Central America :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Introduction :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Background:
    The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. On 6 September 2017, Hurricane Irma passed over the island of Barbuda devastating the island and forcing the evacuation of the population to Antigua. Almost all the structures on Barbuda were destroyed and the vegetation stripped, but Antigua was spared the worst.
    ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Location:
    Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
    Geographic coordinates:
    17 03 N, 61 48 W
    Map references:
    Central America and the Caribbean
    Area:
    total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
    land: 442.6 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

    country comparison to the world: 201
    Area - comparative:
    2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    153 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    Climate:
    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
    Terrain:
    mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: Caribbean Sea
    402 highest point: Mount Obama
    Natural resources:
    NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 20.5% (2014 est.)
    arable land: 9.1% (2014 est.) / permanent crops: 2.3% (2014 est.) / permanent pasture: 9.1% (2014 est.)
    forest: 22.3% (2014 est.)
    other: 57.2% (2014 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1.3 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the island of Antigua is home to approximately 97% of the population; nearly the entire population of Barbuda lives in Codrington
    Natural hazards:
    hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
  • People and Society :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Population:
    95,882 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Nationality:
    noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
    adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
    Ethnic groups:
    black 87.3%, mixed 4.7%, hispanic 2.7%, white 1.6%, other 2.7%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)
    Languages:
    English (official), Antiguan creole
    Religions:
    Protestant 68.3% (Anglican 17.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.4%, Pentecostal 12.2%, Moravian 8.3%, Methodist 5.6%, Wesleyan Holiness 4.5%, Church of God 4.1%, Baptist 3.6%), Roman Catholic 8.2%, other 12.2%, unspecified 5.5%, none 5.9% (2011 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 22.91% (male 11,165 /female 10,800)
    15-24 years: 16.6% (male 7,924 /female 7,997)
    25-54 years: 42.03% (male 18,438 /female 21,861)
    55-64 years: 10.13% (male 4,346 /female 5,370)
    65 years and over: 8.32% (male 3,422 /female 4,559) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 45.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 35.7 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 10.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 32.2 years
    male: 30.2 years
    female: 33.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Population growth rate:
    1.2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Birth rate:
    15.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Death rate:
    5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Net migration rate:
    2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Population distribution:
    the island of Antigua is home to approximately 97% of the population; nearly the entire population of Barbuda lives in Codrington
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 24.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.55% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    21,000 SAINT JOHN'S (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 76.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 74.8 years (2018 est.)
    female: 79.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Total fertility rate:
    1.99 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Health expenditures:
    5.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Hospital bed density:
    3.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 97.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 97.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 97.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 91.4% of population (2011 est.)
    rural: 91.4% of population (2011 est.)
    total: 91.4% of population (2011 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
    rural: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
    total: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
    Major infectious diseases:

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    18.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Education expenditures:
    2.5% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling (2012 est.)
    total population: 99% (2012 est.)
    male: 98.4% (2012 est.)
    female: 99.4% (2012 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 14 years (2012)
    male: 13 years (2012)
    female: 15 years (2012)
  • Government :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
    etymology: "antiguo" is Spanish for "ancient" or "old"; the island was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and, according to tradition, named by him after the church of Santa Maria la Antigua (Old Saint Mary's) in Seville; "barbuda" is Spanish for "bearded" and the adjective may refer to the alleged beards of the indigenous people or to the island's bearded fig trees
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
    Capital:
    name: Saint John's
    geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
    Independence:
    1 November 1981 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 November (1981)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution Order 1981) (2018)
    amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament; passage of amendments to constitutional sections such as citizenship, fundamental rights and freedoms, the establishment, power, and authority of the executive and legislative branches, the Supreme Court Order, and the procedure for amending the constitution requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses, approval by at least two-thirds majority in a referendum, and assent to by the governor general; passage of other amendments requires only two-thirds majority vote by both houses; amended 2009, 2011 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general)
    House of Representatives (17 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - last appointed on 26 March 2018 (next NA)
    House of Representatives - last held on 21 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2023)
    election results:
    Senate - composition - men 8, women 9, percent of women 52.9%
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - ABLP 59.4%, UPP 37.2%, BPM 1.4%, other 1.9% ; seats by party - ABLP 15, UPP 1, BPM 1; composition - men 17, women 2, percent of women 10.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 30.6% 
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, travelling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside at the member states with 2 assigned to Antigua and Barbuda
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM
    Antigua Labor Party or ABLP [Gaston BROWNE]
    Antigua Barbuda True Labor Party or ABTLP [Sharlene SAMUEL]
    Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
    Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]
    Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]
    Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Joanne MASSIAH]
    Go Green for Life [Owen GEORGE]
    Progressive Labor Movement or PLM
    United National Democratic Party or UNDP
    United Progressive Party or UPP [Harold LOVELL] (a coalition of ACLM, PLM, UNDP)
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Ronald SANDERS (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
    telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
    consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
    Flag description:
    red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
    National symbol(s):
    fallow deer; national colors: red, white, blue, black, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee
    lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS

    note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

  • Economy :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Economy - overview:

    Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components.

    Like other countries in the region, Antigua's economy was severely hit by effects of the global economic recession in 2009. The country suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009 and 2011. Antigua has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels. Barbuda suffered significant damages after hurricanes Irma and Maria passed through the Caribbean in 2017.

    Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and could be disrupted by potential damage from natural disasters. The new government, elected in 2014 and led by Prime Minister Gaston Browne, continues to face significant fiscal challenges. The government places some hope in a new Citizenship by Investment Program, to both reduce public debt levels and spur growth, and a resolution of a WTO dispute with the US.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $2.398 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.334 billion (2016 est.)
    $2.215 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 194
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $1.524 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.8% (2017 est.)
    5.3% (2016 est.)
    4.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $26,400 (2017 est.)
    $25,900 (2016 est.)
    $24,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 78
    Gross national saving:
    17.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    30.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 53.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 23.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 73.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -66.5% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 20.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 77.3% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
    Industries:
    tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
    Industrial production growth rate:
    6.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Labor force:
    30,000 (1991)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 82% (1983)
    industry: 11% (1983 est.)
    services: 82% (1983 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    11% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget:
    revenues: 298.2 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 334 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Public debt:
    86.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    86.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.5% (2017 est.)
    -0.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Central bank discount rate:
    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    6.5% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    9.31% (31 December 2017 est.)
    9.58% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Stock of narrow money:
    $349.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $293 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Stock of broad money:
    $349.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $293 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $909.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $913 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Current account balance:
    -$112 million (2017 est.)
    $2 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Exports:
    $86.7 million (2017 est.)
    $56.5 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Exports - commodities:
    petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
    Exports - partners:
    Poland 62.2%, Cameroon 9.5%, US 5.1%, UK 4.5% (2017)
    Imports:
    $560 million (2017 est.)
    $407.3 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Imports - commodities:
    food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
    Imports - partners:
    US 48%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $441.2 million (31 December 2012)
    $458 million (June 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Exchange rates:
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2017 est.)
    2.7 (2016 est.)
    2.7 (2015 est.)
    2.7 (2014 est.)
    2.7 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 9,358 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 91% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 100% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 80% (2012)
    Electricity - production:
    330 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Electricity - consumption:
    306.9 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    87,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    96.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    4.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    5,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    91 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    4,884 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
  • Communications :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 22,504 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 180,000 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 190 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: good automatic telephone system (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 24 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 190 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France); international: 3 fiber optic submarine cables (2 to Saint Kitts and 1 to Guadeloupe); satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2018)
    Broadcast media:
    state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2009)
    Internet country code:
    .ag
    Internet users:
    total: 60,000 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 65.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 9,261 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
  • Transportation :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 9 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,039,809 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 526,545 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    V2 (2016)
    Airports:
    3 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Roadways:
    total: 1,170 km (2011)
    paved: 386 km (2011)
    unpaved: 784 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Merchant marine:
    total: 964 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 36, container ship 238, general cargo 615, oil tanker 2, other 73 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Saint John's
  • Military and Security :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Military branches:
    Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Antigua and Barbuda
  • Disputes - international:
    none
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Antigua and Barbuda is a destination and transit country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; forced prostitution has been reported in bars, taverns, and brothels, while forced labor occurs in domestic service and the retail sector
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Antigua and Barbuda does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government made no discernible progress in convicting traffickers in 2014 but charged two individuals in separate cases; efforts to convict traffickers have been impeded by a 2014 ruling that found the 2010 anti-trafficking act was unconstitutional because jurisdiction rests with the Magistrate’s Court rather than the High Court; no new prosecutions, convictions, or punishments were recorded in 2014; credible sources have raised concerns about trafficking-related complicity among some off-duty police officers, which could hinder investigations or victims willingness to report offenses; prevention efforts were sustained, but progress in protecting victims was uneven; seven victims were assisted, which was an increase over 2013 (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center