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    15,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    15,230 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    2.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    3 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
  • Communications :: MADAGASCAR

  • total subscriptions: 148,585
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    total subscriptions: 7,998,253
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    general assessment: system is above average for the region; competition among the three mobile service providers has spurred recent growth in the mobile market
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 32.7 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 261; landing point for the EASSy, SEACOM, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2016)
    state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007)
    .mg
    total: 1,151,563
    percent of population: 4.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
  • Transportation :: MADAGASCAR

  • number of registered air carriers: 3
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 546,946
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 30,512,607 mt-km (2015)
    5R (2016)
    83 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    total: 26
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 16
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 57
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 38
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    total: 836 km
    narrow gauge: 836 km 1.000-m gauge (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    total: 37,476 km
    paved: 6,103 km
    unpaved: 31,373 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    600 km (432 km navigable) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    total: 28
    by type: general cargo 15, oil tanker 3, other 10 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    major seaport(s): Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)
  • Military and Security :: MADAGASCAR

  • 0.53% of GDP (2017)
    0.59% of GDP (2016)
    0.6% of GDP (2015)
    0.65% of GDP (2014)
    0.68% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, Navy, Air Force (2018)
    Madagascar has an all-volunteer military; 18-25 years of age for males; service obligation 18 months; women are permitted to serve in all branches (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: MADAGASCAR

  • claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
    IDPs: 246,842 (cyclone in 2017) (2017)
    illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin