Africa :: Morocco
  • Introduction :: Morocco
  • Background:

    In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Since Spain's 1976 withdrawal from what is today called Western Sahara, Morocco has extended its de facto administrative control to roughly 75% of this territory; however, the UN does not recognize Morocco as the administering power for Western Sahara. The UN since 1991 has monitored a cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front - an organization advocating the territory’s independence - and aims to restart negotiations over the status of the territory.

    King MOHAMMED VI in early 2011 responded to the spread of pro-democracy protests in the region by implementing a reform program that included a new constitution, passed by popular referendum in July 2011, under which some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister, but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In November 2011, the Justice and Development Party (PJD) - a moderate Islamist party - won the largest number of seats in parliamentary elections, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government. In September 2015, Morocco held its first ever direct elections for regional councils, one of the reforms included in the 2011 constitution. The PJD again won the largest number of seats in nationwide parliamentary elections in October 2016.

  • Geography :: Morocco
  • Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
    Geographic coordinates:
    32 00 N, 5 00 W
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 446,550 sq km
    land: 446,300 sq km
    water: 250 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Area - comparative:
    slightly more than three times the size of New York; slightly larger than California
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,362.5 km
    border countries (4): Algeria 1900 km, Western Sahara 444 km, Spain (Ceuta) 8 km, Spain (Melilla) 10.5 km

    note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera

    Coastline:
    1,835 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
    Terrain:
    mountainous northern coast (Rif Mountains) and interior (Atlas Mountains) bordered by large plateaus with intermontane valleys, and fertile coastal plains
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 909 m
    elevation extremes: -59 m lowest point: Sebkha Tah
    4165 highest point: Jebel Toubkal
    Natural resources:
    phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 67.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 17.5% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 2.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 47.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 11.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 21% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    14,850 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the highest population density is found along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts; a number of densely populated agglomerations are found scattered through the Atlas Mountains
    Natural hazards:
    northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts; windstorms; flash floods; landslides
    Environment - current issues:
    land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water and soil pollution due to dumping of industrial wastes into the ocean and inland water sources, and onto the land
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Geography - note:
    strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar; the only African nation to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines
  • People and Society :: Morocco
  • Population:
    34,314,130 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Nationality:
    noun: Moroccan(s)
    adjective: Moroccan
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab-Berber 99%, other 1%
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
    note:  the proportion of Berber speakers is disputed
    Religions:
    Muslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, <0.1% Shia), other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i); note - Jewish about 6,000 (2010 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Morocco is undergoing a demographic transition. Its population is growing but at a declining rate, as people live longer and women have fewer children. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have been reduced through better health care, nutrition, hygiene, and vaccination coverage, although disparities between urban and rural and rich and poor households persist. Morocco’s shrinking child cohort reflects the decline of its total fertility rate from 5 in mid-1980s to 2.2 in 2010, which is a result of increased female educational attainment, higher contraceptive use, delayed marriage, and the desire for smaller families. Young adults (persons aged 15-29) make up almost 26% of the total population and represent a potential economic asset if they can be gainfully employed. Currently, however, many youths are unemployed because Morocco’s job creation rate has not kept pace with the growth of its working-age population. Most youths who have jobs work in the informal sector with little security or benefits.

    During the second half of the 20th century, Morocco became one of the world’s top emigration countries, creating large, widely dispersed migrant communities in Western Europe. The Moroccan Government has encouraged emigration since its independence in 1956, both to secure remittances for funding national development and as an outlet to prevent unrest in rebellious (often Berber) areas. Although Moroccan labor migrants earlier targeted Algeria and France, the flood of Moroccan “guest workers” from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s spread widely across northwestern Europe to fill unskilled jobs in the booming manufacturing, mining, construction, and agriculture industries. Host societies and most Moroccan migrants expected this migration to be temporary, but deteriorating economic conditions in Morocco related to the 1973 oil crisis and tighter European immigration policies resulted in these stays becoming permanent.

    A wave of family migration followed in the 1970s and 1980s, with a growing number of second generation Moroccans opting to become naturalized citizens of their host countries. Spain and Italy emerged as new destination countries in the mid-1980s, but their introduction of visa restrictions in the early 1990s pushed Moroccans increasingly to migrate either legally by marrying Moroccans already in Europe or illegally to work in the underground economy. Women began to make up a growing share of these labor migrants. At the same time, some higher-skilled Moroccans went to the US and Quebec, Canada.

    In the mid-1990s, Morocco developed into a transit country for asylum seekers from sub-Saharan Africa and illegal labor migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia trying to reach Europe via southern Spain, Spain’s Canary Islands, or Spain’s North African enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla. Forcible expulsions by Moroccan and Spanish security forces have not deterred these illegal migrants or calmed Europe’s security concerns. Rabat remains unlikely to adopt an EU agreement to take back third-country nationals who have entered the EU illegally via Morocco. Thousands of other illegal migrants have chosen to stay in Morocco until they earn enough money for further travel or permanently as a “second-best” option. The launching of a regularization program in 2014 legalized the status of some migrants and granted them equal access to education, health care, and work, but xenophobia and racism remain obstacles.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 25.47% (male 4,441,554 /female 4,298,715)
    15-24 years: 16.83% (male 2,873,939 /female 2,902,206)
    25-54 years: 42.41% (male 7,039,912 /female 7,513,651)
    55-64 years: 8.33% (male 1,404,527 /female 1,454,304)
    65 years and over: 6.95% (male 1,081,035 /female 1,304,287) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 51.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 41.9 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 10.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 29.7 years
    male: 29 years
    female: 30.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Population growth rate:
    0.95% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Birth rate:
    17.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Death rate:
    4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Net migration rate:
    -3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Population distribution:
    the highest population density is found along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts; a number of densely populated agglomerations are found scattered through the Atlas Mountains
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 62.5% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.14% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    3.684 million Casablanca, 1.847 million RABAT (capital), 1.184 million Fes, 1.116 million Tangier, 976,000 Marrakech, 888,000 Agadir (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    121 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 77.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 74.2 years (2018 est.)
    female: 80.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Total fertility rate:
    2.09 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    67.4% (2010/11)
    Health expenditures:
    5.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Physicians density:
    0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.1 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 98.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 65.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 85.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 34.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 14.6% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 84.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 65.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 76.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 15.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 34.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 23.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    <.1% (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    20,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    26.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    3.1% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Education expenditures:
    5.3% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 68.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 78.6% (2015 est.)
    female: 58.8% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 12 years (2012)
    male: 13 years (2012)
    female: 12 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 19.9% (2014 est.)
    male: 20.8% (2014 est.)
    female: 17.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
  • Government :: Morocco
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
    conventional short form: Morocco
    local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
    local short form: Al Maghrib
    former: French Protectorate in Morocco, Spanish Protectorate in Morocco
    etymology: the English name "Morocco" derives from, respectively, the Spanish and Portuguese names "Marruecos" and "Marrocos," which stem from "Marrakesh" the Latin name for the former capital of ancient Morocco; the Arabic name "Al Maghrib" translates as "The West"
    Government type:
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    Capital:
    name: Rabat
    geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    11 regions (recognized); Beni Mellal-Khenifra, Casablanca-Settat, Draa-Tafilalet, Fes-Meknes, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra, Oriental, Marrakech-Safi, Rabat-Sale-Kenitra, Souss-Massa, Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima

    note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Oued Noun and Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims a 12th region, Dakhla-Oued ed Dahab, that falls entirely within Western Sahara

    Independence:
    2 March 1956 (from France)
    National holiday:
    Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution (2016)
    amendments: proposed by the king, by the prime minister, or by members in either chamber of Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers and approval in a referendum; the king can opt to submit self-initiated proposals directly to a referendum (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Morocco; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
    head of government: Prime Minister Saad-Eddine al-OTHMANI (since 17 March 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the prime minister in consultation with Parliament and appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the majority party following legislative elections
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Chamber of Advisors (120 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college of local councils, professional organizations, and labor unions; members serve 6-year terms)
    Chamber of Representatives (395 seats; 305 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 90 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - in the national constituency, 60 seats are reserved for women and 30 reserved for those under age 40
    elections:
    Chamber of Advisors - last held on 2 October 2015 (next to be held in fall 2021)
    Chamber of Representatives - last held on 7 October 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)
    election results:
    Chamber of Advisors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 106, women 14, percent of women 11.7%
    Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party NA; seats by party - PJD 125, PAM 102, PI 46, RNI 37, MP 27, USFP 20, UC 19, PPS 12, MDS 3, other 4; composition - men 314, women 81, percent of women 20.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 18.4%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of Judicial Power, a 20-member body presided by the monarch and including the Supreme Court president, the prosecutor general, representatives of the appeals and first instance courts - among them 1 woman magistrate, the president of the National Council of the Rights of Man, and 5 "notable persons" appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court members - 6 designated by the monarch and 6 elected by Parliament; court president appointed by the monarch from among the court members; members serve 9-year non-renewable terms
    subordinate courts: courts of appeal; High Court of Justice; administrative and commercial courts; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication); first instance courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
    Amal (hope) Party [Mohamed BANI]
    An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Mustapha BRAHMA]
    Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Ilyas al-OMARI]
    Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohamed SAJID]
    Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Abdessamad ARCHANE]
    Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Mustapha BENALI]
    Democratic Oath Party or SD
    Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Abderrahman BENAMROU]
    Democratic Society Party [Zhour CHAKKAFI]
    Environment and Development Party or PED [Karim HRITAN]
    Green Left Party [Mohamed FARES]
    Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Nizar BARAKA]
    Ittihadi National Congress or CNI [Abdesalam EL AZIZ]
    Labor Party or PT
    Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohammed ZIANE]
    Moroccan Union for Democracy or UMD [Jamal MANDRI]
    National Rally of Independents or RNI [Aziz AKHANNOUCH]
    Neo-Democrats Party [Mohamed DARIF]
    Party of Development Reform or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOHEN]
    Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Saad Eddine al-OTHMANI]
    Party of Liberty and Social Justice [Miloud MOUSSAOUI]
    Popular Movement or MP [Mohand LAENSER]
    Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]
    Renaissance and Virtue Party [Mohamed KHALIDI]
    Renaissance Party [Said EL GHENNIOUI]
    Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHEHABAR]
    Shoura (consultation) and Istiqlal Party [Ahmed BELGHAZI]
    Social Center Party or PCS [Lahcen MADIH]
    Socialist Party [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]
    Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
    Unified Socialist Party or GSU [Nabila MOUNIB]
    Unity and Democracy Party [Ahmed FITRI]
    International organization participation:
    ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Lalla Joumala ALAOUI (since 24 April 2017)
    chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-7643
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie MILEY (since 20 January 2017)
    embassy: Km 5.7 Avenue Mohammed VI, Souissi, Rabat 10170
    mailing address: Unit 9400, Box Front Office, DPO, AE 09718
    telephone: [212] 537 637 200
    FAX: [212] 537 637 201
    consulate(s) general: Casablanca
    Flag description:
    red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian Gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912
    National symbol(s):
    pentacle symbol, lion; national colors: red, green
    National anthem:
    name: "Hymne Cherifien" (Hymn of the Sharif)
    lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN

    note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970

  • Economy :: Morocco
  • Economy - overview:

    Morocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to work towards building a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, aerospace, automotive, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. Morocco has increased investment in its port, transportation, and industrial infrastructure to position itself as a center and broker for business throughout Africa. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness.

    In the 1980s, Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although poor harvests and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the US in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the EU in 2008. In late 2014, Morocco eliminated subsidies for gasoline, diesel, and fuel oil, dramatically reducing outlays that weighed on the country’s budget and current account. Subsidies on butane gas and certain food products remain in place. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable more than 50% of installed electricity generation capacity by 2030.

    Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. Key economic challenges for Morocco include reforming the education system and the judiciary.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $298.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $286.8 billion (2016 est.)
    $283.6 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 57
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $109.3 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.1% (2017 est.)
    1.1% (2016 est.)
    4.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $8,600 (2017 est.)
    $8,300 (2016 est.)
    $8,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 147
    Gross national saving:
    30.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    28.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 58% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 28.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 4.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 37.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -46.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 14% (2017 est.)
    industry: 29.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    barley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine
    Industries:
    automotive parts, phosphate mining and processing, aerospace, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate:
    2.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Labor force:
    12 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 40.5% (2014 est.)
    industry: 20.3% (2014 est.)
    services: 40.5% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    10.2% (2017 est.)
    9.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Population below poverty line:
    15% (2007 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 33.2% (2007)
    highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    40.9 (2007 est.)
    39.5 (1999 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Budget:
    revenues: 22.81 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 26.75 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    20.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Public debt:
    65.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    64.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.8% (2017 est.)
    1.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Central bank discount rate:
    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    3.31% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.73% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Stock of narrow money:
    $87.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $74.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Stock of broad money:
    $87.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $74.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $124.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $109.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $45.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $52.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $53.83 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Current account balance:
    -$3.92 billion (2017 est.)
    -$4.363 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Exports:
    $21.48 billion (2017 est.)
    $22.66 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Exports - commodities:
    clothing and textiles, automobiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish
    Exports - partners:
    Spain 23.2%, France 22.6%, Italy 4.5%, US 4.2% (2017)
    Imports:
    $39.64 billion (2017 est.)
    $41.39 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Imports - commodities:
    crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $26.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.37 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Imports - partners:
    Spain 16.7%, France 12.2%, China 9.2%, US 6.9%, Germany 6%, Italy 5.9%, Turkey 4.5% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $51.48 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $44.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $63.17 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $54.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $5.351 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.203 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Exchange rates:
    Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
    9.639 (2017 est.)
    9.7787 (2016 est.)
    9.7787 (2015 est.)
    9.7351 (2014 est.)
    8.3798 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Morocco
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 400,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 98.9% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 100% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 97.4% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    27.37 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Electricity - consumption:
    26.83 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Electricity - exports:
    165 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Electricity - imports:
    5.14 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    8.04 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    67.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    16.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    12.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Crude oil - production:
    160 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Crude oil - imports:
    129,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    684,000 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    139,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    286,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    24,830 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    187,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Natural gas - production:
    94 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Natural gas - consumption:
    1.094 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Natural gas - imports:
    1 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    39 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
  • Communications :: Morocco
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 2,046,390 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 43,916,066 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive (2016)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is below 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 120 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .ma
    Internet users:
    total: 19,611,643 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 58.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 1,378,867 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Communications - note:
    University of al-Quarawiyyin Library, Fez, Morocco; recognized as the oldest existing, continually operating library in the world, dates back to A.D. 859; houses approximately 4,000 ancient Islamic manuscripts (2018)
  • Transportation :: Morocco
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 65 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,786,850 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 47,828,227 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    CN (2016)
    Airports:
    55 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 31 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 11 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 24 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    944 km gas, 270 km oil, 175 km refined products (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 2,067 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Roadways:
    total: 58,395 km (2010)
    paved: 41,116 km (includes 1,080 km of expressways) (2010)
    unpaved: 17,279 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Merchant marine:
    total: 82 (2017)
    by type: container ship 6, general cargo 6, oil tanker 1, other 69 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier
    container port(s) (TEUs): Tangier (2,964,278) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Jorf Lasfar
  • Military and Security :: Morocco
  • Military expenditures:
    3.28% of GDP (2016)
    3.25% of GDP (2015)
    3.68% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Military branches:
    Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)
    Military service age and obligation:
    20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Morocco
  • Disputes - international:
    claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolvedMorocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island)discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary IslandsMorocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North AfricaAlgeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and trafficking arms and drugsthe National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute
    Illicit drugs:
    the world's largest producer and exporter of cannabis; total production for 2015-2016 growing season estimated to be 700 metric tons; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis