Middle East :: AZERBAIJAN
  • Introduction :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous republic within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the territory's status. Armenia and Azerbaijan reignited their dispute over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated militarily after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the US, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict.
    In the 25 years following its independence, Azerbaijan succeeded in significantly reducing the poverty rate and has directed revenues from its oil and gas production to significant development of the country’s infrastructure. However, corruption in the country is widespread, and the government has been accused of authoritarianism. The country’s leadership has remained in the Aliyev family since Heydar ALIYEV became president in 1993 and was succeeded by his son, President Ilham ALIYEV in 2003. Following two national referendums in the past several years that eliminated presidential term limits and extended presidential terms from 5 to 7 years, President ALIYEV secured a fourth term as president in April 2018 in elections that international observers noted had serious shortcomings. Reforms to diversify the country’s non-oil economy remain dependent on subsidies from oil and gas revenues, while other reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, as well as the court system.
  • Geography :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
    40 30 N, 47 30 E
    Asia
    total: 86,600 sq km
    land: 82,629 sq km
    water: 3,971 sq km
    note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
    country comparison to the world: 114
    about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine
    total: 2,468 km
    border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
    0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
    none (landlocked)
    dry, semiarid steppe
    large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
    mean elevation: 384 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
    highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,466 m
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
    agricultural land: 57.6%
    arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 2.7%; permanent pasture 32.1%
    forest: 11.3%
    other: 31.1% (2014 est.)
    14,277 sq km (2012)
    highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population
    droughts
    local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton; surface and underground water are polluted by untreated municipal and industrial wastewater and agricultural run-off
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
  • People and Society :: AZERBAIJAN

  • 9,961,396 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    noun: Azerbaijani(s)
    adjective: Azerbaijani
    Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4%
    note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians (2009 est.)
    Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
    Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)
    note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
    0-14 years: 22.95% (male 1,220,356/female 1,065,514)
    15-24 years: 14.84% (male 775,422/female 703,027)
    25-54 years: 45.39% (male 2,219,613/female 2,302,356)
    55-64 years: 10.17% (male 467,830/female 545,505)
    65 years and over: 6.64% (male 253,679/female 408,094) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 40.2
    youth dependency ratio: 32.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 8
    potential support ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)
    total: 31.3 years
    male: 29.8 years
    female: 33 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    0.87% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    15.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population
    urban population: 55.7% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    BAKU (capital) 2.286 million (2018)
    at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    23.2 years (2014 est.)
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    total: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    total population: 72.8 years
    male: 69.7 years
    female: 76.1 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    1.89 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    3.4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    4.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    improved:
    urban: 94.7% of population
    rural: 77.8% of population
    total: 87% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 5.3% of population
    rural: 22.2% of population
    total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 91.6% of population
    rural: 86.6% of population
    total: 89.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.4% of population
    rural: 13.4% of population
    total: 10.7% of population (2015 est.)
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    9,200 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    <500 (2017 est.)
    19.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    4.9% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    3% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.9%
    female: 99.7% (2016 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2014)
    total: 13.4%
    male: 11.4%
    female: 15.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
  • Government :: AZERBAIJAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
    conventional short form: Azerbaijan
    local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
    local short form: Azarbaycan
    former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the name translates as "Land of Fire" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
    presidential republic
    name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
    geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);
    rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab
    cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
    30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
    Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
    history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016 (2017)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Novruz MAMMADOV (since 21 April 2018); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 11 April 2018 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum expanded presidential terms from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president
    election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%
    note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 69, CSP 2, AVP 1, Civil Unity 1, CUP 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Democratic Reforms 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, National Renaissance Party 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity Party 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, independent 43, invalid 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
    Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
    Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
    Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV]
    Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]
    Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA]
    Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
    Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
    Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
    National Renaissance Party
    Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
    Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
    Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI]
    Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
    Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
    ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
    chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
    FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William GILL
    embassy: 111 Azadlig Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
    mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
    telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
    FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330
    three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world
    flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
    name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)
    lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV
    note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
  • Economy :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Prior to the decline in global oil prices since 2014, Azerbaijan's high economic growth was attributable to rising energy exports, and some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa Pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The expected completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another source of revenue from gas exports. First gas to Turkey through the SGC is expected in 2018 with project completion expected by 2020-21.
    Declining oil prices caused a 3.1% contraction in GDP in 2016, and a 0.8% decline in 2017, highlighted by a sharp reduction in the construction sector. The economic decline was accompanied by higher inflation, a weakened banking sector, and two sharp currency devaluations in 2015. Azerbaijan’s financial sector continued to struggle. In May 2017, Baku allowed the majority state-owed International Bank of Azerbaijan (IBA), the nation’s largest bank, to default on some of its outstanding debt and file for restructuring in Azerbaijani courts; IBA also filed in U.S. and UK bankruptcy courts to have its restructuring recognized in their respective jurisdictions.
    Azerbaijan has made limited progress with market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. The government has however made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and government services. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for more foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. While trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics remains important, Azerbaijan has expanded trade with Turkey and Europe and is seeking new markets for non-oil/gas exports, mainly from the agricultural sector, for example with Gulf Cooperation Council member countries, the US, and others. It is also improving the Baku airport and the Caspian Sea port of Alat for use as a regional transportation and logistics hub.
    Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to implement export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to improve the business environment and diversify the economy. In late 2016, the President approved a strategic roadmap for economic reforms that identified key non-energy segments of the economy for development, such as agriculture, logistics, information technology, and tourism. In October 2017, the long-awaited Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway, stretching from the Azerbaijani capital to Kars in north-eastern Turkey, began limited service.
    $171.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $177.3 billion (2016 est.)
    $176.2 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 74
    $40.67 billion (2017 est.)
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    -3.1% (2016 est.)
    0.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    $17,500 (2017 est.)
    $18,300 (2016 est.)
    $18,400 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 102
    24.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    27.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    household consumption: 53.9%
    government consumption: 12.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
    investment in inventories: 0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 45.9%
    imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 6.2%
    industry: 49.1%
    services: 44.7% (2017 est.)
    fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
    petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
    -6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    5.118 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    agriculture: 37%
    industry: 14.3%
    services: 48.9% (2014)
    6% (2017 est.)
    6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    4.9% (2015 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
    33.7 (2008)
    36.5 (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    revenues: $9.852 billion
    expenditures: $10.4 billion (2017 est.)
    25.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    -1.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    54.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    calendar year
    13% (2017 est.)
    12.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    15% (10 March 2017)
    15% (14 September 2016)
    note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan
    country comparison to the world: 13
    12.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
    12.56% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $6.044 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    $7.86 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.521 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $13.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $13.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    $NA
    $1.413 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.363 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    $15.69 billion (2017 est.)
    $13.21 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    oil and gas roughly 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
    Italy 23.2%, Turkey 13.6%, Israel 6.1%, Russia 5.4%, Germany 5%, Czech Republic 4.6%, Georgia 4.3% (2017)
    $8.734 billion (2017 est.)
    $9.004 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
    Russia 17.7%, Turkey 14.8%, China 9.9%, US 8.3%, Ukraine 5.3%, Germany 5.1% (2017)
    $8.886 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.142 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $16.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $13.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    $80.63 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $73.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $19.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $17.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
    1.72 (2017 est.)
    1.6 (2016 est.)
    1.6 (2015 est.)
    1.02 (2014 est.)
    0.78 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: AZERBAIJAN

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    23.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    20.27 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    265 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    108 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    7.417 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    84.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    14.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    833,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    721,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    7 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    142,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    101,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    46,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    6,171 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    29.37 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    10.88 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    7.32 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    200 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    35 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
  • Communications :: AZERBAIJAN

  • total subscriptions: 1,700,233
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    total: 10.189 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 102 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    general assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with three providers in 2017
    domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 104 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan)
    international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2017)
    3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; note - all broadcast media is pro-government, and most private broadcast media outlets are owned by entities directly linked to the government (2018)
    .az
    total: 7,720,502
    percent of population: 78.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
  • Transportation :: AZERBAIJAN

  • number of registered air carriers: 2
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,803,112
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 41,954,600 mt-km (2015)
    4K (2016)
    37 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    total: 30
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 3 (2017)
    total: 7
    under 914 m: 7 (2013)
    1 (2012)
    condensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)
    total: 2,944.3 km
    broad gauge: 2,944.3 km 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    total: 52,942 km
    paved: 26,789 km
    unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    total: 311
    by type: general cargo 48, oil tanker 48, other 215 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
  • Military and Security :: AZERBAIJAN

  • 3.64% of GDP (2016)
    5.61% of GDP (2015)
    4.56% of GDP (2014)
    4.54% of GDP (2013)
    4.66% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
    18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
    IDPs: 393,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2017)
    stateless persons: 3,585 (2017)
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe