Middle East :: Georgia
  • Introduction :: Georgia
  • Background:

    The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.

    Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate parliamentary elections in November 2003, touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions.

    Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. GARIBASHVILI was replaced by Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI in December 2015. KVIRIKASHVILI remained Prime Minister following Georgian Dream’s success in the October 2016 parliamentary elections, where the party won a constitutional majority. These changes in leadership represent unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.

  • Geography :: Georgia
  • Location:
    Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
    Geographic coordinates:
    42 00 N, 43 30 E
    Map references:
    Asia
    Area:
    total: 69,700 sq km
    land: 69,700 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    note: approximately 12,560 sq km, or about 18% of Georgia's area, is Russian occupied; the seized area includes all of Abkhazia and the breakaway region of South Ossetia, which consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti

    country comparison to the world: 122
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,814 km
    border countries (4): Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km
    Coastline:
    310 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate:
    warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
    Terrain:
    largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,432 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Black Sea
    5193 highest point: Mt'a Shkhara
    Natural resources:
    timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 35.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 5.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 27.9% (2011 est.)
    forest: 39.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 25.1% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    4,330 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    settlement coincides closely to the central valley, with emphasis on the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest
    Natural hazards:
    earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy water pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals; land and forest degradation; biodiversity loss; waste management
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them; Krubera Cave in the western part of the country is the deepest-known cave in the world; at -2,197 m it is the only known cave on earth deeper than 2,000 m
  • People and Society :: Georgia
  • Population:
    4,926,087 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Nationality:
    noun: Georgian(s)
    adjective: Georgian
    Ethnic groups:
    Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)
    Languages:
    Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1% (2014 est.)

    note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

    Religions:
    Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 18.23% (male 469,163 /female 428,734)
    15-24 years: 11.45% (male 299,362 /female 264,456)
    25-54 years: 40.89% (male 984,275 /female 1,029,902)
    55-64 years: 13.17% (male 289,337 /female 359,444)
    65 years and over: 16.27% (male 314,467 /female 486,947) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 50 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 28.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 38.3 years
    male: 35.5 years
    female: 41.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Population growth rate:
    0.01% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Birth rate:
    12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Death rate:
    10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Net migration rate:
    -1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Population distribution:
    settlement coincides closely to the central valley, with emphasis on the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 58.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    note: data include Abkhazia and South Ossetia

    Major urban areas - population:
    1.077 million TBILISI (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    24.5 years (2014 est.)

    note: data do not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia

    Maternal mortality rate:
    36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 76.6 years (2018 est.)
    male: 72.5 years (2018 est.)
    female: 80.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Total fertility rate:
    1.76 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    53.4% (2010)

    note: percent of women aged 15-44

    Health expenditures:
    7.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Physicians density:
    4.78 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 95.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 75.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 86.3% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 4.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 13.7% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    11,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    21.7% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    1.1% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Education expenditures:
    3.8% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.8% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.8% (2015 est.)
    female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 15 years (2015)
    male: 15 years (2015)
    female: 16 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 30.5% (2016 est.)
    male: 31.2% (2016 est.)
    female: 28.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
  • Government :: Georgia
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Georgia
    local long form: none
    local short form: Sak'art'velo
    former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the Western name may derive from the Persian designation "gurgan" meaning "Land of the Wolves"; the native name "Sak'art'velo" means "Land of the Kartvelians" and refers to the core central Georgian region of Kartli
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Tbilisi
    geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:

    9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)

    regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti;

    city: Tbilisi;

    autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)

    note: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses

    note: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia

    Independence:
    9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995 (2018)
    amendments: proposed as a draft law supported by more than one-half of the Parliament membership or by petition of at least 200,000 voters; passage requires support by at least three-fourths of the Parliament membership in two successive sessions three months apart and the signature and promulgation by the president of Georgia; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (since 17 November 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mamuka BAKHTADZE (since 20 June 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Giorgi GAKHARIA
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 October 2013 (next to be held on 28 October 2018); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president
    election results: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (independent), 62.1%, Davit BAKRADZE (UNM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE (DM-UG) 10.2%, other 6%; Mamuka BAKHTADZE approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 99-6
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats; 77 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 73 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 8 October and 30 October 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 48.7%, UNM 27.1%, Alliance of Patriots 5%, other 19.2%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 115, UNM 27, Alliance of Patriots 6, IWSG 1, independent 1; composition - men 126, women 24, percent of women 16%; note - European Georgia split from UNM in January 2017 taking 20 of 27 parliamentary seats
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges); note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Parliament; judges serve not less than 10-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president following candidate selection by the Justice Council of Georgia, a 12-member consultative body of high-level judges and presidential and parliamentary appointees; judges appointed for 10-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI]
    European Georgia [Davit BAKRADZE] (split from UNM)
    Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI]
    Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE]
    National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA]
    Free Democrats or FD [Shalva SHAVGULIDZE]
    Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
    State for the People Party [Nika MACHUTADZE]
    Democratic Movement-United Georgia [Nino BURJANADZE]
    United National Movement or UNM [Nika MELIA]
    International organization participation:
    ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador David BAKRADZE (since 18 January 2017)
    chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
    FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Elizabeth ROOD (since 24 March 2018)
    embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, T'bilisi 0131
    mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
    telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
    FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10
    Flag description:
    white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design appears to date back to the 14th century
    National symbol(s):
    Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
    lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)

    note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas "Abesalom da Eteri" and "Daisi" was adopted

  • Economy :: Georgia
  • Economy - overview:

    Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its electricity needs.

    Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit hub for gas, oil, and other goods.

    Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment, remittances, and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sank to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in the period 2010-17, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment remains persistently high.

    The country is pinning its hopes for faster growth on a continued effort to build up infrastructure, enhance support for entrepreneurship, simplify regulations, and improve professional education, in order to attract foreign investment and boost employment, with a focus on transportation projects, tourism, hydropower, and agriculture. Georgia had historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for improvements in business transparency. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. In mid-2014, Georgia concluded an association agreement with the EU, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel. In 2017, Georgia signed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with China as part of Tbilisi’s efforts to diversify its economic ties. Georgia is seeking to develop its Black Sea ports to further facilitate East-West trade.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $39.85 billion (2017 est.)
    $37.96 billion (2016 est.)
    $36.91 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 118
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $15.16 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    5% (2017 est.)
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    2.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $10,700 (2017 est.)
    $10,300 (2016 est.)
    $9,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 138
    Gross national saving:
    23% of GDP (2017 est.)
    19.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    19.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 62.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 17.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 29.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 50.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -62.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 23.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 67.9% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
    Industries:
    steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine
    Industrial production growth rate:
    6.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Labor force:
    1.998 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 35.5% (2006 est.)
    industry: 8.9% (2006 est.)
    services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    NA% (2017 est.)
    11.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Population below poverty line:
    9.2% (2010 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 31.3% (2008)
    highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    40.1 (2014)
    46 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Budget:
    revenues: 4.352 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 4.925 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    28.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Public debt:
    44.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    44.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intragovernmental debt or social funds

    country comparison to the world: 116
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6% (2017 est.)
    2.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Central bank discount rate:
    7% (23 September 2015)
    6.5% (7)

    note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy rate of the National Bank of Georgia

    country comparison to the world: 49
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    11.49% (31 December 2017 est.)
    12.62% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Stock of narrow money:
    $2.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.933 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Stock of broad money:
    $2.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.933 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $8.961 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.753 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $1.155 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $943.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $795.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Current account balance:
    -$1.348 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.84 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Exports:
    $3.566 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.831 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Exports - commodities:
    vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores
    Exports - partners:
    Russia 14.5%, Azerbaijan 10%, Turkey 7.9%, Armenia 7.7%, China 7.6%, Bulgaria 6.6%, Ukraine 4.6%, US 4.5% (2017)
    Imports:
    $7.415 billion (2017 est.)
    $6.64 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Imports - commodities:
    fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $3.039 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.756 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Imports - partners:
    Turkey 17.2%, Russia 9.9%, China 9.2%, Azerbaijan 7.6%, Ukraine 5.6%, Germany 5.4% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $16.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $17.47 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14.66 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $2.477 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.185 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Exchange rates:
    laris (GEL) per US dollar -
    2.535 (2017 est.)
    2.3668 (2016 est.)
    2.3668 (2015 est.)
    2.2694 (2014 est.)
    1.7657 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Georgia
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    11.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Electricity - consumption:
    12.44 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Electricity - exports:
    560 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Electricity - imports:
    478.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    4.28 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    36.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    63.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Crude oil - production:
    400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Crude oil - exports:
    1,002 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Crude oil - imports:
    200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    35 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    283 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    23,910 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Natural gas - production:
    10 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Natural gas - consumption:
    1.27 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Natural gas - imports:
    1.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    7 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Communications :: Georgia
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 713,826 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 5,730,625 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country (2015)
    domestic: cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi (2015)
    international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2015)
    Broadcast media:
    Tbilisi-based Georgian Public Broadcaster (GPB) includes Channel 1, Channel 2, as well as the Batumi-based Adjara TV (also a part of GPB); all three are funded from the state budget; there are a number of independent commercial TV stations, including but not limited to Rustavi 2, Imedi, Maestro, Kavkasia, GDS, and TV1; the Georgian Orthodox Church also operates a satellite-based TV station called Unanimity; 26 regional TV broadcasters across Georgia are members of the Georgian Association of Regional Broadcasters (GARB) that seeks to strengthen the regional media's capacities and to distribute regional products; a nationwide digital switchover occurred in 2015; there are several dozen private radio stations; GPB operates 2 radio stations (2016)
    Internet country code:
    .ge
    Internet users:
    total: 2,464,107 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 50% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 770,113 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
  • Transportation :: Georgia
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 5 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 13 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 232,263 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 185,040 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    4L (2016)
    Airports:
    22 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 18 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2017)
    under 914 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 4 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Heliports:
    2 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    1596 km gas, 1175 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 1,363 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2014)
    broad gauge: 1,326 km 1.520-m gauge (1,251 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Roadways:
    total: 19,109 km (2010)
    paved: 19,109 km (includes 69 km of expressways) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Merchant marine:
    total: 84 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 24, oil tanker 2, other 57 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i
  • Military and Security :: Georgia
  • Military expenditures:
    2.23% of GDP (2016)
    2.34% of GDP (2015)
    2.26% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Military branches:
    Georgian Armed Forces: Land Forces (include Air and Air Defense Forces); separatist Abkhazia Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Forces; separatist South Ossetia Armed Forces (2015)

    note: Georgian naval forces have been incorporated into the Coast Guard, which is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs rather than the Ministry of Defense

    Military service age and obligation:
    18 to 27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2017)
    Military - note:
    Georgia does not have any military stationed in the separatist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but large numbers of Russian servicemen have been stationed in these regions since the 2008 Russia-Georgia War
  • Transnational Issues :: Georgia
  • Disputes - international:
    Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    IDPs: 289,000 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2017)
    stateless persons: 587 (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia