South Asia :: BANGLADESH
  • Introduction :: BANGLADESH

  • The huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires centered on the Gangetic plain for much of the first millennium A.D. Muslim conversions and settlement in the region began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.
    The post-independence AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1978. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections occurred in 1991. The BNP and AL alternated in power between 1991 and 2013, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. In January 2014, the incumbent AL won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the BNP boycotted, extending HASINA's term as prime minister. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6% over the last two decades and the country reached World Bank lower-middle income status in 2014.
  • Geography :: BANGLADESH

  • Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
    24 00 N, 90 00 E
    Asia
    total: 148,460 sq km
    land: 130,170 sq km
    water: 18,290 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 95
    slightly larger than Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined; slightly smaller than Iowa
    total: 4,413 km
    border countries (2): Burma 271 km, India 4,142 km
    580 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 18 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continental margin
    tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
    mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
    mean elevation: 85 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
    natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
    agricultural land: 70.1%
    arable land 59%; permanent crops 6.5%; permanent pasture 4.6%
    forest: 11.1%
    other: 18.8% (2014 est.)
    53,000 sq km (2012)
    droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
    many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation with noise pollution
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
  • People and Society :: BANGLADESH

  • 157,826,578 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    noun: Bangladeshi(s)
    adjective: Bangladeshi
    Bengali at least 98%, ethnic groups 1.1%
    note: Bangladesh's government recognizes 27 ethnic groups under the 2010 Cultural Institution for Small Anthropological Groups Act; other sources estimate there are about 75 ethnic groups; critics of the 2011 census claim that it underestimates the size of Bangladesh's ethnic population (2011 est.)
    Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)
    Muslim 89.1%, Hindu 10%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist, Christian) (2013 est.)
    0-14 years: 27.76% (male 22,283,780/female 21,521,977)
    15-24 years: 19.36% (male 15,309,543/female 15,241,971)
    25-54 years: 39.73% (male 30,094,014/female 32,614,286)
    55-64 years: 6.93% (male 5,405,900/female 5,527,330)
    65 years and over: 6.23% (male 4,666,033/female 5,161,744) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 52.6
    youth dependency ratio: 44.9
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
    potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)
    total: 26.7 years
    male: 26 years
    female: 27.3 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    1.04% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    18.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    -3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    urban population: 36.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    DHAKA (capital) 19.578 million; Chittagong 4.816 million; Khulna 975,000; Rajshahi 880,000; Sylhet 776,000 (2018)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    18.5 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
    176 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    total: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 34 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 29.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    total population: 73.4 years
    male: 71.3 years
    female: 75.6 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    2.17 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    62.3% (2014)
    2.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    improved:
    urban: 86.5% of population
    rural: 87% of population
    total: 86.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 13.5% of population
    rural: 13% of population
    total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 57.7% of population
    rural: 62.1% of population
    total: 60.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 42.3% of population
    rural: 37.9% of population
    total: 39.4% of population (2015 est.)
    <.1% (2017 est.)
    13,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    1,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
    water contact disease: leptospirosis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    3.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    32.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    2.5% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 72.8%
    male: 75.6%
    female: 69.9% (2016 est.)
    total: 10 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 10 years (2011)
    total: 11.4%
    male: 10.1%
    female: 14.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
  • Government :: BANGLADESH

  • conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
    conventional short form: Bangladesh
    local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
    local short form: Bangladesh
    former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
    etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words "Bangla" (Bengal) and "desh" (country) - means "Country of Bengal"
    parliamentary republic
    name: Dhaka
    geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    8 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
    16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan)
    Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
    history: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (pre-independence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986
    amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the House membership and assent to by the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2014 (2017)
    mixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013
    head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)
    cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held by 2023); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament
    election results: President Abdul HAMID (AL) reelected by the National Parliament unopposed for a second term; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party following parliamentary elections in 2014
    description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority popular vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 5 January 2014 (next to be held by January 2019); note - the 5 January 2014 poll was marred by widespread violence, boycotts, general strikes, and low voter turnout
    election results: percent of vote by party - AL 79.1%, JP (Ershad) 11.3%, WP 2.1%, JSD 1.8%, other 1%, independent 4.8%; seats by party - AL 234, JP 34, WP 6, JSD 5, other 5, independent 15; 1 seat repolled
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67
    subordinate courts: subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals
    Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
    Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [Abdul Kalam AZADI]
    Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]
    Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
    Jamaat-i-Islami Bangladesh or JIB (Makbul AHMAD)
    Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
    Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
    National Socialist Party or JSD [KHALEQUZZAMAN]
    Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]
    ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mohammad ZIAUDDIN (since 18 September 2014)
    chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Marcia BERNICAT (since 4 February 2015)
    embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
    mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
    telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000
    FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2915
    green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
    Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red
    name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)
    lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
    note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem
  • Economy :: BANGLADESH

  • Bangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 2005 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product.
    Garments, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports in FY 2016-17. The industrial sector continues to grow, despite the need for improvements in factory safety conditions. Steady export growth in the garment sector, combined with $13 billion in remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, contributed to Bangladesh's rising foreign exchange reserves in FY 2016-17.
    The recent influx of over 700,000 additional refugees from Burma will place pressure on the Bangladeshi government’s budget and the country’s rice supplies, which declined in 2017 in part because of record flooding. Recent improvements to energy infrastructure, including the start of liquefied natural gas imports in 2018, represent a major step forward in resolving a key growth bottleneck.
    $687.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $641 billion (2016 est.)
    $599.9 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $261.4 billion (2017 est.)
    7.1% (2017 est.)
    7.2% (2016 est.)
    6.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $4,200 (2017 est.)
    $4,000 (2016 est.)
    $3,800 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 177
    29.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    30.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    household consumption: 67.5%
    government consumption: 6.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 30.3%
    investment in inventories: 1%
    exports of goods and services: 15.5%
    imports of goods and services: -20.7% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 14.2%
    industry: 29.2%
    services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
    rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
    jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
    8.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    66.64 million
    note: extensive migration of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    agriculture: 42.7%
    industry: 20.5%
    services: 36.9% (2016 est.)
    4% (2017 est.)
    4% (2016 est.)
    note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many persons counted as employed work only a few hours a week and at low wages
    country comparison to the world: 54
    24.3% (2016 est.)
    lowest 10%: 4%
    highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
    32.1 (2010)
    33.2 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    revenues: $27.08 billion
    expenditures: $39.31 billion (2017 est.)
    11.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    -5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    32.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    32.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    1 July - 30 June
    5.7% (2017 est.)
    5.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    5% (11 December 2017)
    5% (30 October 2015)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    10.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
    10.41% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    $28.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $132.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $121.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $144.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $133.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $92.33 billion (30 September 2017 est.)
    $77.99 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $71.73 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    -$3.158 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.391 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    $35.91 billion (2017 est.)
    $34.14 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
    Germany 12.9%, US 12.2%, UK 8.7%, Spain 5.3%, France 5.1%, Italy 4.1% (2017)
    $42.38 billion (2017 est.)
    $40.37 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    cotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
    China 21.9%, India 15.3%, Singapore 5.7% (2017)
    $33.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $32.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $45.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $14.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $13.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    $389.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $228.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    taka (BDT) per US dollar -
    80.69 (2017 est.)
    78.47 (2016 est.)
    78.47 (2015 est.)
    77.95 (2014 est.)
    77.61 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: BANGLADESH

  • population without electricity: 60,300,000
    electrification - total population: 60%
    electrification - urban areas: 90%
    electrification - rural areas: 49% (2013)
    55.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    48.98 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    11.84 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    96.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    10,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    21,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    20 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    22,610 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    107,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    1,802 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    85,990 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    26.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    26.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    196.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    78.5 million Mt (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
  • Communications :: BANGLADESH

  • total subscriptions: 766,183
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    total: 135,981,846
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 86 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 80 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2016)
    state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) broadcasts throughout the country. Some channels, such as BTV World, operate via satellite. The government also owns a medium wave radio channel and some private FM radio broadcast news channels. Of the 41 Bangladesh approved TV stations, 26 are currently being used to broadcast. Of those, 23 operate under private management via cable distribution. Collectively, TV channels can reach more than 50 million people across the country. (2018)
    .bd
    total: 28,499,324
    percent of population: 18.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
  • Transportation :: BANGLADESH

  • number of registered air carriers: 6
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,906,799
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 182,692,553 mt-km (2015)
    S2 (2016)
    18 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    total: 16
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 5 (2017)
    total: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    gas 2,950 km (2013)
    total: 2,460 km
    broad gauge: 659 km 1.676-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    total: 21,269 km
    paved: 2,021 km
    unpaved: 19,248 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    total: 306
    by type: bulk carrier 28, container ship 4, general cargo 75, oil tanker 110, other 89 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    major seaport(s): Chittagong
    river port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
    container port(s): Chittagong (1,392,104) (2011)
  • Military and Security :: BANGLADESH

  • 1.44% of GDP (2017)
    1.44% of GDP (2016)
    1.46% of GDP (2015)
    1.36% of GDP (2014)
    1.33% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army (Sena Bahini), Bangladesh Navy (Noh Bahini, BN), Bangladesh Air Force (Biman Bahini, BAF) (2013)
    16-21 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi nationality and 10th grade education required; officers: 17-21 years of age, Bangladeshi nationality, and 12th grade education required (2018)
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh remain a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2017, the number of attacks against commercial vessels increased to 11 over three such incidents in 2016
  • Terrorism :: BANGLADESH

  • Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B):
    aim(s): install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
    area(s) of operation: headquartered in Bangladesh and mostly active in the southeast; maintains a network of madrassas in Bangladesh
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) networks in Bangladesh:
    aim(s): replace the Bangladesh Government with an Islamic state and implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; ISIS operates in Bangladesh under the name Islamic State in Bangladesh (ISB)
    area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Dhaka
    note(s): targets foreigners, foreign aid workers, university professors, students, and secular bloggers for assassination; core ISIS refers to its Bangladesh branch as Bengal (April 2018)
    al-Qa'ida (AQ):
    aim(s): overthrow the Bangladesh Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation: operates in collaboration with its al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent affiliate
    al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS):
    aim(s): protect Muslims in Bangladesh from perceived injustices and, ultimately, establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
    area(s) of operation: active throughout the country, targeting primarily military and security personnel and US interests (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: BANGLADESH

  • Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh is struggling to accommodate more than 700,000 newly arrived Rohingya, a Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, who fled violence in Rakhine State, Burma, since 2017, joining a Rohingya refugee population of 200,000-300,000 living in Cox's Bazar District that arrived after bouts of violence in the 1990s and 2000s; the Bangladesh-Burma border remains tense, with a Burmese military build-up along the border and a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence the Burmese border authorities are constructing designed to deter illegal cross-border transit
    refugees (country of origin): 919,000 (Burma) (2018) (includes an estimated 706,364 Rohingya refugees who have fled conflict since 25 August 2017)
    IDPs: 432,000 (conflict, development, human rights violations, religious persecution, natural disasters) (2017)
    transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries