Central America :: Cuba
  • Introduction :: Cuba
  • Background:

    The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. On 8-9 September 2017, Hurricane Irma passed along the north coast of Cuba causing extensive damage to structures, roads, and power supplies. Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez, hand-picked by Raul CASTRO to succeed him, was approved as president by the National Assembly and took office on 19 April 2018.

    The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4-6 billion annually. Cuba at times portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source of its difficulties. Over the past decade, there has been growing communication with the Cuban Government to address national interests. As a result of efforts begun in December 2014 to re-establish diplomatic relations with the Cuban Government, which were severed in January 1961, the US and Cuba reopened embassies in their respective countries on 20 July 2015. However, the embargo remains in place.

    Illicit migration of Cuban nationals to the US via maritime and overland routes has been a longstanding challenge. On 12 January 2017, the US and Cuba signed a Joint Statement ending the so-called “wet-foot, dry-foot” policy – by which Cuban nationals who reached US soil were permitted to stay – facilitating the repatriation of Cuban migrants. Illicit Cuban migration has since dropped significantly. In FY 2017, the US Coast Guard interdicted 1,606 Cuban nationals at sea. Also in FY 2017, 20,995 Cuban migrants presented themselves at various land border ports of entry throughout the US.

  • Geography :: Cuba
  • Location:
    Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
    Geographic coordinates:
    21 30 N, 80 00 W
    Map references:
    Central America and the Caribbean
    Area:
    total: 110,860 sq km
    land: 109,820 sq km
    water: 1,040 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
    Land boundaries:
    total: 28.5 km
    border countries (1): US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 28.5 km

    note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and remains part of Cuba

    Coastline:
    3,735 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    Climate:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
    Terrain:
    mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 108 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Caribbean Sea
    1974 highest point: Pico Turquino
    Natural resources:
    cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 60.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 33.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 3.6% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 22.9% (2011 est.)
    forest: 27.3% (2011 est.)
    other: 12.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    8,700 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    large population clusters found throughout the country, the more significant ones being in the larger towns and cities, particularly the capital of Havana
    Natural hazards:
    the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to November (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
    Environment - current issues:
    soil degradation and desertification (brought on by poor farming techniques and natural disasters) are the main environmental problems; biodiversity loss; deforestation; air and water pollution
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:
    largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles
  • People and Society :: Cuba
  • Population:
    11,116,396 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Nationality:
    noun: Cuban(s)
    adjective: Cuban
    Ethnic groups:
    white 64.1%, mulatto or mixed 26.6%, black 9.3% (2012 est.)

    note: data represent racial self-identification from Cuba's 2012 national census

    Languages:
    Spanish (official)
    Religions:
    nominally Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jewish, Santeria

    note: prior to CASTRO assuming power

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 16.44% (male 940,787 /female 886,996)
    15-24 years: 12.1% (male 698,220 /female 646,684)
    25-54 years: 43.69% (male 2,443,190 /female 2,414,119)
    55-64 years: 12.54% (male 677,304 /female 716,704)
    65 years and over: 15.22% (male 773,636 /female 918,756) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 43.3 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 23.3 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 41.8 years
    male: 40.2 years
    female: 43.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Population growth rate:
    -0.27% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Birth rate:
    10.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Death rate:
    8.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Net migration rate:
    -4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Population distribution:
    large population clusters found throughout the country, the more significant ones being in the larger towns and cities, particularly the capital of Havana
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 77% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    2.136 million HAVANA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    39 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 78.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 76.6 years (2018 est.)
    female: 81.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Total fertility rate:
    1.71 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    73.7% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    11.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Physicians density:
    7.52 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    5.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 96.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 89.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 94.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 10.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 94.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 93.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 5.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 10.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    30,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: intermediate (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    24.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Education expenditures:
    12.8% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.8% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.9% (2015 est.)
    female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 14 years (2015)
    male: 13 years (2015)
    female: 14 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 6.1% (2010 est.)
    male: 6.4% (2010 est.)
    female: 5.6% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    People - note:
    illicit emigration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US including direct flights to Miami and overland via the southwest border; the number of Cubans migrating to the US surged after the announcement of normalization of US-Cuban relations in late December 2014 but has decreased since the end of the so-called “wet-foot, dry-foot” policy on 12 January 2017
  • Government :: Cuba
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
    conventional short form: Cuba
    local long form: Republica de Cuba
    local short form: Cuba
    etymology: name derives from the Taino Indian designation for the island "coabana" meaning "great place"
    Government type:
    communist state
    Capital:
    name: Havana
    geographic coordinates: 23 07 N, 82 21 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November; note - Cuba has been known to alter the schedule of DST on short notice in an attempt to conserve electricity for lighting
    Administrative divisions:
    15 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Artemisa, Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Mayabeque, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
    Independence:
    20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902); not acknowledged by the Cuban Government as a day of independence
    National holiday:
    Triumph of the Revolution (Liberation Day), 1 January (1959)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 February 1976, effective 24 February 1976; note - in early June 2018, the Cuban Government announced that Raul CASTRO would head a commission to rewrite the country's constitution (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly of People’s Power; passage requires approval of at least two-thirds majority of the National Assembly membership; amendments to constitutional articles on the authorities of the National Assembly, Council of State, or any rights and duties in the constitution also require approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on the Cuban political, social, and economic system cannot be amended; amended 1978, 1992, 2002 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    Suffrage:
    16 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 19 April 2018); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (since 19 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 19 April 2018); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (since 19 April 2018)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State and appointed by the National Assembly; it is subordinate to the 31-member Council of State, which is elected by the Assembly to act on its behalf when it is not in session
    elections/appointments: president and vice presidents indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (may be reelected for another 5-year term); election last held on 19 April 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
    election results: Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (PCC) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.8%; Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (PCC) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular (605 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the National Candidature Commission submits a slate of approved candidates; to be elected, candidates must receive more than 50% of valid votes otherwise the seat remains vacant or the Council of State can declare another election
    elections: last held on 11 March 2018 (next to be held in early 2023)
    election results: Cuba's Communist Party is the only legal party, and officially sanctioned candidates run unopposed
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: People's Supreme Court (consists of court president, vice president, 41 professional justices, and NA lay judges); organization includes the State Council, criminal, civil, administrative, labor, crimes against the state, and military courts)
    judge selection and term of office: professional judges elected by the National Assembly are not subject to a specific term; lay judges nominated by workplace collectives and neighborhood associations and elected by municipal or provincial assemblies; lay judges appointed for 5-year terms and serve up to 30 days per year
    subordinate courts: People's Provincial Courts; People's Regional Courts; People's Courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Raul CASTRO Ruz]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, ALBA, AOSIS, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Ramon CABANAS Rodriguez (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518
    FAX: NA
    consulate(s) general: NA
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Phillip GOLDBERG (Since February 2018)
    embassy: Calzada between L & M Streets, Vedado, Havana
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [53] (7) 839-4100
    FAX: NA
    Flag description:
    five equal horizontal bands of blue (top, center, and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center; the blue bands refer to the three old divisions of the island: central, occidental, and oriental; the white bands describe the purity of the independence ideal; the triangle symbolizes liberty, equality, and fraternity, while the red color stands for the blood shed in the independence struggle; the white star, called La Estrella Solitaria (the Lone Star) lights the way to freedom and was taken from the flag of Texas

    note: design similar to the Puerto Rican flag, with the colors of the bands and triangle reversed

    National symbol(s):
    royal palm; national colors: red, white, blue
    National anthem:
    name: "La Bayamesa" (The Bayamo Song)
    lyrics/music: Pedro FIGUEREDO

    note: adopted 1940; Pedro FIGUEREDO first performed "La Bayamesa" in 1868 during the Ten Years War against the Spanish; a leading figure in the uprising, FIGUEREDO was captured in 1870 and executed by a firing squad; just prior to the fusillade he is reputed to have shouted, "Morir por la Patria es vivir" (To die for the country is to live), a line from the anthem

  • Economy :: Cuba
  • Economy - overview:

    The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process, and it has opened up some retail services to "self-employment," leading to the rise of so-called "cuentapropistas" or entrepreneurs. More than 500,000 Cuban workers are currently registered as self-employed.

    The Cuban regime has updated its economic model to include permitting the private ownership and sale of real estate and new vehicles, allowing private farmers to sell agricultural goods directly to hotels, allowing the creation of non-agricultural cooperatives, adopting a new foreign investment law, and launching a “Special Development Zone” around the Mariel port.

    Since 2016, Cuba has attributed slowed economic growth in part to problems with petroleum product deliveries from Venezuela. Since late 2000, Venezuela provided petroleum products to Cuba on preferential terms, supplying at times nearly 100,000 barrels per day. Cuba paid for the oil, in part, with the services of Cuban personnel in Venezuela, including some 30,000 medical professionals.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $137 billion (2017 est.)
    $134.8 billion (2016 est.)
    $134.2 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2016 US dollars

    country comparison to the world: 79
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $93.79 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)

    note: data are in Cuban Pesos at 1 CUP = 1 US$; official exchange rate

    GDP - real growth rate:
    1.6% (2017 est.)
    0.5% (2016 est.)
    4.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $12,300 (2016 est.)
    $12,200 (2015 est.)
    $12,100 (2014 est.)

    note: data are in 2016 US dollars

    country comparison to the world: 128
    Gross national saving:
    11.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    12.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    12.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 57% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 31.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 9.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 14.6% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -12.7% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 4% (2017 est.)
    industry: 22.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 73.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock
    Industries:
    petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -1.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Labor force:
    4.691 million (2017 est.)

    note: state sector 72.3%, non-state sector 27.7%

    country comparison to the world: 86
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 72% (2016 est.)
    industry: 10% (2016 est.)
    services: 72% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    2.6% (2017 est.)
    2.4% (2016 est.)

    note: data are official rates; unofficial estimates are about double

    country comparison to the world: 27
    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget:
    revenues: 54.52 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 64.64 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    58.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -10.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Public debt:
    47.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    42.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    5.5% (2017 est.)
    4.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Central bank discount rate:

    NA

    Commercial bank prime lending rate:

    NA

    Stock of narrow money:
    $23.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $21.92 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Stock of broad money:
    $23.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $21.92 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Stock of domestic credit:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    $985.4 million (2017 est.)
    $2.008 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Exports:
    $2.63 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.546 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Exports - commodities:
    petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus, coffee
    Exports - partners:
    Venezuela 17.8%, Spain 12.2%, Russia 7.9%, Lebanon 6.1%, Indonesia 4.5%, Germany 4.3% (2017)
    Imports:
    $11.06 billion (2017 est.)
    $10.3 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Imports - commodities:
    petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $11.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $12.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Imports - partners:
    China 22%, Spain 14%, Russia 5%, Brazil 5%, Mexico 4.9%, Italy 4.8%, US 4.5% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $30.06 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $29.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

    NA

    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $4.138 billion (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Exchange rates:
    Cuban pesos (CUP) per US dollar -
    1 (2017 est.)
    1 (2016 est.)
    1 (2015 est.)
    1 (2014 est.)
    22.7 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Cuba
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 200,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 99.9% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 100% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 95% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    20.46 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Electricity - consumption:
    17.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    6.454 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    90.6% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    1% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    8.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Crude oil - production:
    45,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Crude oil - imports:
    87,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    124 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    94,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    180,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    63,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    69,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Natural gas - production:
    1.185 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Natural gas - consumption:
    1.185 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    70.79 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    26 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
  • Communications :: Cuba
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 1,349,188 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 4,613,782 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: fixed-line and mobile services run by the state-run ETESCA; mobile-cellular telephone service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos; Cuban Government has opened several hundred Wi-Fi hotspots around the island, which are expensive, and launched a new residential Internet pilot in Havana and other provinces (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line density remains low at about 12 per 100 inhabitants; mobile-cellular service expanding but remains only about 36 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 53; the ALBA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable links Cuba, Jamaica, and Venezuela; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); several US telecommunication companies have signed voice and data deals to serve their customers while in Cuba (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    government owns and controls all broadcast media with private ownership of electronic media prohibited; however, several online independent news sites exist and those that are not openly critical of the government are often tolerated; government operates 5 national TV networks and many local TV stations; government operates 6 national radio networks, an international station, and many local radio stations; Radio-TV Marti is beamed from the US (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .cu
    Internet users:
    total: 4,334,022 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 38.8% (July 2016 est.)

    note: private citizens are prohibited from buying computers or accessing the Internet without special authorization; foreigners may access the Internet in large hotels but are subject to firewalls; some Cubans buy illegal passwords on the black market or take advantage of public outlets to access limited email and the government-controlled "intranet"

    country comparison to the world: 84
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 33,536 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
  • Transportation :: Cuba
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 18 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,294,458 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 20,919,645 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    CU (2016)
    Airports:
    133 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 64 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
    under 914 m: 27 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 69 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)
    under 914 m: 58 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    41 km gas, 230 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 8,367 km (2015)
    standard gauge: 8,195 km 1.435-m gauge (124 km electrified) (2015)
    narrow gauge: 172 km 1.000-m gauge (2015)

    note: 70 km of standard gauge track is not for public use

    country comparison to the world: 26
    Roadways:
    total: 60,858 km (2001)
    paved: 29,820 km (includes 639 km of expressways) (2001)
    unpaved: 31,038 km (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Waterways:
    240 km (almost all navigable inland waterways are near the mouths of rivers) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Merchant marine:
    total: 43 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 11, oil tanker 3, other 29 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Antilla, Cienfuegos, Guantanamo, Havana, Matanzas, Mariel, Nuevitas Bay, Santiago de Cuba
  • Military and Security :: Cuba
  • Military expenditures:
    3.08% of GDP (2015)
    3.54% of GDP (2014)
    3.51% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Military branches:
    Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, FAR): Revolutionary Army (Ejercito Revolucionario, ER, includes Territorial Militia Troops (Milicia de Tropas de Territoriales, MTT)), Revolutionary Navy (Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria, MGR, includes Marine Corps), Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Forces (Defensas Anti-Aereas y Fuerza Aerea Revolucionaria, DAAFAR); Youth Labor Army (Ejercito Juvenil del Trabajo, EJT) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    17-28 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation for males, optional for females (2017)
    Military - note:
    the collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the Cuban military of its major economic and logistic support and had a significant impact on the state of Cuban equipment; the army remains well trained and professional in nature; the lack of replacement parts for its existing equipment has increasingly affected operational capabilities (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Cuba
  • Disputes - international:
    US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to the United States and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Cuba is a source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; child sex trafficking and child sex tourism occur in Cuba, while some Cubans are forced into prostitution in South America and the Caribbean; allegations have been made that some Cubans have been forced or coerced to work at Cuban medical missions abroad; assessing the scope of trafficking within Cuba is difficult because of the lack of information
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cuba does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Cuba’s penal code does not criminalize all forms of human trafficking, but the government reported that it is in the process of amending its criminal code to comply with the 2000 UN TIP Protocol, to which it acceded in 2013; the government in 2014 prosecuted and convicted 13 sex traffickers and provided services to the victims in those cases but does not have shelters specifically for trafficking victims; the government did not recognize forced labor as a problem and took no action to address it; state media produced newspaper articles and TV and radio programs to raise public awareness about sex trafficking (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for US- and European-bound drugs; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999