Europe :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Introduction :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Background:

    Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).

    The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.

  • Geography :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Location:
    Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
    Geographic coordinates:
    44 00 N, 18 00 E
    Map references:
    Europe
    Area:
    total: 51,197 sq km
    land: 51,187 sq km
    water: 10 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than West Virginia
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,543 km
    border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km
    Coastline:
    20 km
    Maritime claims:
    NA
    Climate:
    hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
    Terrain:
    mountains and valleys
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 500 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Adriatic Sea
    2386 highest point: Maglic
    Natural resources:
    coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 42.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 19.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 20.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 42.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 15% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    30 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated
    Natural hazards:
    destructive earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    air pollution; deforestation and illegal logging; inadequate wastewater treatment and flood management facilities; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; land mines left over from the 1992-95 civil strife are a hazard in some areas
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
  • People and Society :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Population:
    3,849,891 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Nationality:
    noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
    adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
    Ethnic groups:
    Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1% (2013 est.)

    note: the methodology remains disputed and Republika Srspka authorities refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

    Languages:
    Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)
    Religions:
    Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 13.24% (male 263,338 /female 246,220)
    15-24 years: 11.26% (male 223,824 /female 209,829)
    25-54 years: 45.51% (male 881,331 /female 870,601)
    55-64 years: 14.95% (male 278,460 /female 297,231)
    65 years and over: 15.04% (male 229,282 /female 349,775) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 43.3 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 20.7 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 42.5 years
    male: 40.9 years
    female: 43.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Population growth rate:
    -0.17% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Birth rate:
    8.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Death rate:
    10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Net migration rate:
    -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Population distribution:
    the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 48.2% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.55% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    343,000 SARAJEVO (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    27 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 77.1 years (2018 est.)
    male: 74.1 years (2018 est.)
    female: 80.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Total fertility rate:
    1.31 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    45.8% (2011/12)
    Health expenditures:
    9.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Physicians density:
    1.89 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Hospital bed density:
    3.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 99.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 92% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 94.8% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    17.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    1.5% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Education expenditures:
    NA
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 98.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.5% (2015 est.)
    female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 14 years (2014)
    male: 14 years (2014)
    female: 15 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 62.3% (2015 est.)
    male: 43.5% (2015 est.)
    female: 62.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
  • Government :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
    local long form: none
    local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
    former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    abbreviation: BiH
    etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word "herzog," meaning "duke," and the ending "-ovina," meaning "land," forming the combination denoting "dukedom"
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Sarajevo
    geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    3 first-order administrative divisions - Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt) (ethnically mixed), Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), Republika Srpska (predominantly Serb)
    Independence:
    1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 March (1992) and Statehood Day, 25 November (1943) - both observed in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entityVictory Day, 9 May (1945) and Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (1995) - both observed in the Republika Srpska entity

    note: there is no national-level holiday

    Constitution:
    history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution
    amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009 (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state
    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (chairman since 17 March 2018, presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak); Mladen IVANIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Serb); Dragan COVIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat)
    head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives
    elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
    election results: percent of vote (preliminary results) - Milorad DODIK (SNSD) 53.9% - Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 51.6% - Croat seat; Sefik DZAFEROVIC (SDA) 37.2% - Bosniak seat

    note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)

    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of:
    House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms)
    House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)
    elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 11 February 2015 (next likely to be constituted in 2019)
    House of Representatives - last held on 7 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2022)
    election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - NA; composition - men 13, women 2, percent of women 13.3%
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - SDA 17%, SNSD 16%, SDS/NDP/NS/SRS-VS 9.8%, HDZ-BiH/HSS/HKDU/HSP-AS BiH/HDU BiH 9.1%, DF, 5.8%, PDP 5.1%, DNS 4.2%, SBB BiH 4.2%, NS/HC 2.9%, NB 2.5%, PDA 2.3%, SP 1.9%, A-SDA 1.8%, other 17.4%; seats by coalition/party - SDA 9, SNSD 6, SDP 5, HDZ-BiH/HSS/HKDU/HSP-AS BiH/HDU BiH 5, SDS/NDP/NS/SRS-VS 3, DF 3, PDP 2, SBB BiH 2, NS/HC 2, DNS 1, NB 1 PDA 1, SP 1, A-SDA 1; composition - men 33, women 9, percent of women 21.4%; note - total Parliamentary Assembly percent of women 19.3%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)
    judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]
    Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
    Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
    Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC]
    Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]
    Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDU-BiH [Miro GRABOVAC-TITAN]
    Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
    Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Ilija CVITANOVIC]
    Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP-AS Bih [Karlo STARCEVIC]
    Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
    Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]
    Independent Bloc or NB [Senad SEPIC]
    Movement for Democratic Action or PDA [Mirsad KUKIC]
    Progressive Srpska or NS [Goran DORDIC]
    Our Party or NS/HC [Predrag KOJOVIC]
    Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
    Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
    People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]
    Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Vukota GOVEDARICA]
    Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Vojislav SESELJ]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]
    Socialist Party or SP [Petar DOKIC]
    International organization participation:
    BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Haris HRLE (since 23 October 2015)
    chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
    FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen CORMACK (since 16 January 2015)
    embassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevo
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [387] (33) 704-000
    FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
    branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
    Flag description:
    a wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia

    note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

    National symbol(s):
    golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
    lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC

    note: music adopted 1999; lyrics proposed in 2009 and others in 2016 were not approved; a parliamentary committee launched a new initiative for lyrics in February 2018

  • Economy :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Economy - overview:

    Bosnia and Herzegovina has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. The economy is among the least competitive in the region. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, control much of the banking sector, though the largest bank is a private domestic one. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro through a currency board arrangement, which has maintained confidence in the currency and has facilitated reliable trade links with European partners. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. In 2016, Bosnia began a three-year IMF loan program, but it has struggled to meet the economic reform benchmarks required to receive all funding installments.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment dropped sharply after 2007 and remains low. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity, though public perceptions of government corruption and misuse of taxpayer money has encouraged a large informal economy to persist. National-level statistics have improved over time, but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $44.83 billion (2017 est.)
    $43.54 billion (2016 est.)
    $42.19 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 113
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $18.17 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3% (2017 est.)
    3.2% (2016 est.)
    3.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $12,800 (2017 est.)
    $12,400 (2016 est.)
    $11,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 122
    Gross national saving:
    11% of GDP (2017 est.)
    11.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    10.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 77.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 16.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 38.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -55.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 28.9% (2017 est.)
    services: 64.3% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
    Industries:
    steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
    Industrial production growth rate:
    3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Labor force:
    1.38 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 18%
    industry: 30.4%
    services: 51.7% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    20.5% (2017 est.)
    25.4% (2016 est.)

    note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy

    country comparison to the world: 188
    Population below poverty line:
    16.9% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 25.8% (2011 est.)
    highest 10%: 25.8% (2011 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    33.8 (2011)
    33.1 (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Budget:
    revenues: 7.993 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 7.607 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    44% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    2.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Public debt:
    39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    44.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

    country comparison to the world: 130
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    -1.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    4.38% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.24% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Stock of narrow money:
    $6.483 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.013 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Stock of broad money:
    $6.483 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.013 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $11.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$873 million (2017 est.)
    -$821 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Exports:
    $5.205 billion (2017 est.)
    $4.288 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 14.7%, Croatia 11.8%, Italy 11.1%, Serbia 10%, Slovenia 9%, Austria 8.3% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    metals, clothing, wood products
    Imports:
    $9.547 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.361 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners:
    Germany 11.6%, Italy 11.3%, Serbia 11.1%, Croatia 10.1%, China 6.5%, Slovenia 5%, Russia 4.7%, Turkey 4.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $6.474 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Debt - external:
    $10.87 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $7.332 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $7.071 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $0 (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Exchange rates:
    konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -
    1.729 (2017 est.)
    1.7674 (2016 est.)
    1.7674 (2015 est.)
    1.7626 (2014 est.)
    1.4718 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    14.97 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Electricity - consumption:
    11.44 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Electricity - exports:
    6.007 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Electricity - imports:
    3.872 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    4.243 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    41.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    48.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Crude oil - imports:
    18,940 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    20,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    31,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    5,910 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    15,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Natural gas - consumption:
    200 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Natural gas - imports:
    240 million cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    17 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
  • Communications :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 759,344 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 3,440,085 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulted in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability; high unemployment contributes to low growth potential; DSL and cable are the chief platforms for fixed-line connectivity, while fibre broadband as yet has only a small market presence; new mobile roaming fees come into effect (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV broadcasting stations; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)
    Internet country code:
    .ba
    Internet users:
    total: 2,677,502 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 69.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 663,670 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
  • Transportation :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,070 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 87 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    T9 (2016)
    Airports:
    24 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 7 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 17 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
    under 914 m: 11 (2013)
    Heliports:
    6 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    147 km gas, 9 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 965 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Roadways:
    total: 22,926 km (2010)
    paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads) (2010)
    unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Waterways:
    (Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)
  • Military and Security :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Military expenditures:
    0.99% of GDP (2016)
    1% of GDP (2015)
    1.03% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Military branches:
    Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)
  • Transnational Issues :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Disputes - international:
    Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 5,164 (Croatia) (2016)
    IDPs: 99,000 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-95 war) (2017)
    stateless persons: 65 (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption